十一选五

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赵汀阳: 哲学的历史命运及其自十一选五反叛

时间: 2017-06-21 21:02:02 点击:

1、第一哲学问题 

十一选五   shizhijinri,luodi20nianqianzai《zhexueheziranzhijing》yishuzhongduizhexuedezhongxindingweirengranshizhexuedeyizhongweijuexuanze。luodixiangxin,zhexuebuyingjixuyizhishilunsiweifangshilaidingyi,eryingyouzhuiqiuzhishidezhexuezhuanbianweizaitanhuazhongkefuziqide“jiaohua”zhexue。tasihushishuo,yongzhihuiqumouqiuzhishishicongxilayilaideduizhihuidecuowuyunyong,zaiyitiaozhuiqiuzuizhongde、yonghengdezhishizhilushang,“zhexueyuechengweikexuedeheyangede,tayuwenhuadeqitalingyudeguanxijiuyueshao,ertasuojianchidechuantongzhuzhangjiuxiandegengweihuangmiu”(zhongyibensanlian87ban,“daolun”),erruguobazhihuiyongyutanhuahejiaohua,zekeyi“fangzhirangtanhuatuibianweiyanjiu”(p.324)——dangranzhideshineizhongshengchanzhishihuanxiangdeyanjiu。

   queshi,dangzhexueyurichangguannianyijiyuwenhuaheshehuidegezhongyanjiushiqumiqieguanxi,zhexuejiuhennanzhengmingzishendeyiyile。buguoluodidezhexuexuanzekongpayebuleguan——tasuochaoxiaode“yanjiu”guranshengchanhuanxiang,danshi“tanhua”nandaojiunengbaozhengbuhuizouxianglingyizhongwuliao、guibianheziqi?zhexuedingweiwentibunengzheiyangjiandandijiejue。

   keyishuo,zai20shijili,zhexueduizishendedingweichenglezhexuediyiwenti,erqiejiangjixushidiyiwenti。zhexuejiabudebusikaozheigezhexueweiji。huibizheigeweijibushibanfa。shiyixuanwuzhuyidao,20shijiliyouqishihoubangeshijili,xuduorenwen——shehuikexuejiaduizhexueshiquxinren,yushihuominghuoandihuibizhexueweijishenzhihuibizhexue,zheizhongzuofasuiransihushishehuikexuexiandegengxiangkexue,danshishehuikexuedegezhongjibenjiashequezhinengshizhexuexingde,huibizhexuesikaodengyuzaijibenjiashedecengmianshangjileisixiangdeyinhuan,zheixieyinhuanfeichangkenengdaozhimangmukeyidezhishi,erqiejiazhuangbuxuyaozhexueshijishangdengyuchengnuoleyixiemeiyoujingguosikaodezhexuejiashe。bishangyanjingbudengyuweixianxiaoshile。

   shiyixuanwukeyiyaoqiuzhexuebianchenglingyizhongyangzi,quebunenghuibizhexue,zhiyaoyizhongwenhuaxuyaoyouguanyusixiangdesixiang,shijishangjiuyaoqiuyouzhexue。zhexueshizhenggewenhuadeyuanyuyan,zheizhongyuanyuyandeyiyizaiyushiyizhongwenhuachengweijuyouzishiyixuanwusuzao、zishiyixuanwubiaoshudewanzhengyuyan——jiaruyizhongwenhuazhinengbiaoshugezhongwaizaishiwu,erbunengzishiyixuanwubiaoshuhezishiyixuanwusuzao,neimeyidingshixiangdangdaizhide,tajiangzhiyouxiguanerbuhuiyouchuangzaoli。zaimouzhongyiyishangshuo,dangjinshehuikexueyijiyibanwenhuaguannianduizhexuedehushiyijingsunhailewenhuadezhengtiganjue,shiyixuanwubunanfaxian,xianzaiguanyuzhengzhi、shehui、daode、shenghuodehuayusuiduo,danquebunengxingchengjingshen——bushitongchangsuoshuodejingshenshiluole,ershixingchengbulejingshen,yushichuxianyizhongbeilunxingdewenhuazhuangkuang: huayuhenduodanyoufeichangquefahuayu。jidengsikandehendui:

十一选五   zaiqianxiandaishehuili,chuantongsuirankenengshiwulideheduduande,danduduandechuantongfanerweichilejingshenheshenghuodequedingxing,xiandaishehuixiangxinlixingnenggoutichuzhenzhenghelideyuanze,keshilixingsuokaifangdezhengshisuoyouhuaiyi,jieguo“xiandaixingdefansixingxueruolezhishidequedingxing”(《xiandaixingyuzishiyixuanwurentong》,sanlian98ban,p.23)。

十一选五   xiandaishehuibakexuedangchenglejingshenzhizhu(xiladejingshenzhizhushizhexue,zhonggushizongjiao)。kexuesuiranshizuihaodezhishi,danquebunengshijingshenzhizhu——zhishizaihaoyechengbulejingshen。dangshiyixuanwuyongkexuezhishiqutidaisixianghejingshen,jiufanleyicicuowu,keshixianzaishiyixuanwuxiangjiuzhengcuowushiqueyouqupipankexuejishu、zhishihelixing,zheiqiaqiayoufanlelingyigecuowu,yinweipipanlekejihelixingbingbunengyincijiuchanshengshiyixuanwusuoxuyaodejingshen。shishishangsuoweidejingshenshiluoshiwudaoxingdeshuofa,tabaohanzheyigebulianganshi: shiyixuanwuguoquyoujingshen,suoyijingshenjiushiguoqujingshendeneizhongyangzi。xianran,guoqudejingshenzhinengshijingshendeyibufenhanyi,fouzejingshenjiubuhuiyouchuangzaoxing,ermeiyouchuangzaoxingdedongxibushijingshen。

   zhexueshibiaoming,zhexuedefazhanfangshibushi“jilei”(zhishicainengjilei),dangranzhexueshiyejileileyixiedongxi,liruzhexuezhuanyecihui、mingtihelunzheng,danzheixiejileijiuxiangyishushizhonggezhongyishufenggehejifadejileiyiyang,zheizhongjileibingbuyiweizhesixiangcengci“jinleyibu”,ershishidesixianghuochuangzuodebeijinggengjiafuzaliaokuo。zhexuezaishijianzhongfazhan,danquezaiyigepingmiankongjianshangzhankai。zhexuedefazhanfangshishi“pangzhi”,jibuduanshitubalaohuadezhexuetuidaopangbianquchengweiciyaodefengjing,shizhiduisixiangdezhengtihuamianshiqujuedingxing,tongshijichuyizhongxindesiluyihuifusixianghuoli。yincishiyixuanwujiuguanchadaole,zhexuedehuati(subjects)bianhuabuda,danshiwenti(problems)hejieshiquezongshibutong,yidaiyidaidezhexuejiadouzai“geming”,dandoushi“zaiyuandidegeming”,haobiyizuochengshibuduangaijian,suiranchengshididianbubian,dangouchengzheigechengshidegezhongdaoluhejianzhuquezaibianhuazhong,“dilikongjian”bubian,danshi“shenghuokongjian”quezaibian。

   duizhexuedebutongdingweichanshengbutongdesixiangkuangjia、wentihejieshifangshi,zheiyiweizheduizhexuedebutongdingyi,yinci,“zhexue”dehanyishikenengbianhuade。shiyixuanwuzaizheilishituhuidachenjiayingxiangshiyixuanwutichudeyigewenti(canjian“shupingzhoukan”1998,6,19),tabutongyishiyixuanwuguanyuzhexuekeyibianchengwanquanbutongdelingyigegainiandeshuofa,tasihuxiangxin,zhexuezheigegainiandechuantonghanyirengranyouchongfenliyoujuedingzhexuedejibenhanyi。tayouyigeshengdongdelizi: yexushiyixuanwukeyifamingzuojiaozidegezhonghuayang,danzongbunengshuoyuanlaideneizhongjiaozijiubusuanjiaozile。zheilichujidaozhexuexianzaimianlindeguanjianwenti: zhexuedelishi?founenggoujuedingzhexue“shi”shenme?huozhe,zhexueyizhi“shi”shenmeshifouyiweizhezhexue“zhinengshi”shenme?

   ruguocongyibanfenleixuedejiaoduqukan,dangranbuguanzhexueyounaxiehuayangdousuanshizhexue;danshiruguocongsixiangderenwuhegongzuojiazhidejiaoduqukan,shiyixuanwujiuyouliyourenweifuhesixiangfazhanxuyaodezhexuecaizhidesuanshizhexue(yishushangyeyouleisidetaolun: yigezuopin“xiang”yishupinjiusuanyishupinhaishiyigezuopin“shihaode”caisuanyishupin)。shiyixuanwugengyuanyiyi“ren”erbushi“jiaozi”zuoweilizi(yinweizhexuegengxiangrenerbuxiangjiaozi): yigerenyouyusixiangqinggandebianhuakeyiqianhoupanruoerren,jinguanzaishenglishanghaishitongyigeren。wuyishiyixuanwushizaizhexuedegongzuoxingzhidefazhanfangmiantanlunzhexuedehanyide。zheigewentihaishibijiaorongyijieshide。zhenzhengyanzhongdeshichenjiayingdelingyigeyiwen: shiyixuanwuzenmezhidao“yinggaizuo”dezhexueshinayizhongni?

   shishishangmeidaizhexuejiadoushituxiugaizhexuedehanyi,shenzhiyongxindehanyijidiaoyuanlaidehanyi,wulunshidikaer、kangdehaishimakesihehaidegeer,youqishiweitegensitanhedelida,doushiruci。“zhexue”haoxiangshiyigekongzhedekuohao,huozheshigex,zhexuejiamenzaizheigexiangzhengxingdejianshoubingxudegainianlitianrufeichangbutongdeneirong。yexuguoqudezhexuejiaduoshaoshiwuyishidixiugaizhezhexuedehanyi,danshizhishaozibenshijiyilai,zhexueduizishenhanyidexiugaiyijingyuanyuanbujinshiyizhongzifadezhexuechongdong,ershizijuedegongzuo。

   shiyixuanwusihuyebunengyinwei“zhexue”shiyigexifangmingchengjiuyincirenweizhongguobenlaimeiyouzhexue,dangran,zhongguodezhexuequeshizhangdebutaixiangxifangzhexue。shiyixuanwukeyishuozhongguomeiyouyouhuahejiaoxiangle,danbunengshuomeiyouhuihuaheyinle。yongmouzhongtedingwenhuadefenggequdingyirenleiwenmingdexingshishibuqiadangde。shiyixuanwuxiangshuo,ruguocongwenmingxuyaopeibeishenmeyangdewenhuagongnengzheiyangyigejiaoduqulijiewenhuaxingshi,shibijiaohelide,zheibujinyouzhuyulijiezhexuededuoyangxing,erqieyouzhuyufaxianrenheyizhongzugoufengfudewenhuadouxuyaofazhanchuzhexuedeliyou——zhexuejiuhuibeikanzuoshiwenhuadeyigebiyaogongneng,erbushimouzhongwenhuadeyigeourantezheng。shishishangjintianduozhongwenhuadejiaozhiyijingjizhexuezaochenglexuyaogengduoxiangxianglidesixiangkongjian。

   wulunruhe,zhexuebazhexuezuochengshenmeyangshiyigezhenzhengjuedingzhexuemingyundewenti,keshi,zhexuezenmecainengzhidaofangxiangni?zenmecainengzhidaoyaozuoshenmeni?bufangbazhexuekanzuoshiwenhuayoujitizhongdeyigegongnengqusikao: wenhuashiyigefuzadeshengmingti,taxuyaogezhonggongnenghepeizhi,fouzejiubunenggouzaoyizhongyouhuolideshenghuo;lingyifangmian,wenhuayoushizishencunzaideshengtaihuanjing,yinciwenhuazhongdemeigebufendecunzaidoubixushiduiwenhuashengtaizhuangtaideyigegongxian。yushi,shiyixuanwukeyicong“gongneng”dejiaoduquzhongxinjieshi(1)renleiwenhuashifouqueshixuyaozhexue;bingqie(2)ruguozhexueshixuyaode,neimerenleiwenhuaxuyaozhexuequchengweishenmeyang。


 

2、思也悖论,活也悖论 

   yexusikaozhexueshiyuchunde,danshibusikaozhexuejiugengjiayuchun。xilarenhenkenenghuizheiyangshuo。xilarenxiwangjigezhongshiqingzhaodaologos(queshiyouliyoudeshuofa),yincijiuxuyaoyouzuihouliyou,zhuiqiuzuihouliyoudesixiangjiushizhexue。dagaidishuo,gezhongwenhuadefaming(liruchengbanghefalvdefaming)shizhihui(sophia),weigezhongzhihuishuochudaolishizhexue,jiushiquaizhihui(philo-sophia)。youyuxilarenchongbaizhishi,haodedaolibeirenweiyinggaishizhishi(huaidedaolijiusihushiguibian),yushi,aizhihuijiubeijinyibujutidilijieweimouqiuzuihoudezhishi,dianxingdexingshishimeta-physics(yuanzhishi。chuleguanyuphysisdephysicsjiguanyuzirandezhishi,haiyouguanyunomosdezhishi,jiguanyuzhiduheguifandezhishi,zheizhongzhishisuiranmeiyouguanyimeta-,danqishiyeshiyizhongyuanzhishi。benlaiyunomosxiangpeideshiyijian,danshixilarengengqingxiangyuweisuoyoushiqingzhaodaozhishideshuoming)。zheizhongzhexuedingweijinguanzaijintianyijingbuzaiheshi,danrengranshilebuqide。hekuangzheizhongdingweirengranyouyibanshiqiadangde: meta-kenengyongyuanzhengque,jinguanmeta-houmianjieshenmeshigewenti。dangsixiangbuzaixuyaozhishidezhishi,meta-jiuyoulekongque。zhexuexuyaodexinhanyizhengzaiyuqutianshangzheigekongque。

十一选五   zaitaolunxiandaizhexuedenulizhiqian,xiantaolunsugeladihuishiyouyiyide。sugeladiduizirandezuihouzhishibuganxingqu,tazhiguanxinlunlidezhishiwenti。zheiyangdezhexuelunyusihuyouxiexiaai,danqueshiyoujianlichengbangshenghuode“zhihui”zhijieyinchude“aizhihui”lunyu。bolatuheyalishiduodesuiranyefeichangzhongshilunliwenti,danzhishiwentiyijingkaishifazhanweiduirenhezhexuewentijuyoupubianjieshinenglidezhishilun。yalishiduodezai《xingershangxue》zhongshenzhirenweizhexuebenlaijiubushishiyongxueke,ershishiyujingyadeweiqiuzhierqiuzhi。jindaikexuedexingqihechenggongzuizhongyoushizhexuebazhishilunyuanzedingdiaoweizhexuezhengtong(kangdezhexueshibangyang),renmenxiangxinzhexuenenggouzhaodaoyixiezuihoudezhishi。xiangbizhixiasugeladidezhishilunshiyigelingleimoshi: tongguo“sugeladishijiewen”suodedaodezuihoujieguobingbushizhishi,xiangfan,dedaodeshiyixiekenengyongyuanmeiyoudaandewenti,suowei“renshiziji”shijishangsuorenshidaodejiushichedi“wuzhi”(alisiduofende《yun》zhongdeerziwenfuqingensugeladinengxuedaoshenme,huidashi“zhidaozijiyuchuntouding”)。

   zheigesihuhuangdandejieguoanshizhezhexuedelingleidingwei: zhexuebukenengshirenheyiyishangdeyizhongzhishi,ershichangkaizhihuidegezhongyiyideyizhongcaozuo,yincizhexuejiushiyaoconggezhongzhishizoudaowuzhidejingdi,conggezhongguifanhezhidudeguannianzoudaogezhongyiwen,cong“lisuodangran”zoudao“lisuodangrandejuxianxing”。dangran,sugeladideyuanchudongjishixiangzhaodaogezhongzuihoudezhishide,danshishijishangzhaodaodeshiyixieyiwen,suoyishuozheigexijuxingjieguotebieyouanshixing。shiyixuanwuxiangxiangruguosugeladiyoujihuiyulaoziduihua,shuangfangbidinghuanxibujin,laoziyeshuo: “weixueriyi,weidaorisun”,erqie“zhibuzhishangyi,buzhibuzhibingyi”。laozisihubijiaoleguan: zhishishijuxiande、jianghuade,buzuyu“wendao”,danshishijianzhongkenengchanshengdefeizhishixingdejingyanhejuewu(yexukeyijieshiweiyizhongjuyouyishushuipingdejuewu)queshirendedao,suowei“daozhetongyudao”。buguo,sugeladideneixiedangbuzhudeyiwenyehenkenengposhilaozizhongxinkaolvtadeleguanjielun。

   suibianyishuo,laozide“weidao”huo“wendao”gainianzaisixiang“weizhi”shangshuofeichangjiejinxiladephilo-sophia,yisishangyelveyouxiexiangsi,xuduorendouzhuyidaolezheiyidian。suoyishiyixuanwuqiangdiaozhexueshi“sixiangzhongdeyigesixiangweizhi”,yigexiangdangchouxiangdeweizhi。buguanshiphilo-sophiahaishi“weidao”,jiuqiyuanyideluojikenengxingeryan,doushihanyikaifangde。

   qiaomusijicengtandaoyoulianggegenbenwenti,yigeshi“bolatuwenti”: weishenmeshiyixuanwusuoyongyoudecailiaorucizhishaoerchanshengdezhishiquerucizhiduo?lingyigeshi“aoweier(orwell)wenti”: weishenmecailiaorucizhiduoershiyixuanwudezhishiquerucizhishao?(chomsky,《knowledge  of language, its nature, origin, and use》newyork, 1986,pp.27-28)keyishuo,bolatuwentiyinxiangledianxingdezhishilunhezhishilunzhongxindezhexue,danshihouyigewenti——yuqishuoshi“aoweierwenti”haiburushuoshi“sugeladiwenti”laideshenyuanhezhunque——quetongxiangzhihuidezhongxinlijieerbushizhishilun,zheishiyitiaogenghaodezhexuedaolu,danshixianrandaduoshuzhexuejiaxuanzelezhishilundedaolu。buguozaixiandaizhexuedefanpanzhongyouyixiezhexuejiazouxiangleleisisugeladifangxiangdedaolu,ruweitegensitanhedelidadeng。

   zaixiandaizhexuedechedifanpanzhiqian,xilahuashidaizaojiuyouguoyicibuchedidefanpan。bolatuheyalishiduodemenmeinengjiejuezhishidewenti: xinnianhuozheshuoyijianshibukekaode,danshiduiyushiyixuanwubuzhidaodeshiqingyouzhinengyikaoxinnianhuoyijian,ershiyixuanwusuobuzhidaodeshiqingwangwangduizhenggeguannianxitongyouzhejuedingxingyiyi,yushi,zhishilundekunjingbidingdaozhihuaiyilun,erhuaiyilunyoubidingdailaizongjiaoxinyangdejihui,yinweizhishilunsuobunenglijiedeshiqingrucizhongyao,yizhiyubunenghunguoquerzhihaoquxiangxin。zheijiushiyigeyoukaifangdelixingzouxianghuaiyizaizouxiangxinyangdemoshi(canjianlvxiangzai《xilazhexuezhongdezhishiwentijiqikunjing》zhongdelunzheng。hunanjiaoyuban,1992)。

十一选五   youqudeshi,zaixiandaizhexuejiezhukexuedehuihuangdiweizhongjianlezhishilunzhihou,zai20shijiyouzaodaogezhonggeyangdehuaiyi,xianzaidesixiangjidiaoshihuaiyilundehepipande。jidengsikandao,xiandaisixiangsuzhulixingjiushengchanhuaiyi,huaiyichengweixiandaipipanlixingdezhuyaotezheng,bingqie“chongchizairichangshenghuohezhexueyishizhong,xingchengdangdaishehuishijiedeyizhongyibandecunzaixingweidu”,huozheshuo“xiandaixingbajiduandehuaiyiyuanzezhiduhuale”(《xiandaixingyuzishiyixuanwurentong》sanlian98ban,p.3)。“houxiandai”sihuzhengshixiandaidezishiyixuanwujifeng,qiarupengfuchunzaiyipianshangweifabiaodelunwenlisuoshuode: renmenyibanzhuiwen“weishenme”,erhouxiandaihuayuzeshi“weishenmebu”。alisiduofen《yun》juzhongdeerzijiuhen“houxiandai”,tacongsugeladineilixuehuileshiyonglixingjinxingyiqiebianlundebenling,zaiyicioudalefuqinzhihoushuo: “weishenmejiubunengzhidingyizhongxinfalvshideerzikeyioudafuqinni?”(《yun》1420-1424xing)lixingdezhuiwenhewulidejujuezhuiwen、shiyixuanwuhehuaiyitongyangdoushilixingdebiranjieguo。

   shiyixuanwuhaizhuyidao,zaijintian,benlaizaikexuemianqianguangmangsangjindezongjiaoyouduohuileyidingchengdudezunzhong,dangranyouyukexueheshiyixuanwudeshengcuntiaojianyijingtaimiqiexiangguanle,huozheshuoshiyixuanwubudebu“kexuedi”shengcun,yincibukenengwanquanpipankexue。xinyanghuozheleisixinyangdedongxibuzaishijingshendechulu,yinweixinyangduiyuxiandaishenghuolaishuosuonengjiejuedewentitaishaotaixiaole。shiyixuanwukeyikanchuxilacongzhishixingqidaohuaiyiyiqiedebengkuimoshiyuxiandaixingmoshidemouxieleisi,jinguanbingfeiyimoyiyang。xiandaixinghexiandaisixiangyeshizhishitongzhisuodaozhidezhishichongbaihehuaiyidezishiyixuanwujiuchanmoshi,danshiyouyigezhongyaodequbie: zaigudai,renmengaibiansixiangfangshijiukeyizhijiegaibianshengcunfangshi,erzaixiandai,sixiangfangshihendachengdushangyijingwuhuawei“dongbudede”cunzaifangshibenshen,birushuo,shiyixuanwudeshenghuohuamianyijinglibukaikexuezhishihejishuchanpin;birushuo,birenqiangdadeduodezhengzhi、jingjizhidubiandexiangziranliyiyangwukekangju,yushiyousixiangbiangeergaibianshengcunfangshideguochengbiandefeichangfuzahekunnan。

十一选五   xiandaisixiangduixiandaisixiangfangshidezishenfanpansuiranbuzuyigaibianzhenggeshengcunfangshi,danrengranshituchengweiyizhongduizishendeyouxianzhiliao。dangxilarenzaihuaiyizhongguodeluanzaozaoshi,jidujiaojirenmendailaiyizhongxindeshenghuofangshi。zaishenghuofangshixiangdangjiandanshi,xinyangshikefuhuaiyihehunluandeyitiaoyouxiaochulu,yincishoudaohuanying。erdangshenghuofangshibiandepangzaerqiefudanchenzhongshi,xinyangjiubuzaishichulu,gengzhunquedishuo,xiandaideshenghuoyouyutashixiandaihualede,suoyijihubuzaiyourenhechulu。

   suoyizhexuejiahuitaolunyihua、gudu、kunaohejuewang,suoyixinlixuejiahuitaolunbennengdeyayihewenhuaxingdejiaolvhebiantai,suoyishehuixuejiahuitaolunxiandaizhiduzaochengdegezhongduoluohebugong,suoyidajiadourenweicongsixiang、wenhuadaoshehuidoubixuzishiyixuanwupipan,zhengruxuduorendoukandaode,xiandaisixianghewenhua,huozheshuozhenggexiandaixing,conggenshangjiubaohanzhezishiyixuanwupipan。

   xuyaoqiangdiaodeshi,zheizhongwenhuadezishiyixuanwupipanbuzaiyouyitiaowaizaidechulu,suoyitashizhishangshi“zijijizijikanbing”,huozhe,“zijijiaoyuziji”。fenxizhexueduiyuyandejinghua,haidegeerduicunzaideshihua,luodiduirenleitanhuadejiaohua,dengdeng,doushiyaoqiuwenhuadezishiyixuanwuzhiliao。gengmingquetichuzhiliaodeshifuluoyide(xinlizhiliao)heweitegensitan(sixiangzhiliao)。shijishang,zhenggerenwen—shehuikexuezhisuoyixianghuodeguanyurenheshehuidezhishi,jiushixiwangyincinenggouzhidaozenyangquzhiliaorenheshehuidewenhuaxingjibing。

   dangshiyixuanwufaxianxiandaiwenhuadepipanzhinengshizishiyixuanwupipanhuozishiyixuanwuzhiliao,ermeiyoulaizitafangdelingyitiaolu,jiuhenrongyikanchuqizhongshiyigezixunfannaode“zixiangguan”(self-reference,huoreflexivity): shiyixuanwuzenmezhidaoshiyixuanwusuoxiangdaodemougebiaozhunshipipandebiaozhun,jiranmeiyigenenggouxiangdaodebiaozhundoukeyishiyigepipandeduixiang?huozhe,jiarumougebiaozhunqueshishiyigebiaozhun,neimetaruhenenggouzhengmingzishen?bufangzaixiangxiangxiladezhishilunjiejueshiruhebimianzixiangguande,yinwei“shiyixuanwuxiangxin”deshengyinshiyizhongwaizaideshengyin(zhishaozaigongnengshang),tayoukenengyadao“shiyixuanwuzhidao”deshengyin。erxianzai“shiyixuanwuxiangxin”zhibuguoshiyizhongneizaideshengyin,he“shiyixuanwubuxiangxin”shiluojitongdengdeshengyin。suoyiliaotakeyishuochubuxinrensuoyoudaxushi(canjian《houxiandaizhuangtai》),suoyihouxiandaizhibuguoshixiandaideyigeneizaibufen。youyubuzaiyouwaizaichulu,xiandaiwenhuaduizishendezhiliaoyinxiangleyigebukejiuyaodejingdi: youwaizaibiaozhundepipancaishiyouxiaodepipan,danshishiyixuanwuzhiyouzishiyixuanwupipanmeiyoubiede。

   tongyangxuyaosikaodeshi,shiyixuanwusihukeyipipingshuo,xiandaixingbayiqieshiqingheyiqiejiazhidouyihuale。danshizheizhongpipansilutaijiandanle,shishishang,renleijiushizaibuduandeyihuazhongcaizhizaochugezhongshiqingyijigezhongjiazhi,yushi,conglingyifangmianshuo,meiyouyihuajiumeiyoujiazhi(canjianzhuozhu《renzhichangqing》liaoningrenminban,1998)。shiyixuanwuduirenleidelishichengjiutebieshiduixiandaihuashijishangshijihenyouai,shiyixuanwushoubuleyihuadailaidexinlihesixiangyalidanyeyijinglibukaiyihuadailaidelilianghexiangshou。

   zheiyiweizhe,shiyixuanwubujinzaizhishilunshangshibeilunxingde,erqiezaicunzailunshangyeshibeilunxingde,huozheshuo,shiyixuanwudesixiangshibeilunxingde,shiyixuanwudecunzaishishiyeshibeilunxingde。


 

3、知识之外 

   shijimo“zhongjielun”chengfeng,tebiezhumingzheyoufushande《lishidezhongjie》,youyoulehuogende《kexuedezhongjie》。kexuedezhongjiebingbukexin,jibianrenleideshiyan—guanchanenglizongyouyitiandadaojixian(zheiyidiandaoshizhende,renleidenenglibukenengdadaobazhenggeyuzhoubianchengshiyanduixiang),zairenleishiyannenglifanweineirengranyouxuduokexuewenti。lishidezhongjietongyangbukexin,yinweizhengzhibingbujiandezongshishishehuishenghuoguochengzuijulishigandeshiqing,ruguozhengzhijieshule,renleihenkenengyoulingyizhonggengjiayouqudelishiyeweikezhi。hekuangzhengzhisuojuedingdelishiweibijiuzhongjiele。

十一选五   zhexuedezhongjielunshenzhichuxiandegengzaoyixie(jinguanhaoxiangmeiyoubiaodaweiyigejingshihaisudekouhao)。niudunyilaikexuedechengjiushiduizhexuedeyicidaji,renmenkaishijuedezhexuezaishuomingziranfangmianmeiyoutaidadeyiyi,buguozheizhishiyigexiaoxiaodedaji。dao19shiji,zhexuerengranbeikanzuoshirenwenfangmian(shehuikexueyebaokuozainei)dezuigaoxueke,jiuxiangshuxueshikexuefangmiandezuigaoxuekeyiyang。19shijidao20shijideshehuikexuedulihuacaishiduizhexuedechenzhongdaji,kongdedengshehuikexuejiahexuduolishixuejiarenweishehuikexueheshixueyinggaituolizhexue,liyoushizhexuedefeijingyandesibianduijingyanxuekemeiyouhaochu。yushi,zhexuechulejinxingyixieduikexueheshehuikexuedoumeiyouyongdeyuyanyouxijiumeiyoushiqingkezuole。daojintian,jushuozhengzaihuodezilvxingdeshehuikexueduizhexuesuiranrengyouzheyizhongchouxiangdezunzhong,danshijishangdetaiduhenxiangyingyongshuxueduifazhanguoletoudechunshuxuedetaidu——youdeyingyongshuxuejiachaoxiaochunshuxuejiashuo,chunshuxuejianengfaxianrenheqiujiezhongdekunnan,eryingyongshuxuejianengduirenhekunnanqiujie(canjiankelaiyin《shuxue: quedingxingdesangshi》hunankejiban,1997,p.310)。

十一选五   zhexueneibushiwuqianlidefanpanzheshiweitegensitan,tarenweizhengtongdezhexuejihudoushihushuo,yushizhexuejiubianchenglekefuhushuodeluoji—yuyanfenxijishu,jieguosihushi,jiaruzhexuezhihaoleshiyixuanwuhushuodemaobing,zhexuezheimenshouyijiuwanchengshimingle。dangran,youyushiyixuanwuzongshirenbuzhuyaohushuo,suoyizhexuehaihuizhangqicunzai。buguosheidounengkandechulai,zheizhong“zhexue”buzaishizhexuele,yinweitazhibuguopeiyangleyizhonglianghaodetanhuaxiguaneryi,erqie,shiyixuanwushijishanghennanyouyigehaowuyiwendebiaozhunlaiquedingshenmeshizhenzhenghaodetanhuaxiguan。jiaruluojixingyiweizhelianghaodetanhuaxiguan,neimeyekeyiyouliyoujuedeshihuademeixuexingshihaodetanhuaxiguan(ruhaidegeer),yekeyiyouliyoujuedemilinancedewenxuexingshihaodetanhuaxiguan(rudelida),dengdeng。luodizhibuguozonghedibagezhong“xinde、jiaohaode、gengyouqude、gengfuchengxiaodeshuohuafangshi”shuochengshi“jiaohuade”tanlunfangshi,bingqiexiangxinzheijiushizhenzhengyouyiyidezhexue(p.315)。zheixiexingrongcidoufaxudelihai,bazhexueguijiewei“mouzhong”tanhuafangshi,zailuojishangjiukeyiguijiewei“renheyizhong”tanhuafangshi,yushi,suoyoutanhuafangshidounengzhaodaoliyoushuochengshizhexuede。zheizhongsuoweidefazhanyuzhongjiewuyi,zheizhongzhongjieyeshi“xu”deyisheng(ailveteshuo,shijiedezhongjieshixudeyisheng)。

   haowuyiwen,dangzhishidequanliwanquanjiaojilekexueheshehuikexue,zhexuedehanyijiuhuifashenggenbendebianhua。jiranshiyixuanwujianchirenweizhexueshiwenhuadeyigebiyaogongneng,neimejiuxuyaokaochasixianghaijizhexueliuchuleyigeshenmeyangdesixiangweizhi。shiyixuanwuzai《yigehuosuoyouwenti》(jiangxijiaoyuban,1998)yishuzhongzhengshishitutaolunzhexuedelingyizhongkenengxingyijiyoucichanshengdeyixiexinwenti,zheixiexinwentiyuzhishilunwuguan,gengbushijiaohuazhexue。luodizai《zhexueyuziranzhijing》jieyuchuyouyouyuyudeyifanhuadaoshiyouxiedaoli,tashuo,chuletasuochengrendejiaohuazhexue,yexuhaikenenghuichuxianmouzhongyeyuzhishilunwuguandanyoubutongyujiaohuazhexuedezhexue(canjianp.342)。

   zhengshiyouyuzhexuedeshiyucaishidegezhongxuekebudebucouhuchengnuoyixiekeyidejibenjiashehelilunkuangjia(liruxianzairenmenxihuanzhizedejingjixuejiashe“zhuiqiuliyizuidahuadelixingren”jiushiyigekeyidejiashe,buguogengjiadianxingdibiaoxianchuzhexueshiyudeshirenmenbingmeiyoutongguopipanzheigejiasheerzhaodaobizheigejiashehaodeduodejiashe),yinci,zhexueshiyufanershidexianzaisuoyoujibenjiashewentiyoudouzhongxinzhexuehuale。dangzhishidequanliwanquanjiaojikexueheshehuikexue,shiyixuanwufanerkeyikanqingdaodinaxieshiqingbixushizhexuede,zheijiushi,shiyixuanwuyonglaishengchanzhishideneixiejibenjiashejihudoubukenengyongzhishizhengming(youqishiyixuanwuxianzaizhidaolejishiyoushaoxuxianyanzhishiyeshiyuanyuanbugoude),zheixieluozaizhishizhiwaidejiashedoushizhexuewenti。

   jiandandishuo,zhiyaocunzaizhelixianghexianshi,jiucunzaizhexingweixuanzewenti,dangxingweixuanzewentizhuanbianweisixiangxuanzewentijiuchengweizhexuewenti,huozheshuo,renwenshehuikexuegegexuekeshitutigonggezhongyouzhuyurenleixingweidexiangguanzhishi,zheixiezhishisuoyilaidejibenjiashebingbushiyixiejibenmiaoshu(descriptions)huojishuxingyueding,ershijiazhixingdelijie,yincishehuikexueyongyuanshibuchundezhishi,yongyuanbuhuiyouleisizirankexuedeneizhongxuekezizhuxing,shehuikexuederenheyizhongzhishitongshishiyizhongjiazhiyoudao。ruguoshuokexueyoukenengshizizude,shehuikexuezeshibuzizude,tadejichuqiaqiabushuyushehuikexue,zheizhongkaifangxingyiweizherenleisixiangkongjianlicunzaizheyigeyushehuikexuexiangpeihedesixiangweizhi,ruguomeiyouzheigesixiangweizhi,shehuikexuejiubushiwanzhengdesixiang。zaimouzhongyiyishangshuo,zheigeweizhijiushisugeladiliujizhexuede。

十一选五   yougeyizhimeiyoujiejuedelaowenti: shehuikexueyinjinlehuofamingleyixieleisikexuedefangfa,zheixiefangfadangranyouzhuyushehuikexuefenxichulixianxiangheshuju,danshijinjinrucihaiyuanbunengxingchengyouxiaodejieshihelijie。zheigewentikongpawufaxiangxianzaixuduoshehuikexuejiaxiangxiangdeneiyangtongguoxuekejianlianhequjiejue(canjianhualesitandeng《kaifangshehuikexue》,sanlian97ban)。xuekelianhehuozongheyanjiushizhongyaode,tanenggoucuchengshiyixuanwuduishishideduomianxinghezhengtixingdezunzhongerbimianxinxibuquan,suiranruci,tahaishibunengbaozhengshehuikexuedeyouxiaoxing——jiarushiyixuanwuzhibuguoshibagezhongcuowudekanfazongheqilaile,zenmeban?sihukeyishuoyouyitiao“shehuikexuedecebuzhundingli”: ruguofenkefenlei,jiudaozhixinxibuquanershizhishibuzhunque;erruguozhengtihunzadiqiuzhi,xinxisuiquandanhuodexinxidefangshibuqueding。

   haiyouyigewenti: shehuikexuededuixiangbiaomianshangkanshizhidu、shehuiyunzhuanheshenghuoxianxiangdeng,danzheixiedongxiyeshiyongguannianzuochulaide,suoyishehuikexueyanjiushizhishangshi“guannianduiguannian”erbushi“guannianduishiwu”。guannianduiguannianyiweizheliangzhedoushihuode,yinci,shehuikexueheshehuishishizhijiandeguanxishiyizhonggengjibende、huxiangganshe、huxiangyoudaodeduihua。xianran,shehuikexuedejieshihelijieconggenbenshangshuobukenengshikexuede。

十一选五   shangshushuoming,sixiangzuoweirenleishenghuodezishiyixuanwulijiehezishiyixuanwuyoudao,tashiyigebudebuweizijifuzedechuangzaoxingdeguocheng。ruguoshuozheigezixiangguandeguochengyouyigezuihoudebiaozhundehua,neijiushiwenhuazishendejiankangbiaozhun,jiwenhuashizishenbaochihuolidecaozuofangshi。suoyiwenhuadeshengtaiwentijiushiwenhuadeyuanwenti,zheijiushizhexuewenti。yukexueheshehuikexuebutong,zhexuesikaodebushi“shenmeyangdejiashenenggoushengchanshenmeyangdezhishi”,ershizaigousi“shenmeyangdejiashecainengxingchengsixiangdehuoli”。

十一选五   yincizhexuedefangfayuzhishihepipandefangfayouxiebutong,zhexuebuqujieshishenme,yebuqubianhushenme,zheixiedoushi“jiyujiashede”,zhexuezeshi“guanyujiashede”,keyishuo,zhexuebushiduiyixieguannianlichangdeduanyan(pro-positions),ershiduigezhongguannianlichangdeanpai(dis-positions)——zheizhonganpaibuzaiyouzhishideliyou,yincitayoushiduigezhongguanniandeguanxidechuangzaoxinggousi(com-position)。

   congxiladaozhonggudelishibiaoming,huaiyilunshisixiangshiquqiantu,xinyangyoushisixiangshiquhuoli。xiandaihuaiyilundashimenxianranzhidaozheiyidian,yincitamenxiangzouchuhuaiyilundanyoubudasuanzouxiangxinyang,jieguozhengruluodizongjiede,tamenxuanzeleyouqiuzhifangshiruohuaweitanhuafangshi。keshiwulunshiweitegensitanshidehaishidelidashide,zheixietanhuafangshijinguanxiandaihualehuohouxiandaihuale,quebujiandeqiangguolesugeladidetanhuafangshi,shiyixuanwuyijingzhidao,tanhuabingbunengjiejuewenti,huaiyihepipanyebunengzaijianlileisixinyangdesixiangyituo,yinciyoubiyaosikaoshiyixuanwudesixiangshibushixuyaolingyizhongyanguanghelingyixiewentile。

   dangxiazhexuexuyaosikaodezhengshizenyangzhongxintiwen、sixiangfangshizenyangzhongxingousi、sixiangdemeta-weiduzenyangzhongxinshengcheng。zheibushizhexuezijidewenti,ershiyusuoyoushehuikexuexiangguandewenti。




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