十一选五

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时间: 2018-04-06 17:10:46 点击:

十一选五[neirongtiyao]husaierxianxiangxueweizaikexuezhuyidebaquanzhixiazhengjiuouzhourenxingdeweijierchuanglilexianxiangxuehaiyuandefangfa,zheizhongfangfayekeyizhuanyongyuzhongguochuantongwenhua,youcixuanzhijiqianniandezhengjiaolunlidejuxianxing,zhuisudaochuantongwenhuazhongdepubianrenxingdegen。duirujiaxueshuodexianxiangxuehaiyuanyouxiaofanhuidaoren;duidaojiaxueshuodexianxiangxuehaiyuanyouziranfanhuidaoziyouyizhi;chuantongwenxueyishudexianxiangxuehaiyuanfanhuidaolewenyideganxingdezhiguanbenzhi;hanyucongwenyandaoxiandaihanyudeyanbianzeshiyuyanhaiyuanweirendecizai。suoyouzheixiehaiyuandoushiduichuantongwenhuadechouxiangjichenghejutipipandetixian,weiguorencongzhongguochuantongwenhuazhongjieshichuyudangjinquanrenleigongtongdepubianrenxinghepushijiazhi、genghaodirongruguojishehui,tigongleyigexindeshijiao。

十一选五[guanjianci]xianxiangxuehaiyuan  zhongguowenhua  zhengjiaolunli  pubianrenxing

zai《shiyixuanwuyurujia》yiwenzhong,shiyixuanwucengtichuzaizhongguochuantongwenhuafangmiande“shuangzhongshijiao”,ji“chouxiangjichengfa”he“jutipipanfa”detongyi: “chouxiangjichengfasuojichengdemingtibingbushimeiyoujutineirongde,ershijuyoujintiangengdaipubianxingdeneirong,yejiushijuyoupushijiazhideneirong。……zhibuguorujialunlitongchangzaizheixiebenlaijuyoupushijiazhideyuanzeshangfugaishanglexiaaidejutineirong,xianzhilezheixieyuanzedepushixing,youbiyaotongguomouzhong‘xianxiangxuedehaiyuan’jiangzheixiebeizhebiledeneironghaiyuanchulai(qubi)。” “duirujiaxueshuodeyizhong‘xianxiangxuehaiyuan’,jihaiyuanweitamende‘shiqingbenshen’。qishi,tamendangchuzhisuoyidedaorenmendezantong,beirenweihehurendebenxingbingdaiyoudaodedeguanghuan,zhengshiyinweitamenshijishangshichuanshangrujiayizhuangdepushijiazhi,danyouyuzheizhongyizhuangdezhebihexuanbinduozhu,qizhongdepushijiazhifanerbeirenweishiduirujiaxueshuodequjiele。erzaijintianyaobazheiyihaiyuangongzuojinxingdaodi,jiubixuguanche‘jutipipanfa’”。 [1]zheilisuojiangde“xianxiangxuehaiyuan”haizhishidiandaoweizhi,bingweizhankai。benwenniduizheiyiwentijinxinggengshenrudetantao。

yi、shenmeshi“xianxiangxuehaiyuan”?

suoweide“xianxiangxuehaiyuan”(die phänomenologische reduktion)shihusaiertichudeyigefangfalundehexingainian。husaieryouganyuxiandaikexuelixingjishizhengkexuezaiyiqieyurenxingyouguandelingyuzhongdebaquandiwei,shidekexuebenshenzairendejingshencunzaihelishixingfangmianbiandehenbu“kexue”le,zheizhongkexueyaoqiu“jiangyiqiepingjiadetaidu,yiqieyouguanzuoweizhutiderenxingde,yijirendewenhuagouchengwudelixingyufeilixingwentiquanbupaichudiao”,yizhiyu“lixingzongshibianchenghunao,shanxingzongshibianchengzaihuo”[2]。yinertatichuzaitantaoyushiyixuanwuzijizuiqieshenxiangguanderenxinghejingshenkexuewentishi,yingdangshouxianbaneixiejidingdeshizhengkexuechengjian(rukeguanshiwudecunzai、zhukeguandequfen)fangjinkuohaolimian,xuanzhiqilai(epoché)cunerbulun,chuncuipingjiezhiguanlaiduishiyixuanwusuoyishidaode“yixiangduixiang”(noema)jiayimiaoshu。zheijiujiaozuo“xianxiangxuehaiyuan”,huozheshuo“huidaoshiqingbenshen”(zur sacheselbst),tongsudishuo,jiushihuidaoneizhongkexueyuanlijianliyuqishangdezuizhijiedetiyanhuozhiguan,kankantamenzaiweishoushizhengkexueguifanzhiqianbenshenjuyoushenmeyangdebenzhijiegou。

zheizhongbenzhijiegoushitongguoyizhong“benzhihaiyuan”(die eidetische reduktion)defangshihuodede。zheiyichengxujiushi: zhuazhuchengxianjishiyixuanwuderenheyigeduixiang(bulunshixianshiduixianghaishixiangxiangdeduixiang)duitazuoziyoudexiangxiangdebiangeng。birushuoyizhonghongsechengxianle,nijiukeyixiangxiangtahaikeyibiandegengshenyixiehuogengqianyixie,nisuokandaodehongsebuguoshizheiyixilieshenqianbutongdehongsezhongdeyigeteli;erzaisuoyouzheixiehongsezhong,tamendeshenqianchengdukeyiyouwushubutongdecengcidengji,dantamenshizhongyouyigegongtongdebubiandedongxi,neijiushi“hongse”benshen,zheijiunenggou“shineixiezaisuoyoubiangengzhongdoubaochibubiandeguidingxingdezonghezuoweisuoyoubianxiangdebiranneihan,jizuoweibenzhi,erbeizhiguandao。”[3]husaierjinyiburenwei,zheizhongbeizhiguandaodebenzhijuyouyizhongxianyande(transzendental)quedingxingcengci,suoyouneixiebiangengdoushizheiyibenzhidebutonglizheng,ertabenshenzeshiyonghengbubiande,shizheixielizhengdeyikenengxianxianchulaidegenju。tongshi,kandaodehongsehetingdaodeshengyinzhijian、hewendaodeqiweizhijian、hetengtongzhijian、heaihendengdengzhijian,xianranyeshiyouyangequfende,youcishiyixuanwukeyijianliqiyigejiyuzhijietiyanzhishangde“kenengshijie”yijizaizheigeshijiezhongde“qianweiciluoji”。zheizhongqianweiciluojijiushiyurendeshenghuoshijiezhijiexiangguanbingkeyiyonglaijiangouyimenyangeyiyiderenwenkexuehuojingshenkexuedefangfalun。zaicijichushang,shiyixuanwuzailaikaochazirankexuehuoshizhengkexueshiruhejianliqilaide,duitamendeshiyongfanweijiayixianding,yejiushitongguo“qukuohao”erxianshichuzheixieyuanlaidubayiqiedekexuelingyubenshenheyikenengde“gen”,zheijiuzuyixiaochutamenduirenwenkexuehejingshenkexuesuozaochengdepianmianhuaheganraozuoyongle。tongguoxianxiangxuehaiyuan,husaierweishiyixuanwulijiehebawoyiqierenxingdelingyudakailebushouzirankexuexianzhideguangkuodeshiye,diandinglezirankexueherenwenkexuedegongtonggenji。

shangshuhusaierdefangfasuojuyoudepubianyiyibujinxianyutupozirankexuedexianzhixing,erqiekeyikuozhandaotupominzuwenhuadexianzhixing,chengweiyigekuawenhua、kualishidiyanjiurenxingdepubianfangfa。zaishiyixuanwukanlai,tayouqishiheyushiyixuanwujintianduiyuzhongguochuantongwenhuade“haiyuan”。dangran,shiyixuanwusuomianlindewentiyuhusaierbutong,shiyixuanwusuoyaohaiyuandebushixiandaikexuelixingheshizhengkexuededubayifangdebaquan,ershizhongguochuantongwenhuazhongzhangqizhantongzhidiweidedaode-zhengzhiliniandejitiwuyishi,tabiaoxianweiyizhongbujiangluojideqingganhuasiweiyijiyouqingganhuasuoguhualede“qingli”dengjimoshi,zheizhongsiweimoshixingchenglezhongguorenlilaikandaizijisuoshenghuodezhouweihuanjingdeshijieguanhuo“shijiegan”。zi“wusi”xinwenhuayundongyilai,shenzhigengzao,zhongguozhishifenziheshidafumendouzaiduizheizhongguhualedesiweimoshifaqichongji,danshizhongmeiyounenggouchongchujitiwuyishidebaowei,qiyuanyinjiuzaiyu,tamenmeiyouduizhongguochuantongwenhuajinxingyifanchedidexianxiangxuehaiyuan。bixuzairenxingdezhiguanbeijiyuxingdejichushangzhongxinshenshishiyixuanwujiqiannianlaideshijieguan,qingchuzhongguowenhualishidijiazhiyurendebenxingzhishangdegezhongjieshiheguifandezhebixing,haiyuandaoshiyixuanwuduirenxingdediyiyinxiang,congzhongjianliqibudaixianruzhijiandebenzhizhiguanheqianweiciluoji。zheiyigongzuozaijintianyouyigetebieyoulidetiaojian,zheijiushixifangjindaiyilaiderenxingkexueyijingyuxianweishiyixuanwutansuochuleyitaopushijiazhideyuanze,husaiersuozuodebuguoshiqudiaozhebiyuqishangdekexuezhuyidemiwu,haiyuanchutazishendeluojiguanlian。zhiyouzaizhongxiwenhuahushenhejiaorongdejintian,shiyixuanwucaiyoukenengchaochushiyixuanwuzishenzhangqiyilaidejitiwuyishidejuxianxing,lizuyuxifangwenhuashouxianjieshichulaiderenxingkexuelaiduizhongguochuantongwenhuajinxingyifanjutipipanhechouxiangjicheng,zheijiushixianxiangxuedehaiyuan。

十一选五dangran,shuodaochouxiangjichengdekenengxing,zuigenbendeqiantihaishizaiyu,bulunxifangrenhaishizhongguoren,shiyixuanwudoushiren,douyourenleisuojuyoudegongxing。biru,jiulianzuiqiangdiaojiejidouzhengdemaozedongdouchengren,“gegejiejiyougegejiejidemei,gegejiejiyeyougongtongdemei,‘kouzhiyuwei,youtongshiyan’”[4]。tongli,gegeminzu、gegebutongdewenhuayedouyougongtongdemei、gongtongdeshan、gongtongdezhen。zaidangjindiqiushang,renheyigeminzudoulibulexifangrensuofamingdexiandaikexuejishu,zheiyijingshiyige“gongtongzhen”debuzhengdeshishi。“gongtongmei”zeshiwenxueyishuzaibutongminzuhewenhuajianchuanbodeqianti,zhishiwangwangbeimouxiepianzhikuangyizongjiaodeliyoukeyimoshaleeryi。zhongguorenyouyuquefazongjiaoxinyang,zaizheifangmianfanernenggouhendafangdichangkaimenhujieshouwailaiyingxiang,zhiyaozhengzhishangbubiguansuoguo,zheizhongyingxiangshidangdoudangbuzhude。zhiyu“gongtongshan”yinweizhijieshejidaozhengzhi,qingkuangbijiaofuzayidian,danzhishaokoutoushang,shiyixuanwuxianzaiyechengrenxifangziyouminzhufazhizheixiepubianjiazhishishiyixuanwude“hexinjiazhi”。ersuoweixianxiangxuehaiyuan,zhengshiyaobazheixierenleipubiandejiazhiluoshidaoshiyixuanwuzhijiedeshenghuotiyan,yijianshishiyixuanwujiqiannianlaishiruheduidaizheixiejiazhide。

十一选五er、duizhongguochuantongrenshengguanheshijieguandexianxiangxuehaiyuan

zhongguochuantongdeshijieguanjibenshangjiushirenshengguan,zhongguorenjishiguanxinshijiedeqiyuanhegouchengwenti,rutaichuyouwu、yinyangerqi、wuxingzhongshi,yedoushiweiraorenshenglaitande,tuobukaitianrenheyideguanxing。suoyirenmenchangshuozhongguozhexueguzilishirenwende,haiyourenshuozhongguozhexueshizuishiheyuxianxiangxuebawode,bucunzaixifangrensuoshuode“ouzhoukexuedeweiji”。danweishenmehaiyaoduizheizhongbenshenyijingshirenwende、jishizaikexuelixingrucilongzhaoyiqiedeshidaiyebushouchudongdechuantongsiweifangshijinxingyizhongxianxiangxuehaiyuanni?zheishiyinweizaizheili,zhebipubianrenxingdebushifeirendekexueluoji,ershirenxingbenshendetehuaheguhuaxingtai,[5]shiyixuanwusuomianlindeweijibushikexuedeweiji,erzhengshilunlideweiji。zheizhongweijiyongshiyixuanwudewenhuajiqiannianlaixiguanledeyoujuxiandelunliguifanlaixiandingdangdaiwanquanbutongdedaodeshenghuo,zheiyuxifangrenyongjindaigongrendezirankexueguifanlaicaigerenwenjingshenlingyudezuofayoumouzhongtonggouxing。yinci,zhengruhusaieryaobayiqietongchangbujiazhiyidecunzaiyushezhiyukuohaozhongcunerbulunyiyang,shiyixuanwuyeyaobaziguyilaiyiqietianjingdiyidelunliyushezhiyukuohaozhongcunerbulun;tongshi,zhengruhusaierjiangzijidexianxiangxueshuochengshi“yiqiejindaizhexuedeyinmidechongjing”[6]yiyang,shiyixuanwutongguoxianxiangxuehaiyuansuojieshichulaidepushijiazhiyeshizhongguochuantongwenhuadeneixieguifandixiasuoyinhanderenxingdechongjing。zheifangmiandexianxiangxuehaiyuankeyicongru、daolianggeweidulaijinxing。[7]

十一选五1、duirujiaxueshuodexianxiangxuehaiyuan

zhongguochuantongderujiaohuorujiaxueshuolilaidouzirenwei,zijijiushiputianxiafangzhisihaierjiezhundepushijiazhi,neizhongzixinheburongzhiyijuebuyayuxifangxiandaidezirankexue。danshi,zhengruzirankexuezaijintianyuelaiyuexianluchuzishendejuxianxingyiyang,rujiaxueshuozaizhongguodangdaishehuishenghuozhongyeyuelaiyuexiandelibucongxin,youyuelaiyueduode“sijiao”shitasuobunenghangaide,erzheixiesijiaozaixianshishenghuozhongquezhanjuzheyuelaiyuezhongyaodeweizhi。zheizhongzhuangkuangshuoming,dangniancengbeiguorendangzuotianjingdiyiwusuobujiedeneixieguifan,zaijintianyijingbaoluchutadexiaaixing,tacengjingshiheyujiqiannianzhongguoshehuideguoqing,queyuelaiyuebushiyingjintiandadagaibianledeguoqing。shiyixuanwukeyihuaizhetongqingdelijielaishexiangyixia,dangchurujiaxueshuokaishichuanbodeshihou,zaiyigeyinongweibendejiazushiziranjingjishehuili,neiyitaozuorendeguifanhaishixiangdangxiyinrende。dangshidenonggengshehuibizhoubianyuanshiyuliecaijibuluohuoyoumubuluowuyichuyuwenhuadegenggaocengci,dingjushideshenghuofangshiyegengyouliyuxiangduiwendingdeshehuiguanxihewenhuachuantongdejidianhefazhan。yinci,zailiangqiannianjian,zhonghuawenhuajinguanjijinggaichaohuandaidemonan,rengranxingchenglequanqiuwenmingfazhanzuiweilianxuyezuiweiwanshandewenmingshiti。

十一选五raner,cong1840nianyilai,zhonghuawenhuajinglile“sanqiannianweiyouzhidabianju”,xifanggongshangyewenmingdabailedongfangnongyewenming。zairuanshilifangmian,xifangjiazhiguanyikexueheminzhu、lixingheziyouweiqizhicuikualezhongguochuantongsangangwuchangdejiazhitixi,shirujialunlijiwuanshenlimingzhisuo。daluxinrujiazaizuijinjishiniandezhengzhahefusu,yigezuiweichangjiandelijujiushi,rujialunlizhonganhanyouxifangziyoupingdengboaifazhidengdengyiqiexiandaiyuansudegenya。zheizhongtaiduqishibingbushishenmexinfaming,zaiqingchaoguangxuchunianyuguosongdaoyitongchushiyinglun、hourenzhubolingongshideliuxihongneili,jiuyijingbiaoxiandelinlijinzhile。zailiudeyanli,xiyangzhizheng“yushiyixuanwuzhongguozhizhizhidaoduoyouanhezhe”,kejianfanxiyangzhengsudezhangchu,wubushixuedaoleshiyixuanwuzhongguoshengjiaorenyizhiduandeyidianpimao,shi“yingguodewenshengjiaosuozhi”,qiahaozhengminglekongmengzhidao“weixingsihai”deganhuali。suoyishiyixuanwuquanbubishejinqiuyuandiquxuexixiyang,zaishiyixuanwuzijidesishuwujingzhongjikeconggenbenshangxuedaozhiguoanminzhiyiqiemijue。[8]liuxihongdelizitongchangbeishiweidaizheyouseyanjingkanxifangerwangubuhuadedianxing,tazuoweizaiouzhouzhuzhaguoliangniandewaijiaoshijie,jingranqiangliefanduizaizhongguojianzaotielu,zaizhongguozouxiangxiandaihuadebainianlichengzhong,liuxialebuguangcaideyibi。

十一选五buguo,tangshishiyixuanwupiekaixinrujiaheliuxihongzhiliuzhuguanshangbaocanshouque、weibeilishichaoliudeyimianbutan,dancongtamenduixifangdaodefengshanghezhengzhizhidudezhijieganshoulaikan,quebunengbuchengrentamendeganjuedequeyouyidingdezhenshixing。yekeyishuo,tamenduirujiaxueshuosuobiaobangdeneizhongwanmeideshehuidaodefengqidexiangwang,juranzaiyigewanquanbuzhirujiaxueshuoweihewudeguoduzhenshidishixianchulaile,suoyizaoqiyoulixifangderenshichangchangyoushenchu“sandai”zhizhongdehuanjue,yiweizheijiushi“lishierqiuzhuye”demingzheng。neime,weishenmehuichuxianzheizhonghuanjueni?qishi,congbenzhishangkan,zheibushishenmehuanjue,ershirenxing“kouzhiyuwei,youtongshiyan”degongtongxing。zhongguogurenhenzaojiumiaoshulerenleigongtongdeshehuilixiang。anzhao《liji·liyunpian》dejizai:

dadaozhixingye,tianxiaweigong。xuanxianyuneng,jiangxinxiumu,gurenbuduqinqiqin,buduziqizi,shilaoyousuozhong,zhuangyousuoyong,youyousuozhang,jinguagudufeijizhe,jieyousuoyang。nanyoufen,nvyougui。huoeqiqiyudiye,bubizangyuji;lieqibuchuyushenye,bubiweiji。shigumoubierbuxing,daoqieluanzeierbuzuo,guwaihuerbubi,shiweidatong。[9]

zheishiyigemeiyousiyoucaichandelixiangzhongdegongchanzhuyishehui。danjushuokongzijiangzheiduanhuadeshihou,tazijiyekaitanqishengyetaichi,weinengjianzhezheiyangdehuangjinshidai,zhihaotuierqiuqici,quzhuiqiuxianshikexingdelixiangshehui,zheijiushisiyouzhiyijingxingchengzhihoude“xiaokang”shehui:

十一选五jindadaojiyin,tianxiaweijia,geqinqiqin,geziqizi,huoliweiji,darenshijiyiweili。chengguogouchiyiweigu,liyiyiweiji;yizhengjunchen,yidufuzi,yimuxiongdi,yihefufu,yishezhidu,yilitianli,yixianyongzhi,yigongweiji。gumouyongshizuo,erbingyouciqi。yu、tang、wen、wu、chengwang、zhougong,youciqixuanye。ciliujunzizhe,weiyoubujinyulizheyeshi。yizhuqiyi,yikaoqixin,zhuyouguo,xingrenjiangrang,shiminyouchang。ruyoubuyoucizhe,zaishizhequ,zhongyiweiyang,shiweixiaokang。[10]

xianran,kongzirenwei,xianshidelixiangshehuijiushixia、shang、zhousandaimingjunzhixiade“xiaokang”,tasuiranbujishiqiande“datong”,danqueshizuijiejindatongde,shiduipianlidatonglixiangdeshehuibiduandejiupian。huozheshuo,tazhisuoyiyaotichushiqianshidaide“datong”lixiang,bingbushixiangyao、yebuyiweinenggouzaixianshishijiezhongbatashixianchulai,erzhishiweiletigongyigeduixianshishijiedesiyouzhisuodailaidezhongzhongbiduanjiayijiuzhenghepipandelixiangbiaozhun。zaizheifangmian,tayuguxilabolatude《lixiangguo》lizuyutongyigechufadianshang。《liji》zhongde“datong”lixianghebolatude“lixiangguo”bujinneirongjiweixiangsi,erqieliangzheyedouburenweizheizhonglixiangkeyizaixianshizhongdedaoshixing,danquerenweikeyiciweibiaozhunzaixianshizhongjiupian。butongdeshi,bolatuweileduixianshishenghuojiupianyijiejin(erbushishixian)lixiangguo,tazaihoulaide《zhengzhijiapian》he《falvpian》zhonggouxiangleyitiaofazhidedaolu,[11]erkongzisuozoudezeshiyitiaoqianghuahefangdajiatingyuanzeheqinqingyuanzededaolu。qianzheshiquelisiyouzhibingweizhishejiyitaohehuluojidesiyoucaichanguanxi,houzhezeqiahaoshiyixueyuanqinqingtixineibu“gongyou”huo“gongyou”demingyilaimohu、danhuahegaizusiyouchanquanguanxi,yinerliangzheqidianyizhi,fangxiangquebeidaoerchi。danwulunruhe,dangshuangfangdougezifanhuidaozijideqidianshi,tamenhuifaxianshuangfangdelixiangqishishiyizhide,zheizhongyizhijiushigongtongderenxing,biaodaleyizhongpushijiazhi。

十一选五danwentizaiyu,lixiangzhongdegongtongrenxingsuiranshizhongxigongyoude,danxianshizhongduigongtongrenxingdejiejinfangshidebutongquezaojiulewanquanbutongdewenhuatese,zheijiushixifangdefazhishehuihezhongguochuantongrujiade“xiaokang”shehui。liangqianduonianlai,bulunzhongjianjingliguoduoshaodiedangqifu(ruxifangzhongshijifengjiantequanhezhongguopinfandegaichaohuandai),lishifazhandaojintian,shiyixuanwuzhongyukandao,xifangzheiyitaojianlizaiziyouminzhulixingfazhizhishangdejiazhitixibiqizhongguolizuyuxueyuanqinqinghe“jiatianxia”zhishangdejiazhitixi,zaixiaoguoshanggengjiejinrenleidegongtongrenxing,yinergengyouzigechengzhiweipushijiazhi。shiyixuanwusuiranbunengfourenrujiaxueshuodegenjirengranshicongzheizhonggongtongrenxingchufade,danbixufansideshi,weishenmeliangqiannianlaichulegebieshidai(suowei“shengshi”,ruwenjingzhizhi、zhenguanzhizhideng)ouershanxianchu“lubushiyi,yebubihu”delianghaodaodefengshang(erqiezhichibuleduojiu,suijijiuxianrufubai)zhiwai,yirujiadaodeweifadu(rubiaofali)deshehuizhiduconglaidouyurujiasuoxuanyangdeshehuilixiangxingchengfengcixingdefancha,yizhibeitansitongjiweiliangqiannianzhiruxuejie“xiangyuan”?zheizhongfansibingbushiyaoduirujialixiangdequanpanfouding,erzhishiduirujiaxueshuoweizheizhonglixiangdeshixiansuozhidingdezhongzhongshijianguifandezaishencha,zheijiushishiyixuanwusuotichude,duiqianzhedechouxiangjichengheduihouzhedejutipipan。shiyixuanwucengjiangguo,zhiyoupipanchuantongwenhuacainenghongyangchuantongwenhua,yezhengshicongzheigeyiyishanglaijiangde。

十一选五julilaishuo,rujiadelianggezuizhongyaodebiaozhixinggainian,yigeshi“ren”,yigeshi“xiao”;danzaizheilianggegainianzhijian,zhengruyoushizhezaoyizhichude,cunzaizhemouzhong“shendubeilun”。[12]yibanlaishuo,ruguobukaolvliangzhezhijiandeguanxi,dankanyige“ren”zi,tongchanghuibeilijieweifangzhisihaierjiezhundepushijiazhi。dankongziduitabingmeiyouyangededingyi,[13]zaidaduoshuchanghexia,tazhiguidinglerendewaizaibiaoxianhuodadaorendefangfa(ru“kejifuliweiren”、“weirenyouji”、“renzheqiyanyeren”dengdeng)。suowei“feiliwushi,feiliwuting,feiliwuyan,feiliwudong”(《lunyu·yanyuan》),zhishicongfoudingdefangmianguidinglerenzhebunengzuoshenme,danhaimeiyouguidingyinggaizuoshenme。zhiyugongkuanxinminhui,“nengxingwuzheyutianxiaweirenyi”(《lunyu·zilu》),sihumiaoshulerendejutineirong,danjiexialaikongziquejieshishuo,gongzebushouwuru,kuanzederenyonghu,xinzebeirenrenyong,minzeyougonglao,huizenenggoushihuanbieren。zheijiubarendeyisiwanquanniuxianggonglifangmianqule。kongzizhenzhengshizhixingdedui“ren”deguidingzhiyousantiao:

十一选五(1)“jisuobuyu,wushiyuren”(《lunyu·yanyuan》),zheidagaishi“ren”dezuihexindeguidingle,zheitiaoguidingzai1993nianzhijiageshijiezongjiaodahuishangbeiyizhiquedingweishijiegezongjiaowenhuade“jinguize”。

十一选五(2)“airen”(tongshang),zheijusuiranguoyujianlve,aishenmeren,ruheai,douhaimeiyoujiaodai,danbijingbiaomingrenshiduirendeai,erbushilengmohuochouhen,yechangbeidangzuokongzirenxuedehexinneirong。

(3)“furenzhe,jiyulierliren,jiyudaerdaren”(《lunyu·yongye》),zheishishangmiandi1tiaodezhengshuo,jibudanjisuobuyuwushiyuren,erqiejizhisuoyuyeyaoshizhiyuren,zheiliangtiaoyifanyizheng,doubeikanzuorendezuizhongyaodeguiding。

youshangshusantiaolaikan,zheixieyouguan“ren”deguidinghemozide“jianai”yijixifangdeboaihaoxiangyemeiyoushenmequbie,jihujiuxiangdangyupushijiazhile。danzheizhongba“ren”guliqilaifenxidezuofakendingshikongzisuobunengzantongde,yinweitahaiyoudui“ren”degengshencengcideguiding,zheijiushitadediziyouzisuobiaoshude:

(4)“junziwuben,benlierdaosheng,xiaodiyezhe,qiweirenzhibenyu!”(《lunyu·xueer》)

十一选五youzheijukeyiqingchudikanchu,yizhongyuanbenkeyidangzuopushijiazhidemingti,zaikongzishouliruhebianchengleyizhongzhijurujiatesedemingti!suoyishiyixuanwuduirujiade“ren”delijie,qianwanbunengzhikanzheigegainianjiuxiadingyi,eryaokandaotalimiande“ben”,neijiushixiaotizhidao,huoxiaodao。zairenyuxiaodeguanxizhong,xiaojiushifugaiyurenzhishangderujiatedingdexianzhi,zheishirujiaxuyuyebukewangjide。lirukongzishuo: “renzherenye”,tingqilaihenxiangyigepubianrendaozhuyidemingti;danjinjiezheyiju: “qinqinweida”,qinqingxiaodaocaishirenhuorendezuigaoguiding。(jian《zhongyong》diershizhang)yourukongzishuo: “fanaizhongerqinren”,nizhuazhuzheiyiju,jiuhuiyiweizheihemozide“jianai”xiangtong;danlianxizhengjuhuazekeyikandao,kongzijiangdeshi: “diziruzexiao,chuzedi,jinerxin,fanaizhongerqinren”。“airen”yehao,“fanaizhong”yehao,zaikongzineilibingbushiduishenmerendouyilvpingdengdiai,ershiaiyouchadeng,shianzhaojiatingxueyuanguanxidedengjixitongyoujinjiyuan、youneijiwai,cengcengwaitui,yecengcengdanhuade。zheiyanglijiede“ren”jiujueduibushipushidele,ershiyouxianzhide、jituanneibude。

suoyishiyixuanwuzhuzhang,duirujiarenhexiaodeguanxiyaolaiyigexianxiangxuedehaiyuan,shouxianjiushiyaobarenhexiaodecixuzuoyigediandao,bushibaxiaokanzuo“renzhiben”,ershiyaobarenkanzuo“xiaozhiben”。huanyanzhi,shiyixuanwutan“ren”deshihouyaoba“xiao”zheiyijutiderendebiaoxianjinjindangzuoyigeshili,buyaoyongtaqudaizhengge“ren”depubianbenzhi。zheiyangyilai,“ren”cainengzhenzhengxianluchutadepushijiazhidebenlaimianmao,erxiaozezhishizairenzheiyibengenshangshengzhangchulaideyigepianmiandezhiye。rendehangaimianyaoguangfandeduo,tazaimouxieqingkuangxiakeyichaochuxiaohuoqinqindefanweierfashengzuoyong,suoyitadeyuanzeyaogaoyuxiaodeyuanze。xiaoxinzhisuoyiganren,shiyinweitatixianlerenxin;fanzhi,lingrengandongderenxinquebuyidingshichuzixiaoxin。xiaoxinchongqiliangbuguoshirenxindeyigeteli,yiweiyigerenduizijidefumuyouxiaoxin,jiuyidinghuiduitarenyourenxin,zheishiwanquanzhanbuzhujiaodelunduan。[14]eryigerenruguoduitarenyourenxin,zekeyipanduantaduiyuzijidefumuyehuiyouxiaoxin。zheizhengruhongsekendingshiyizhongyanse,danyansebuzhixianyuhongseyiyang。qishi,gurenzuichujieshoukongmengdexiaodaoyuanze,anzhonghaishiyinweitalimianhanyourenzheigebengen;danyouyutamensuoshenghuodenonggengshehuijiazuxueyuanguanxideshufu,tamendeyanjiezaineigeshidaibukenengchaochuzishenxueyuantuantidebianjieerkaolvdaomoshengshijie,yejiubiranyongxiaaidexiaodaozhebilepushiderendeyuanze。zheizhongxiaaixingzaijintiankanlaiyijingyanzhongxianzhilezhongguorendaodeshuizhundetigao。[15]

rujiaxuyaohaiyuandegainianhaiyouhenduo,liruyi、li、cheng、liangzhi、zhong、shu、he、dao、li、xing、yudengdeng,zheilizhijule“ren”he“xiao”zheiyiduigenbendegainian,zuoweiyigedianxinganli。bushiyonglaiyipiangaiquan,ershiyanshiyizhongxianxiangxuehaiyuandefangfa。

2、duidaojiaxueshuodexianxiangxuehaiyuan

zhongguochuantongwenhuazaishijieguanherenshengguanfangmianshiyizhong“rudaohubu”(lizehou)dewenhua,dangran,zheilide“dao”hailiandaizhebaokuo“fo”huo“shan”zainei,tamendejingshenshijishangshiyizhide。xiangduieryan,daojiashibentude,fojiashiwailaijiajiede,suoyizheilizhuyaotandaojia。daojiaherujiayiyang,yecengjingchengweiguojiayishixingtai(ruhanchujianghuanglaozhixue,tangchutuichonglaozi),dangranjibengoujiahaishirujiade,daojiaqishizhishizuoweibuchong,danfanshiyigewangchaorudaohubuzuodehaodeshiqi,renminjiuanjuleye,guojiajiuqiangsheng。buguojiudaojiaxueshuobenshenlaishuo,tachuyuherujiaxiangduilidelingyiji,yejiushicongzhengjiaohuiguizirandeyiji。ruguoshuo,rujiayi“xiaoweirenzhiben”laijianliqiyitaoshehuizhengzhitizhidehua,neimedaojiazezhuzhang“daofaziran”,tuichushehuizhengzhishenghuo,fanhuidaoyuangudeyuanshishidai。neigeshidaizhengrukongzisuoxiangwangdedatongshidaiyiyang,shiyigemeiyouzhengduo、zishiqili、hubuganraobierenshenghuodelixiangshehui:

十一选五xiaoguoguamin。shiyoushenbozhiqierbuyong;shiminzhongsierbuyuanxi;suiyouzhouyu,wusuochengzhi;suiyoujiabing,wusuochenzhi。shirenfujieshengeryongzhi。zhizhizhiji,ganqishi,meiqifu,anqiju,leqisu,linguoxiangwang,jiquanzhishengxiangwen,minzhilaosibuxiangwanglai。(《daodejing》dibashizhang)

十一选五zheiyoushiyigerenleiyinmixiangwangdelixiangdeshengcunzhuangtai。hekongzidedatongshijiedelixiangguobutongdezhishi,zheilikanzhongdebushirenjiguanxi,ershimeigerenzuiziran、zuibenyuandeshenghuofangshi,huozheshuo,suozhongshidebushirenherendeguanxi,ershirenhezirandeguanxi,shiburangrenherendeguanxiganraorenhezirandeguanxi。danhekongziyiyang,laoziyeburenweizheizhonglixiangdeziranzhuangtaixianzaihainenggoushixian;tuierqiuqici,tarenweizaixianshizhongjishishixianbuleyuangudelixiang,yeyaojinlijiejinzheiyilixiangbiaozhun,zuihaoshirangneixiewoyouzhongquandejunwangdongde“wuweierzhi”dedaoli,rangyiqieshunqiziran,shaolaixielaominshangcaidexiongcaidalve,shaogaoxieshufurenxingdeliyifadu。zuigaomingdetongzhijiushirangrenminganjuebudaoyourenzaitongzhi(suowei“taishang,buzhiyouzhi”,dishiqizhang)。chuanshuokongzicengwendaoyulaozi,zailaozimianqianshuyuwanbei(nianqing20sui),danlaozidexueshuosihuchuchudoushizhenduikongzizaichangfandiao。qishizheibingbuqiguai,yinweikongzibenlaijiushicongsandai、tebieshizhoulizhongjiquzijidesixiangyingyangde,laozihezhoulidetongzhisixiangxiangduikang,dangranyehuihekongzigegeburu。jinguanruci,laozihekongzidexueshuolimiandouhanyourenleizaoqiderendaolixiang,yigeshicongrenyuzirandeguanxifangmian,yigeshicongrenyurendeguanxifangmian,zhanshileyigelixiangdeshehuiyingdangshishenmeyangde。

danlaoziweixianshishehuisuoshexiangdejiupianfangantongyangshouxiaoshenwei。suiranhenduotongzhizhedoudongdeyuminxiuxi、wuweierzhidedaoli,raneryidanzhangwozhengquan,pangdadeguanliaotixiziyoutabushourencaokongdeguanxing(zhouqilv),biranyibubuzouxiangfubai,zuduanlerenheziranzhijianneizhongtianrandeguanxi。daohoulai,daojiaxueshuobuzaituxiandangchuneizhongshehuilixiangdeyiyi,ergengduodichengweilewenrenshidafumenneixinyonglaitaobixianshidejingshenguisuherengejiegoule。zheizhongrengejiegoubuzaifanyingpubianrenxing,fanershiduipubianrenxingdebeiliheniuqu,shiyizhongziqixingdeaqjingshen,zheiyoushiruhezaochengdeni?

十一选五shiyixuanwucengzai《guanyudaojiazhexuegaizaodelinshigangyao》yiwen[16]zhongtichu,daojiazhexuehuiguirenyuzirandehexiebingmeiyoucuo,zheishirenleizuizhongxiangwangdelixiangjingjie;danwentizaiyu,daojiadezheizhonghuiguichediquxiaolerenheyuanshiziranjiedequbie,jiangrendeziyouyizhikanzuoshibuzirande,ermeiyoubarendezirankanzuoyigenengdongdechuangzaoguocheng。zheiyangyilai,daojiadeziranyuanzejiubianchenglefeirenyuanze,zheiyangdeziranzhuangtaizaizenmechaoranwuwai、chunjiewuxia,tadingduozaimeiyouzongjiaojituodezhongguozhishifenzixinmuzhongqidaoyizhongjingshenanweidezuoyong。yincishiyixuanwutichuyaoduidaojiazhexuede“ziran”zheiyijibenyuanzejiayigaizao,zheizhonggaizaoyifangmianshiduiziranyuanzedefouding,jibatadeduilimian“renwei”yuanzejiarudao“ziran”yuanzezhizhong;lingyifangmian,tayoushiziranyuanzedezifouding,yinershiziranyuanzebenshendeshenhuahefazhan,yinweiduiyurenlaishuo,zhenzhengzirandebushifangqizijideziyouyizhi,erzhengshifayangziyouyizhidenengdongxing。yigekeyifangqishenzhiyayizijideziyouyizhiyidadao“shunqiziran”dedaojiajingjiederen,qishiyijingshiyigejibuziranderen,rendeziyouyizhihelixingzhengshidaziranfuyurendezuigenbendebenzhi,erzheizhong“benzhi”caishizhenzhengde“ziran”。yongxifangzhexuedeshuyulaishuo,benzhishi“chuangzaozirandeziran”(natura naturans),erziranjiezebuguoshi“beiziransuochuangzaodeziran”(naturanaturata)。suoyixifangzhexuezhongde“ziran”(nature)yicijianyou“benzhi”he“ziran”eryi,tabaohanyourenweichuangzaodeyisizainei;erzhongguodedaojiajiangde“ziran”queshi“renwei”defanyici,“renwei”ji“buziran”。

suoyi,ruguoshiyixuanwuduidaojiadeziranyuanzejinxingyifanxianxiangxuehaiyuan,shiyixuanwujiukeyikanchu,daojiaweilehuidaorendeziranbenxingershuochudeneixiedaoli,qishishihenbuzirande,shiweibeidaojiazhexue“daofaziran”dechuzhongde。ruguoyaochediguanchedaojiadeziranyuanze,neijiujibunengpiekairendeziyouchuangzao,yebunengpiekairendeshehuishenghuoherenjiguanxi,yinweirendebenzhishishehuide,huozheshuorendeziranbenxingjiuzaiyuren“nengqun”(xunzi),yejiushinenggouhetarenjiechengyidingdeshehuiguanxi。yushiwentijiuzaiyu,zaimeigerenfahuizijideziyouyizhishi,shenmeyangdeshehuiguanxicaishizuizirande?zheigewentizaixifangwenhuazhongjiushiziyalishiduodeyilaisuonulitanjiude,zheijiushi“ziranfa”wenti。zailuomafazhong,ziranfabeidangzuominfadejichu;daolegelaoxiusi,ziran“fa”beijieshiweiziran“quanli”(huo“faquan”);erzaikangdezheili,ziranquanlibeiguijieweiyigeweiyidequanli,zheijiushirendeziyouquan。kangdeshuo: “ziyou(duilingyigerendeqiangzhirenxingdedulixing),jiutanenggouyulingyigerengenjuyigepubianfazedeziyoubingcuneryan,jiushizheizhongweiyide、yuanshide、meigerenpingjiezijiderenxingyingdangjuyoudefaquan。”[17]zheishizhiyoutongguorendeluojilixingcainengjianliqilaideyizhengtaofaquanguifan。danluojilixingbingfeibuzirandeguiding,erqiahaoshi“ziranzhiguang”,shirendeziranbenxingzhongsuojuyoudenengli,eshazheizhongnenglijiushibuzirande。suoyi,zhenzhengbadaojiadeziranyuanzeguanchedaodide,jingranshixifangdeziranfalilun,shixifangdeziyouyizhixueshuoheshijianlixingxueshuo。danzheiqiahaoyeshuoming,laozikaichuangdedaojiaxuepaijingguozheizhongxianxiangxuehaiyuan,cainenghuidaozuichutazhisuoyibeirenjieshoude“shiqingbenshen”,jiduirendeziyoubenxingdefanhui。daojiazhexueyijingjieshichu,zhenzhengdeziranjiushiziyou,zhibuguodaojiadeziyouhaizhizhezhongyutadeyigepianmian,jirendexiaojideziyougan,jizhuangzide“xiaoyao”,erweinengchanfachuqizhongdeziyouyizhidejijihanyi,tazhishiyizhong“wuyizhideziyou”。daojiasuoxinshangdezhishirenzaidaziranzhongdewujuwushu、ziyouzizai、yiranzide,erbushiziyoujinqu、chuangzaohehuimie、zishiyixuanwubaohuhefankang,gengbushidaodezilv,yijiweibaozhangziyouquanlierjianliqiyitaohelidefaquantixi。dangran,zheixiejijideneirongyuziyoudexiaojifangmianyeshibukefenlide,fouzejiuhuidaozhiyihua,congziyouzouxiangbuziyou;danqueshaojijineirongdeziyouyezhishichouxiangkongdongdeziyou,zuizhongshixujiadeziyou。daojiaziyouguanzhishitigongleyigexianxiangxuehaiyuandeqiji,haibixuyouzheiyiqijijinxing“ziyouxiangxiangdebiangeng”,cainengzhenzhenghaiyuandaoziyoudebenzhi,yejiushiziyouyizhijiqipubianguilv。zheicaishifanhuidaorenxinglixiangdebijingzhilu。

十一选五san、zhongguochuantongwenyiheyuyanliubianzhongdexianxiangxuehaiyuan

十一选五yishangjiangdeshiduizhongguochuantongwenhuazairujiahedaojiaxueshuozhongsuotixiandehexinjiazhidexianxiangxuehaiyuan。danshi,zheizhonghaiyuanzaizhongguochuantongwenxueyishuzhong,yijizaiyuyandeliubianzhong,qishiyijingzaibuzhibujuedianzhongjinxingzhele,zhishishiyixuanwumeiyouzijuedaoeryi。huanyanzhi,zhongguochuantongwenyiheyuyansuozouguodelishijiushizhongguochuantongwenhuazishenzaiduizijijinxingxianxiangxuehaiyuandeguocheng,suoyizheilidexianxiangxuehaiyuanbushishiyixuanwucongwaibujiashangdeyizhongcaozuo,ershiwenhuazishenbenzhideyizhongbukeminmie,yizhongzishiyixuanwuxianxian,yinweiwenyiheyuyanbenshenjiushixianxiangxue(xianxiangxue)de。

1、wenxueyishuzhongdexianxiangxuehaiyuan

shiyixuanwuzaiduizhongguochuantongwenhuadepipanzhong,cengjingduitasuobiaobangde“zhen”he“shan”defangmianzhankailequanmiandepiping,pipingdeduixiangguangfanshejiru、dao、fa、mo、fodenggejiagepai,jihuwuyixingmian。danhenshaoyourenzhuyidao,shiyixuanwudezheixiepipanweidudui“mei”defangmian、jiduizhongguochuantongwenxueyishuwangkaiyimian,chuleduirudaofodengyishixingtaizaiwenyizhongzaochengdeyingxiangrengranjiayipipandeshenshiwai,duiyuwenxueyishubenshenquebaoyoumouzhong“jutijicheng”dexinshangdetaidu,buzaixianyuchouxiangjicheng,gengbuyuanyiyibimosha。zheishiyinwei,zaishiyixuanwudemeixuetixizhong,“yishushizaiyigeyihuashehui(jiejishehui)zhongcujinrenxingtonghuadeyinsu,zheizhongtonghuazuoyongtebiezaiyishuzuoweichuncuiyishuchanshengchulaideshike(ruzaiguxila)yiqiwanzhengdexingshibiaoxianchulai,ermeiyouhoulaideyishuneimemingquedeqingxiangxing。”[18]dangran,wenxueyishude“qingxiangxing”zaizhongguozicong《shijing》yihoubianfuzhezaiwenxueyishubenshenshang,tebieshirujiachangchangyi“wenyizaidao”、“letonglunli”defangshiduiyiwangdewenyizuopinjiayijiedu,naizhiyuyingxiangdaoyixiezuojiayishujiayizheizhongxintaijinxingchuangzuo。danchenggongdewenyizuopintongchangdouchaochulezheizhongzhengjiaolunlidexiaaikuangjia,eryiqichuncuideyishuxinghewenxuexingyingxiangzhehouren。liru,ruguosheijinjinxianyucong“aiguozhuyi”dejiaodulaiduquyuande《lisao》,huozhexiang《maoshixu》zhongneiyangcong“houfeizhide”deyiyishanglaidu《shijing·guansui》,neizhinengshuomingtabushiyigehegededuzhe。eryixiebeizhengtongzhengjiaolunlichizhiwei“yinshu”dezuopin,ru《hongloumeng》he《jinpingmei》,fanerzaiyishushangchengweizhongguowenxuezhongdejingdian。suoyi,zhiyaowenxueyishuhaiyoushengmingli,tajiushichaoyuezhengjiaolunlide,yeshichaoyuewenhuaheminzudejiexianerjuyoupushixingde。shenzhikeyishuo,chuncuidewenxueyishubenshen,huozhechuncuidewenxuexing、yishuxing,jiushixianxiangxuehaiyuansuoyaohuidaodeneige“shiqingbenshen”,tabushishouduan,ershimude。

yinci,congxianxiangxuedejiaodulaikan,bingbushiyinweishiyixuanwuduiyijianyishupinjinxinglexianxiangxuedehaiyuan,tahoumiansuoyinzangdezhiguanbenzhicaichengxianzaishiyixuanwumianqian;ershizhiyaoshiyixuanwubeitasuogandong,suoxiyin,tadebenzhijiu“zaineili(da sein)”le。yinweianzhaoshiyixuanwudemeixueguan,meijiushiduixianghuadeqinggan,[19]meibenshenjiushibeishiyixuanwu、beixinshangzhejituozaiyixiangduixiangshangdeqinggan,shiyixuanwuduizuopindexinshangqishijiushiduixianxianyuqizhongdeshiyixuanwuzijideqinggandegongming。dangran,zheibixushiyaoyichuncuishenmeidetaiducainengkandaode,suoyiruguoshuoduiyuzhongguochuantongwenyiyebixuyouyizhongxianxiangxuedehaiyuandehua,neijiushihaiyuandaozheizhongchuncuishenmeidetaidu。yinweiguorenzaiduidaiwenyizuopinshi,wangwangbuyuanyicaiquzheizhongzhenqiedetaidu,erxihuanfujiashangyixieyushenmeimeiyouzhijieguanxidedongxi。liruduidai《hongloumeng》zheibuxiaoshuo,“jingxuejiakanjian《yi》,daoxuejiakanjianyin,caizikanjianchanmian,gemingjiakanjianpaiman,liuyanjiakanjiangongweimishi”(luxunyu),quebuwenwenziji: shishenmeshinigandong,shiniyubabuneng?zheijiuxuyaoduizheizhongjieshoutaidujinxingyizhongxianxiangxuehaiyuan,yejiushiyaoqiutamenhuidaoshiqingbenshen。zhibuguozheizhongyaoqiuzhishizhenduineixie“jia”meneryande,erduiyushenme“jia”yebushideputongduzhe,zhiyaotamenmeiyoushoudaoneixie“zhuanjia”deguhuo,pingzijideyanguangzhijiequduzuopin,shiqingbenshenjiuziranhuiduitamenchengxianchulai。yueduduitamenlaishuobushizuoyanjiuhuoshoujiaoyu,erzhishimeidexiangshou。

十一选五youcikejian,shenmeibujinjinshixianxiangxuedehaiyuan,erqiebenshenjiushiyijinghaiyuanledexianxiang。suoyizhiyaoshiyixuanwubaoyouchuncuishenmeidetaiduquxinshangyijianzuopin,zheijiubuxuyaolingwaizaiduizheizhongtaidujinxingxianxiangxuedehaiyuanle。zaiwenyilingyuzhong,suoyoudexianxiangxuehaiyuandezuizhongmudejiuzaiyuhaiyuandaozheiyangyizhongchuncuishenmeidetaidu,shiyixuanwupingzheizhongtaidulaiganshouyijianyishupindemei,laipingjiayijianyishuzuopindegaodi,bingqiekeyibazheizhongganshouhepingjiaxiangtarenchuandi。zheige“taren”keyishibutongjiejideren,yekeyishibutongguodu、butongminzu、butongwenhuaderen。zaizheizhongyiyishang,zuopindemeijiushirenleisuogongtongyongyoudepushijiazhi,shirenleigongtongdejingshencaifu。shijishang,husaierxianxiangxuedehaiyuanzhishibajindaikexuedetaidu(ziranzhuyi、xinlizhuyi)zhiyukuohaozhong,quebingmeiyoubashenmeidetaiduzhiyukuohaozhong,xiangfan,shenmeitaiduzhengshitajuyihaiyuandeyigezhongyaoyiju;tongyang,shiyixuanwushangmianyezhishibachuantongzhengjiaodetaiduzhiyukuohaozhong,suoshengyuxialaideshenmeitaiduzeshiyonglaihaiyuanzhengjiaotaiduderenyikuozhangqingxiangde。zhiyaoshiyixuanwujinjinzhuazhushenmeizheiyifangmian,renxinglixiangdeyonghengjiazhijiubuhuibeizhebiheniuqu。

2、hanyuyuyanliubianzhongdexianxiangxuehaiyuan

十一选五hanyushiyizhongshifenqitedeyuyan。hanzidexiangxingxing(baokuoyihuixing,yinweiyihuiyeshitongguoxiangxingchanshengde)shitazaiduyinbujinxiangtongdeqingkuangxiabaochileshuqianniandatiyiguandewendingxinghetongyixing。qinshihuangde“shutongwen”qishizaichunqiuzhanguoshiqiyijingdiandinglejichu,《shijing》、《shangshu》、《liji》、《zhouyi》、《chunqiu》zaoyiyoushutongwendequxiangle,qizhuyaodegongnengshichongdangzhengzhitongzhigongju,yougeguoshiguanheqitaguanyuansuozhangwo。suoyi,zhongguoqiyuanyujinwenhejiaguwendehanziheqitaguojiaheminzudepinyinwenzibutong,youzhongtianrandiquxiangyutongyideqingxiang,yinweitazhuyaoshiyonglaizhiliguojia、tongyitianxia、jizaizhengzhijingyanhezhangxianzhengzhihefaxingde,erbushiyonglaijinxingmaoyiheminjianshiyixuanwude,houzheyouzhongquyufenhuadeqingxiang(ru《shengjing》babietadegushisuobiaomingde)。dangran,hanzichanshengyiqianyeshiyoumanzhangdekouyuwenhuacunzaide,erwenzichanshengyihouyebingmeiyouwanquantuolikouyu,tadeduyinrengranyaoyicongkouyu,bingqiezaishizijiecenghewenhuarenzhijianqidaoyizhongshiyixuanwudezuoyong(rushuxin、qiyue、jizhangjishiheshiwenchuangzuodengdeng)。buguo,suiranzaifazhanguochengzhongliangzhezhijianchangyouhushen(lirushumianyuyehuijinrudaokouyuzhong,erkouyuyeshideshumianyuzhongdehanzichangyoutongjia,youpinyinhuadeqingxiang),danzhishao,zhongguohanzizicongchanshengyilaijiudaishangnongzhongdezhengzhihuayusecai,yushiyurichanghuayuzhijianzhujianlakailejuli,zheishihaowuyiwende。shiyixuanwuxianzaihennanxiangxiang,gurendangshijiushiyongneizhongjiquaoyadewenyanwenlaijinxingrichangduihuade,yushiyourenjiushexiangneishishiyouyushuxiehejizaishouduandekunnan,weileshengliheshengshi,erduikoutouyuliaojinxingledafududeyasuoheshenglve,caixingchengleshiyixuanwusuokandaodewenyanwendeshumianyu。shiyixuanwubushihenxiangxinzheizhongjieshi,yinweixiang《shangshu》zheiyangdewenxianzhongyoubushaoshizuigaotongzhizhedeshi、ming、xun、gaoyileidekouyu,jiluzhezenmeganweiletushengshierbuzhuzizhaolu?shiyixuanwucaixiang,hanyuzaifaminghanzizhichudeyiduanshijianneiyinggaihaishiyanwenyizhide,dansuizhehoulaikouyudebianqian,shumianyugenbushangkouyudebianhua,caikaishifendaoerxing。xianjinyixiedifangdefangyanzhonghaibaoliuzhewenyandehenji,jiushimingzheng。

十一选五kejian,shumianyuyidanxingchenglezijideguifan,jiuhennangaibian,youqizhongguorenshiyigezunzhonglishihechuantongdeminzu,wenyanwenzaibufangbian,weilejianchichuantongdeyiguanxingyebixushouzhuguifan。raner,kouyuhuadequshiqishiyezaoyijinganzhongkaishile,tashouxianqiyuanyuwenxuechuangzuo。[20]ruguoshuo,quyuandeyixiezuopinrengranshineimehuisenandong,xuyaodaliangdezhushi,neimezhishaoconghanlefushigeqi,shichuangzuojiuyijingzhuzhongtongsuyidong、langlangshangkoule。tangdaishigechugebiedianguwai,daduodoushirichangkouyu,jushuobaijuyizhuzhangmeizuoyishiyaonianjimubushidingdelaoyuting,zuihaoshirutongkouyuyiyangyidong。songcizhongdekouyugengduo,ruxinqijidecidadoushirichangkouyu。daoleyuanqu,neiyijingshiyipianshijingzhisheng。mingqingxiaoshuozegengshiwei20shijibaihuawenyundongdiandinglejichu。dan20shijibaihuawenyuqiancidekouyuhuayouyidianbutong,jiushiyinrulexifangdeyufahebiaodian,zheijiushidebaihuawenzaishuolihelunzhengfangmiandadayouyuwenyanwen,yushizhujianqudaiwenyanerchengweileguanfangzhengshitongxingdeyuyan,zhizaiyixiebuxuyaolunzhengtuilidechanghe,ruqingdianhuojinianxingdewenzifangmianhaibaoliulewenyanwen,yishizhuangzhong。

十一选五suoyi,shiyixuanwubahanyudezheiyiriyizouxiangyanwenyizhidexiandaibaihuawendeyanbianchengzhiweihanyudexianxiangxuehaiyuan,yinweihanyujingguozheichangyanbian,erzhujianchengweilezhongguorende“cizai”(dasein),chengweilezhongguorende“cunzaizhijia”(haidegeer)。20shijixingchengdexiandaihanyuchububaituoleshumianhanyudezhengzhitongzhigongneng,erchengweilezhongguorenjieyishengcundehuodeyuyan。congciyihou,xiandaihanyubianchengweilezhuzikeyidepushideyuyan,eryouyuhanzitianshengdexiangxinghuiyidetedian,jiashangtayizhilexifangyufadeyangexing,tashenzhichengweiledangjinshijiegedayuyanzhongzuijuyougoutongdekenengxinghezhunquexingdeyuyan。xiandaihanyudegoucifajihushiwuxiande,tayuanzeshangkeyifanyirenhenanyidewenben,zaizheifangmianjuyouhendadeyoushi。shiyixuanwuzaifanyikangdedezhexueshi,jiujuedexiandaihanyubiyingyuheeyudougengfangbian,kangdedeyisiyongyingyueyuyouhenduodifangyibuchulai,yongxiandaihanyuquekeyiyiyiduiying。[21]zheishuomingshenme?shuomingxiandaihanyuyoukenengchengweizhenzhengguojihuadeyuyan,zhiyaoyizhezugourenzhen,takeyihaiyuandaorenxingzhongdezuixiweizhichu。guxilazhexueqianbeixuezhechenkangxianshengcengshuoguo,zhongguorenyouyitianyaorangwaiguoxuezheyibutonghanyuweihen,caisuanshidadaolexueshusixiangdefengdian。[22]zheilishuodehanyu,jiushixiandaihanyu。xiandaihanyuzuoweiyizhong“zajiaoyuyan”,jingguohaojidairendekuxinjingying,tebieshijingguodapifanyijiadenuli,jintianyijingchengweiyizhongjiweiyouxiudebiaodashouduan。zhengruwangxiaoboshuode,tadewenxuexiuyangzhuyaoshitongguodufanyiguolaidewenxuezuopinerdedaode,neixiefanyijia,“shitamenfaxianlexiandaihanyudeyunlv。meiyouzheizhongyunlv,jiubuhuiyouwenxue。zuizhongyaodeshi,zaizhongguo,yijingyouleyizhongchunzhengwanmeidexiandaiwenxueyuyan。”[23]shiyixuanwushenyoutonggan。

dangran,xiandaihanyuzaishanggeshijixiabanyehebenshijiyezaoyudaoletazishendeliangfangmiandeweiji,yifangmianshizhongguohanzichuantongdeguanxingjuranshizheizhongqiyuminjiandeshumianyuzhongxinyougujieweiyitaoyongyuzhengzhitongzhidequanlihuayu,suoweide“dahua、taohua、konghua”fanlanchengzai,jiyale“dashihua”dekongjian;lingyifangmian,zeshidangqianwangluoyuyanduichunzhenghanyudechongjijihushishibukedang,pinyinhua、disuhua、ruozhihuadeyuyanchongchizhewangluo,jiangdizhezhongguorendezhishang。zheiliangzhongqingxiangdoushichuyumouzhongshiyongzhuyi,qianzheshizhengzhishiyongzhuyi,houzheshijishushiyongzhuyi,liangzhedouchoukonglehanyudesixiangheyugan,shitashiqulehunpo,chengweileqitamouzhongwaizaimudededanchunshouduan。mianduizheiyangyizhongjumian,zhongguowenhuasuomianlindeyixiangjinporenwu,jiushiyaozaixiandaihanyuzhongzhankaixinyilundexianxiangxuehaiyuan。dangranzheiyijingshuyulingyigehuatile。

十一选五[1] cankanzhuowen: 《shiyixuanwuyurujia》,zai《tansuoyuzhengming》2015niandi4qi。

[2] husaier: 《ouzhoukexuedeweijiyuchaoyuelundexianxiangxue》,wangbingwenyi,shangwuyinshuguan2001nianban,di16ye。

[3] niliangkang: 《husaierxianxiangxuegainiantongshi》,shangwuyinshuguan1999nianban,di392ye;bingcankanhusaier: 《jingyanyupanduan》,dengxiaomang、zhangtingguoyi,sanlianshudian1999nianban,di395ye。

[4] heqifang: 《maozedongzhige》,zai《renminwenxue》1977niandi9qi。

十一选五[5] shiyixuanwuzheilibushuo“yihuaxingtai”。yiguxiaoshafuxianshengcengheshiyixuanwutaolunguozhongguochuantonglunliguifanshifoukeyichengzuo“lunliyihua”dewenti,shiyixuanwudeyijianshizuihaobuyongzheiyishuofa。yinwei“yihua”deqiantishigerenyishideduli,getisuojianlidedongxibianchengleduigeti“yiji”dedongxicaijiao“yihua”;zhongguochuantonglunliguifanzebingbuyigetiduliweiqianti,erqieduigerenlaishuosuiranhencanku,querengranshi“wenqingmaimai”、“dongzhiyiqing”de,shi“ruandaozigetoubujuesi”de,bingmeiyou“yiji”gan。

[6] jianhusaier: 《chuncuixianxiangxuetonglun》(ji《chuncuixianxiangxuehexianxiangxuezhexuedeguannian》diyijuan,youcheng《guannian1》),liyouzhengyi,shangwuyinshuguan1992nianban,di160ye。qishianzhaohusaierdemiaoshu,tadexianxiangxueyinggaihaibujinshijindaizhexuedechongjing,erqieshizibolatuyilaidezhenggexifangchuantongzhexueanzhongdechongjing,tade“guannian”(idee)jiulaizibolatude“linian”。

[7] cichuzanshipiekaifojiabutan,fojiayudaojiasuibujinxiangtong,danzaizongtijingshenquxiangshangyingyudaojiahedaojiaotongshuyixi。

[8] cankanxiaogongqin: 《rujiawenhuadekunjing》,sichuanrenminchubanshe1986nianban,di103-105ye。

[9] 《liji·liyunpian》

[10] tongshang。

十一选五[11] 《falvpian》zaixifangzhengzhisixiangshishangdediweijiqizhongyao,“xiandaixuduoxuezhedourenweibujinluomafaxuduosixiangyuanzi《fapian》,erqiejindaizichanjiejiqimengsixiangjiaruluoke、mengdesijiudengtichudedaiyizhi、fenquanzhijisanquanfenlihexianghuzhiyuedexueshuodoukeyishangsudao《fapian》”。(jianwangzisongdeng: 《xilazhexueshi》di2juan,renminchubanshe1993nian,di1108ye)

十一选五[12] cankanliuqingping: 《rujialunliyushehuigongde——lunrujialunlideshendubeilun》,zai《zhexueyanjiu》2004nian1qi。

十一选五[13] cankanzhuowen: 《sugeladiyukongzideyanshuofangshidebijiao》,zai《zhongzhouxuekan》1992niandi2qi。

[14] shanggeshijimobeipansixingdexianggangguanfeizhangziqiangyijibenshijichubeichujuedeqiangjiesharenfanzhangjun,duizijidemuqindouhenxiaoshun。

[15] liuqingpingzaiqi《zhongxiaoyurenyi——rujialunlipipan》yishuzhong,shijishangyejinxinglezheizhongrenxiaoguanxidediandao,erzhuzhangyong“yirenweiben”laiqudai“qinbenzhuyi、junbenzhuyi、guanbenzhuyi”,zheiyang“cainengchengjiubenzhenxingderenbenzhuyi”(jiangaishu2012nianban,fudandaxuechubanshe,di334ye)。dangrantabingbushicongxianxiangxuehaiyuandejiaodulaitande。

十一选五[16] yuanzai《zhexuedongtai》1995niandi1qi,shouruzhuozhu《renlunsanti》,zhongqingdaxuechubanshe2008nianban。

[17] 《kangdezhuzuoquanji》di6juan,liqiulingzhubian,zhongguorenmindaxuechubanshe2007nianban,di246ye。

[18] jianzhuowen: “yishufashengxuedezhexueyuanli”,yuanzaiyu《zhexuedongtai》1986niandi10qi,shourugerenwenji《shijianweiwulunxinjie——kaichuxianxiangxuezhiwei》,wuhandaxuechubanshe2007nian,di204ye。

十一选五[19] cankandengxiaomang、yizhongtian: 《huangyulandejiaoxiang》,wuhandaxuechubanshe2007nian,di373yeyixia。

[20] zheiyouyiciyinzhengleweikesuozhichudeyuyanheshidetongyuanxing,huoyuyanxueyushixuedetongyixing。

[21] cankanzhuowen: “zuozhexuefanyidejidiantihui”,zaiyuzhuozhu《shijizhifeng》,hubeirenminchubanshe2014nian,di56yeyixia;“rangzhexueshuohanyu——congkangdesandapipandefanyishuoqi”,zaiyu《shehuikexuezhanxian》2004niandi2qi。

[22] cankanchenkang: 《bamannidesipian》yizhexu,shangwuyinshuguan1982nian,di10ye。

十一选五[23] wangxiaobo: “shiyixuanwudeshicheng”,zai《shiyixuanwudejingshenjiayuan》,wenhuayishuchubanshe1997nian,di142ye。




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