十一选五

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倪梁康: 现象学在中国与中国现象学

时间: 2017-06-21 21:38:49 点击:

摘 要: 现象学在20世纪20年代进入中国,但接受和发展相当缓慢,直到90年代,现象学的全面译介和研究工作才正式开始。当前的现象学研究主要在文本探讨、现象学与本土传统思想的比较研究,以及现象学与其他学科之间的合作与十一选五三个维度上展开。这些研究虽然取得了很大成绩,但仍然存在诸多不足之处。展望未来,现象学有可能在经典阅读、早期现象学运动研究、法国新现象学引介以及现象学与其他学科的深度融合等几个方面取得突破,其中,现象学与中国传统文化的会通具有特殊的意义,借助现象学的四条基本原理即意向性、还原、直观和先天,十一选五可以重新激活中国传统文化的问题意识和思考逻辑,创造性地实现从传统到现代、从历史到当下的过渡。

作 者: 十一选五倪梁康,中山大学哲学系教授(广州510275);方向红,中山大学哲学系教授(广州510275)。

十一选五zihusaierde《luojiyanjiu》1900nianchubanyilai,xianxiangxueyundongyijingzouwanle116niandelvcheng。zaizheiyigeduoshijideshijianli,xianxiangxuecongyigezhexuejiadegouxiangbianchengleyigexuepaideyanjiugangling,congyigedeguodifangxingdelilunbianchengleyigehengkuajidaixuezhedeshijiexingzhexueyundong。husaierkaipidezheipianxianxiangxuetudiyunyuchulehaidegeer、shele、jiadamoer、sate、meiluopangdi、leweinasi、delida、like、maliwengdengyipizhexuedashi,ruguomeiyoutamen,20shijidezhexueyidinghuianranshise。zhengshiyouyujidaixianxiangxuejiadenuli,xianxiangxuezaiduiyishi、cunzai、zishiyixuanwu、taren、shijian、kongjian、ganzhi、zhiguan、lixing、qinggan、yuwang、jiazhi、ziyou、shenti、shijie、lishidengzhongyaozhexuewentideyanjiushangjiechulefengshuodechengguo;zhengshiyouyutamenqianfuhoujidepipan,xianxiangxuecaicongyishizhexuezhuanxiangcunzaizhexue,jinerwanchengyuyanxuezhuanxiang、renleixuezhuanxiang、shentizhuanxiang、tazhezhuanxiang、shenxuezhuanxiangdengdeng。xianxiangxuedezheixiechengjiuyuxianxiangxueduilishichuantonghexianshiwentidehuiyingshimibukefende,youcichanshengchuyilianchuandefangfalunbiangehelilunxingtupo,ruxianxiangxuehaiyuan、cunzailunhaiyuan、benzhizhiguan、fanchouzhiguan、shengcunlunfenxi、jieshixuexunhuan、beijiyuxinglilun、jiegouzhuyidengdeng。zheixiebiangehetupoyichuzhexue,yijinghuozhengzaixiangjiaoyuxue、shehuixue、xinlixue、faxue、jingshenbingxue、hulixue、jianzhuxue、wulixue、jiyingongcheng、rengongzhineng、yishudengxuekelingyushentoubingduizheixiexuekechanshenglezhongyaoyingxiang,shenzhiyoucicuishengchuxindejiaochaxueke,rujiaoyuxianxiangxue、shehuixianxiangxue、cunzaixinlixue、yishuxianxiangxueshenzhiwulixianxiangxuedengdeng。

xianxiangxuezhisuoyiyouruciqiangdadefanzhili,yuanyutazaichuangshirenhusaierneilijiuyiqueliqilaidejitiaojibenyuanli: yixiangxing、haiyuan、zhiguanyuxiantian。yixiangxingshiyishidegenbentezheng,tabiaomingleyishizhongcunzaizheyizhonggongshuyitideliangleiyaosuhuolianggezuchengbufen: yixianghuodongheyixiangxiangguanxiang,yonghusaierdehualaishuo,yishizongshiguanyumouwudeyishi。duiyishidezheiyijiegoudefaxianjuyouzhongyaodelilunyiyi,tatupoledikaerde“shiyixuanwusi”delilunmoxing,taxuanbulejindaizhexueyilaizaizhutizhongxunzhaojizhiheyuandiandelixiangshiyitiaocuowudedaolu,tabalaibunicipingqitiancaidui“weizhijue”defaxianyinxiangshenru,jiangqianyishi、wuyishiyijifeijuechadeyishidenggainianyinruyishi,congerchedibiangeleshiyixuanwuduiyishidekanfa。

十一选五yixiangxingdezheigejiegouxudehaiyuancainengzhanxianchulai,haiyuanbingbushixiaomiehecuihui,tajinjinyiweizheyizhonglixingshangdezilvhejiezhi: duiyubushijueduiwuyidedongxibaochicunerbulundezitai。duixianshizhonghuolishishangdeyiqiegetizhiwuhuoshijiandenapayisidehuaiyidourangshiyixuanwujuexinjiangtamenzhiyukuohaozhong,duitamendecunzaiyufoubuzuopinglun,shiyixuanwuzhiguanxintamensuolishudeleihuobenzhi,zheiyangbianshixianlebenzhihaiyuan。ruguoshiyixuanwugengjinyibu,xuanzhigetizhiwuhuoshijianhuodongyuqishangdexianshishijiehelishishiyubenshen,duitamendecunzaiyufouhejiazhigaodibuzuopanduan,shiyixuanwubianwanchenglexianyanhaiyuan。husaierjiqizhihoudexianxiangxuejiafaxian,wulunzenmehaiyuan,yixiangxingzhongdejiegouzongshihanyoulianggeyaosuqiegongshuyitide,butongdeshi,meicihaiyuanzhihoudejutiyaosubingbuyiyang。benzhihaiyuandailaideshibenzhiheyixianghuodongjiqigongshuyitideguanlian,xianyanhaiyuantigongdeshichuncuizishiyixuanwuhetiyanliuyijitamenwufaqiegedeliandong,cunzailunhaiyuangaosushiyixuanwu,cunzaizongshicunzaizhedecunzai,ercunzaizhezongshicunzaidecunzaizhe,shentihaiyuanyinchushenti—zishiyixuanwuheshenti—shijielianggeduizi,jiyuxinghaiyuanwajuechujiyu—beijiyuzheigeguanchuanqitasuoyouguanliandeguanlian。

zheixieguanliankeyitongguoyuhaiyuanxiangbanershengdezhiguandedaomingjianxingdezhengming。benzhihaiyuandailaideshiduibenzhidezhiguan,yiqielishuyubenzhidelei、zhongheshudoukeyizaitajieyixianshizishendegetiduixiangbeizhiyukuohaozhizhonghouweiyishisuozhiguan。zheilidezhiguanbuyingbeizirantaidulijieweidanchundeyicixingkandao,eryingxianghusaiersuodongchadaodeneiyang,beishiweilianggexingweidetongshifasheng,jihanyiyixiangdedaochongshi。dangmouxietiyanchongshilemougehanyiyixiang,yejiushishuo,chongshilemougelei、zhonghuoshudeshihou,shiyixuanwubianshuo,shiyixuanwuzhiguandaozheigelei、zhonghuoshule。genjuzheigelijie,zhexueshishangyigeyiyishenyuandetupobianhuzhiyuchule: baokuo“shi”zaineidesuoyoufanchouyeshikeyiweishiyixuanwuzhiguande。husaier《luojiyanjiu》zhi“diliuyanjiu”zhichu,benzhizaidedaotiyandechongshizhihoukeyizuoweijichuyonglaichongshigenggaojiedefanchou,fanguolaishuo,fanchouzuoweihanyiyixiangkeyiweibenzhisuochongshi——jinguanbenzhibenshenyexuyaotiyanlaichongshi。zheiyixianxiangwanquanfuhezhiguandedingyi: zhiguanjiushiduihanyiyixiangdechongshi。zheigecengmiandezhiguanjiushihusaiersuoweidefanchouzhiguan。duifanchouzhiguandekending,duiyujindaizhexueeryan,dapolekangdeguanyufanchoubunengzhiguandejinling;duiyuhusaierlaishuo,kaiqilexianyanxianxiangxuedehefaxing;duiyuhaidegeerlaishuo,duicizaideshengcunlunfenxihuodelexuelishangdebaozhang;duiyufaguoxianxiangxuelaishuo,tashixianxiangxuedezhuzhongzhuanxiangbuyaneryudeqianti。

十一选五xianxiangxueguanzhushengming,qiangdiaotiyan,jianchirenweizaixianxiangdebeihouyiwusuoyou,danxianxiangxuebingbuyincijiuleitongyushiyongzhuyi、xianxiangzhuyiheshengmingzhexue。xianxiangxuejuyouzishendedutexing,zheijiushitaduixiantianderenke,duixiantianlundegoujianhezhengming。jinguanzaixianxiangdebeihouyiwusuoyou,danchengruhaidegeersuoyan,neiyinggaichengweixianxiangdedongxiquemeiyouxianxianchulai。biaoxianghejiaxiangshengxing,weiyoutongguohaiyuan,jiangqizhiyukuohaozhizhong,shiyixuanwucaineng“huidaoshishibenshen”,huidaoneijinjinlaizizishenerjuebulaizijingyandexiantianzhiwu。zheizhongxiantianzhiwu,zaihusaierneilishibenzhihuoaiduosi,zaihaidegeerneilishicunzaizhedecunzaihecunzaibenshen,zaisateneilishicunzaihexuwu,zaimeiluopangdineilishishentihuorou,zaileweinasineilishitazhe,zaidelidaneilishibukejiegoude“guoxianyanxing”,zaimaliwengneilishibeijiyuxing。jinguantamenshirucibutong,dantamenyouyigegongtongdetedian,jitamenbujinbushilaizijingyandeleijihechouxiang,fanershishiyixuanwuyiqiejingyandeyikenengdeqianti。

daizhezheixiebingfuhetezhi,xianxiangxuelaidaozhongguo。

一、现象学在中国的接受和传播

xianyupianfuhezhuzhi,benjiejinjintijihusaierhehaidegeerdexianxiangxuezaizhongguojieshouhechuanbodejigezhuyaojiedian。yibuwanzhengdeguanyuxianxiangxueyundongzhuliupaijiqidaibiaorenwuzaizhongguodejieshoushi,muqianshangweiwenshi。buguo,guanyuyishizhexue、cunzaizhexuehejieshixuesandaliupaizaizhongguodejieshouhechuanboqingkuang,kecanyuezhangxianglongdeng: 《xianxiangxuesichaozaizhongguo》,beijing: shoudoushifandaxuechubanshe,2011nian。

十一选五xifangzhexuejinruzhongguorendeshiyeshiyujindaizhumingfanyijiayanfu(1854—1921),tayu1896nianjianghexulide《jinhualunyulunlixue》xuanyiweizhongwenbingyi《tianyanlun》weimingchuban。zaiqihoudeshushiniannei,yidapixiandaixifangzhexuezhuzuo,ruyizhizhuyi、shiyongzhuyi、shizhengzhuyiheshengmingzhexuedengdeng,youlezijidehanyuyiben,bingyu20shijishangbanyezaizhongguochanshenglejudadeyingxiang。

十一选五xianxiangxuezaizhongguodejieshouqibuxiangduijiaowanqiejinzhanxiangdanghuanman。20shiji20niandai,yixiezhongguoxuezheruzhangdongsun(1886—1973)dengzaizijidezhuzuozhongduihusaierdeyixiejibenguandianyijingyousuotiji,shenzhizaigebiexuezheneiliyouyixiegengweixitongdelunshu,danzheixiejieshaozhuyaojiyudangshiribendexianxiangxueyanjiuerfeizhijieyijudeguodexianxiangxueyundong。

zai20shijishangbanye,yuribenxiangbi,zhongguoyanjiudeguoxianxiangxuedexuezhekeweifengmaolinjiao。quzhishulai,paizaishouweidedangtuixiongweixiansheng(1911—1994),tashuyuzhongguodiyidailiuxuedeguoxuexixianxiangxuederen。tayu30niandailaidaodeguofulaibaodaxue,canjiahaidegeerdeyantaobanhejiangzuobingshenshouqisixiangfangshideyingxiang。huiguohou,xiongxianshengzhanzhuanyuduosuodaxue,zuihouzaibeijingdaxuerenjiao,chengweihaidegeeryanjiudeyidaizongshi。tashiguoneijieshaohefanyihaidegeersixiangdiyiren,yepeiyang、yingxiangleyipihaidegeersixiangdeyanjiuzhehefanyizhe,haidegeerzuopindehanyijuedabufenchuzitadexueshenghuozhuisuizhezhishou。

十一选五yuxiongweitongshiqizaifulaibaodezhongguoxueshenghaiyouliangwei: yiweishixiaoshiyi,tazai1946nianyuhaidegeeryiqichangshibalaozide《daodejing》yichengdeyu,hourenjiaoyutaibeifurendaxue。lingyiweishishenyouding,tadelunwenshifenkedaibiaohusaierzhidaode,takenengbaifangguotuixiuhoudehusaier,huiguohouxianhouzaiqinghuadaxuehezhongguoshehuikexueyuangongzuo。

cong30niandaimoqi,zhongguodexianxiangxueyanjiujijintingzhi,zhiyouxiangganghetaiwanyouyulishiyuanyinerchengweiliwai。congdaluyijutaiwandingjuzaitaibeidemouzongsanxiansheng(1909—1995)shi20shijizuizhongyaoderujiasixiangjiazhiyi,tayu50niandaikaishizuanyanshicunzhexuebingyincierduixianxiangxueyousuoshelie。husaierxianxiangxuedediyigezhongwenyibenxuanyile《ouzhoukexuedeweijiyuchaoyuelundexianxiangxue》dediyihedierbufen,yu1980nianwenshi,yizheweiyijutaiwandehuqiuyuan(1910—2004)。

gaigekaifangyihou,youqishi80niandaiyilai,xuduoduixifangzhexueganxingqudexueziyuanfuoumeixuexixianxiangxue,zheiqizhongyebaokuoxiongweidedizimen。dao90niandaimo,zaiguoneihuoguowaishouguozhuanyexunliandexinyidaixianxiangxueyanjiuzhekaishizhanlutoujiao。1994nian,zheixiexuezhezuzhilezhongguodiyicixianxiangxuehuiyibingchenglilezhongguoxianxiangxuezhuanyeweiyuanhui,zheigetuantidingqijubannianhui,dingqichubanniankan《zhongguoxianxiangxueyuzhexuepinglun》;1996nian,xianggangxianxiangxuehuichengli,zhizailiyongxianggangteshudediliweizhihexueshukaifangzhengceweikuawenhuahekuaxuekedeyanjiutigongpingtai,2004nian,《xianxiangxueyurenwenkexue》zazhizaitaibeichuban,chengweixianggangxianxiangxuejiedehexinkanwu;zaitaiwan,yixiexianxiangxuedeyanjiujigouhezhongxinxianhouchengli。congciyihou,dalu、xiangganghetaiwandexianxiangxuejiezhubuzhankaiyuelaiyuemiqiedehezuoheshiyixuanwu。

二、现象学在中国的研究现状

十一选五zhonghuawenhuaquanneixianxiangxueyanjiudejinzhanzhuyaoshiyoudisandaihedisidaizhongguoxianxiangxuezhementuidongde,tamenfenbuzaigezhuyaogaoxiaohuoyanjiujigou,congxiamiandejieshaozhongshiyixuanwudazhikeyikanchutamendexueshuzhiqujiqiduixianxiangxuedegongxian。zheiliangdaiyanjiuzheweishuzhongduo,chengguopofeng、gongxianshendazheyibushao,danyihandeshi,xianyupianfu,dalufangmianzheilizhinengtijizhongguoxianxiangxuezhuanyeweiyuanhuigeweiweiyuandeyanjiufangxiang。 jiudalueryan,zaibeijingdaxue,jinxipingzhuyaozhiliyuhusaier、haidegeerheguxilazhexuedeyanjiu,zhangxianglongbujinjinxingxianxiangxuedewenxianshuli,erqiejiangxianxiangxuedejingshenguanchedaozhongguochuantongzhexuedeyanjiuzhizhong,chenjiaying、wangqingjiedehaidegeer《cunzaiyushijian》fanyijuegongshenwei,duxiaozhenzhuanzhuyufaguoxianxiangxuedefanyihequanshi,wuzengdingzebingxingyuxianxiangxuehezhengzhizhexueliangtiaodaolu;zhongguorenmindaxuedezhangzhiweizhuanzhuyucongkangdedaohaidegeerdedeguosixiangchuantongshuli;zaifudandaxue,zhangqingxiongchangshicongxianxiangxuechufaduimakesizhuyi、fenxizhexuehezongjiaojingyandengduogelingyuneidezhutizhankailunbian,dingyunzaiguanzhuxianxiangxuedetongshikaishizhuanxiangzhengzhizhexuedeyanjiu;zaizhongshandaxue,niliangkangyibianyanjiuxianxiangxue,yibianzaixianxiangxueyuzhongguoheyinduchuantongwenhuazhijiandeguanxishangtourujudajingli,zhuganghefangxianghongzaidefaxianxiangxuelianggelingyutongshizhankaiyanjiu;zaitongjidaxue,sunzhouxingdehaidegeerhenicaideyanjiuyufanyichengguofeiran,kexiaogangyikaishichangshijiangxianxiangxuerongruchuantongsixiangyuwenhua;zaihuazhongkejidaxue,dengxiaomangcongdeguoweixinlunzhuanxiangxianxiangxue,zhangtingguozhuanzhuhusaierxianxiangxuedefanyiheyanjiu;zaizhejiangdaxue,pangxuequandalituijieh.shimicidexinxianxiangxue,yangdachunzejujiaoyufaguoxianxiangxue;zaixianjiaotongdaxue,zhangzailinjiangxianxiangxueyuwenhuazhexuejinxingjiajie;zailanzhoudaxue,chenchunwenfanyibingzhongxinjieduhaidegeerdexianxiangxue;zaihainandaxue,zhangzhiyangliyongxianxiangxuehaiyuanfansiguxilakaiduanzhijinkexuezhuyiyiyiguanzhideziranlixingdeshuangzhongzhebixing;zaishangwuyinshuguan,chenxiaowenzaidalituidongxianxiangxuechubanshiyedetongshizhankaihaidegeerzhuzuodefanyiheyanjiu。

十一选五jiutaiwaneryan,zaizhengzhidaxue,wangwenshengjizhongtanjiuhusaierhehaidegeerdexianxiangxue,caizhengyunjiangxianxiangxueyuhouxiandailianxizaiyiqi,luolijunzhuanzhuyuhusaierdexianxiangxue,yingnianzaoshidezhangdingguoliuxiayibujiantaijingdangdexianxiangxuejieshixueyanjiuwenji;zaizhongshandaxue(gaoxiong),youcongqizaixianxiangxue、shehuililunhewenhualilunsangelingyutongshizhankaiyanjiu;zaiqinghuadaxue,huangwenhongguanzhuhusaierhefenkedexianxiangxuejiqiyuxitianjiduolangzhexuedeguanxi,wujunyedexingqudianzeconghusaierjingguohaidegeeryizhiyanshendaomeiluopangdi。

十一选五jiuxianggangeryan,zaixianggangzhongwendaxue,zhangcanhuiheguanziyinduideguoxianxiangxueyouzhuanmendeyanjiu,liuguoyingjujiaoyufaguoxianxiangxue,wangqingjietongshizaixianxiangxuehezhongguochuantongwenhualianggelingyuzheli,yaozhihuazeyonggongyuxianxiangxuehefojiao。

juedabufenzhongyaodexianxiangxuezhuzuodouyiyichenghanyu,yixiejingdianxianxiangxuejia,ruhusaier、haidegeer、shele、satehemeiluopangdideng,tamenyouxierendezuopinshengqianjiuyiyichengzhongwen,tamendequanjifanyiyoudeyijinglierujihua,youdeyijingkaishi,zheixiefanyizuopinshenshouxueshenghexuezhemendehuanying。

zaihanyuwenhuaquan,xianxiangxuedeyingxiangriyizengzhang,zheizhongyingxiangshenzhicongzhexueyichudaoqitaxueke。zi1978nianyilai,jinzaidaluchubandexianxiangxuezhuanzhujiuchaoguo100bu,cong2000niankaishi,fabiaozaigejigeleiqikanzazhishangdexianxiangxueyanjiuwenzhanghelunwenmeinianbuxia100pian,zheiyilingyudeshuobolunwenshuliangyezaichixuzengzhang。henduodaxuekaizhanxianxiangxuefangmiandeyanjiuhejiaoxue,zaiguoqudewunian,you40duoxiangxianxiangxueyanjiuketidedaolezhengfuzizhu。muqian,kuaxuekedeyanjiuyijingkuozhandaowenxue、lishi、falv、yinle、yixuehejiaoyudenglingyu,yishuxuehejianzhuxuedezhuanjiashenzhiyijingyuxianxiangxuejiamenjuxingguojicilianhehuiyile。

十一选五dangqiandexianxiangxueyanjiuzhuyaozaisangeweidushangzhankai。diyi,duixianxiangxuewenbenhewenxiandekaochahetantao。zheixianggongzuozhuyaobaokuoduixianxiangxuezhongyaodeyishouheershouwenxiandeshulihechanshibingduixianxiangxuedechuantongwentizhongxinjinxingfansiheshencha,chucizhiwai,tahaibaokuoduiguojixianxiangxuejiezuixinfaxiandexianxiangxuewenxiandeguanzhujiqitaolunrediandecanyu。xiangxinchudehusaierhehaidegeerdeshougao、jiangzuogaohuoshuxinjidefanyihejieshi,duihaidegeer“heipishu”depingjia,duik. held, r. bernet, d. lohmar, d. welton, d. zahavi, jl. mariondengrenzhuzuohuolunwendefanyihejieshaodengdengdoushuyuzheigeweidu。

dier,xianxiangxueyubentuchuantongsixiangdebijiaoxingyanjiu。zheizhongyanjiuzhuyaoyuzhongguochuantongwenhuaziyuanjirufodaoxiangguan,liru,bahusaierxianxiangxueyuweishixueherujiaxinxingzhexuelianjiezaiyiqideyanjiu,zaihaidegeerjichucunzailunyudaojia、foxueheruxuezhijianzhankaideduihua,zailunlixuehedaodezhexueshangjiangshele、meiluopangdiyurujiajinxingbijiaodechangshi,yijijiangdaojiayufaguoxianxiangxuejinxinghuzhenghukandenulidengdeng。

disan,xianxiangxueyuqitaxuekezhijiandehezuoheshiyixuanwu,youqishiwenxueyishuhezirankexueduixianxiangxuefangfadeyingyong。zaizhongguo,xianxiangxueyuyishulilun、jianzhuxueyijikexuezhexuehekexueshizhijiandexianghujiejianheqifayijianchengfengqi。bujinruci,xianxiangxuefangfaxianzaihaichangchangyongyuxinlixue、zhengzhixue、faxue、shehuililun、wenyililunhejiaoyuxuedengxuekeshang。

十一选五suiranjinsanshinianyilai,zhongguodexianxiangxueyanjiuzaiguangduheshendushangyiyoujidadetisheng,danrengrancunzaiyixiebuzuzhichu。shouxian,jingdianxianxiangxuejiaquanjidewanzhengfanyiyuchubanshangxushiri,yixiekanchengjingdiandeershouwenxianfanyichenghanyudejiaoshao,genghuanglunneixieziyangzhexianxiangxuemingzhudetongshidaiqitaxuezhedezhuzuole——meiyouneixiezhoubianxingdezhuzuo,meiyouneixiezhuzuosuojifadesikaohebianlun,zheixiemingzhubukenengpingkongchansheng。zheiyangdeshuofayexutaichouxiang,shiyixuanwuzheilijujigelizi: 《husaierquanji》muqianyichubanzhi40juan,yichenghanyudebudaobanshu,《husaierquanji》“cailiaojuan”yichuban8ji,“danganjuan”yeyou4juanmianshi,shangmeiyourenheyijichubanlezhongyiben;zaixianxiangxuejiewenmingxiaerde“xianxiangxuecongshu(phenomenologica)”muqianyichuban200duobu,fanyichengzhongwendebuchaoguo10bu;《haidegeerquanji》debianpaiyidazhi102juan,dewenbanyichuban90duojuan,zhongwenbanmuqianzhiyou20duojuanwenshi。kexideshi,husaier、haidegeer、meiluopangdidengzhongyaoxianxiangxuejiadewenjihanyiyijinglieruguojiazhongdaxiangmu,haiyouyixiexianxiangxuejiarushele、leweinasidengdewenjizhengjihuashenqingguojiazhongdaxiangmu。xiangxinweilaizheifangmiandegongzuohuiyouzhangzudejinbuhekeguandefazhan。

qici,xianxiangxueyuzhongguozhexuedebijiaoyanjiuzaoyikaishibingyiqudeyidingdechengjiu,danzongtieryan,zheizhongbijiaohaishixiangduiwaizaide,youshihouxiandeyouxieqianqiangfuhui,yuzhenzhengyiyishangdezhongxihuitongxiangjushenyuan,yiliangji《zhongguoxianxiangxueyuzhexuepinglun》weili,chugebiewenzhangyiwai,2003nianchubandediwuji“xianxiangxueyuzhongguowenhua”yiji2015nianchubandedishiliuji“xianxiangxueyuzhongguosixiang”zhongdedaduoshulunwendatishangjiushizheizhongzhuangkuangdefanying。

zuihou,yixianxiangxueweifangfalunjichudekuaxuekeshiyixuanwuyechuxianleleisideqingkuang。shiyixuanwuyijingtichuleyishuxianxiangxue、jishuxianxiangxue、jianzhuxianxiangxue、jiaoyuxianxiangxue、lishixianxiangxue、kexuexianxiangxue、falvxianxiangxue、xianxiangxueshehuixuedengdengzheixiejiaochaxuekemingcheng,yeyijingkaizhanlexiangdangduodeyanjiugongzuo,danyouyujiaoyutizhidewenti,xuekezhijianbileisenyan,yanjiuzhedexuekeshiyeshoudaoyanzhongxianzhi,zhangwoxianxiangxuelilunhefangfaderenquefaxiangguandejiaochaxuekedezhishichubei,fanguolai,xiangguanxuekedeyanjiuzheduixianxiangxueyezhizhishenshao,zheishidexianxiangxuedelilunchengjiuhefangfalunchuangxinzaixiangqitaxuekezhuanyiheduijiedeguochengzhongjingchangfashengcuoweihewudu,zheizaiguoneizhaokaideliciyishuxianxiangxuehejianzhuxianxiangxuedenghuiyishangbiaoxianzuiweimingxian。

三、中国现象学展望

xiamianbizhejiehezhongguoxianxiangxuefazhandechengjiuhebuzuduizhongguoxianxiangxueweilaidezhuzhongkenengzouxiangtichujidianzijideqianjian。

十一选五diyi,zhongdujingdian,wajuexinyi。jishixianghusaierde《luojiyanjiu》hehaidegeerde《cunzaiyushijian》zheiyangyiwenshiduoniandehanyimingzhu,qineizaideyiyihejiazhibingbuhuiyinweishiyixuanwuyueduguojibianjiuwanquanhaojin。husaierzai《luojiyanjiu》diyijuanzhongduixinlizhuyidepipanbujinrangrenxiangqidangdaiziranzhuyihehaiyuanzhuyidehengxing,husaierdeshijiaohesilushifoukeyizhuanyongyuduitamendepipan?cong《luojiyanjiu》de“diyiyanjiu”zhongdanshengledelidadejiegouzhuyi,haidegeercong“diliuyanjiu”chufajianliqijichucunzailunheshengcunlunfenxidehefaxing,zheilianggeyanjiuduiyushiyixuanwuyiweizheshenme?maliwengzhongdu“diliuyanjiu”,jingranjiangzhiguangaizaowei“beijiyu”congerwanchengleduihaidegeer“cunzailunhaiyuan”dehaiyuan,zheiyidianqifashiyixuanwu,shendudeyueduyexuhuiyouyixiangbudaodeshouhuo。ruhelijieqitasigeyanjiu?qizhongguanyuchouxiangyudaixian、zhengtiyubufen、duliduixiangyubuduliduixiangzhijiandeguanxizaihanyuxuejiemeiyoudedaozugoudeguanzhu。《cunzaiyushijian》zhongdeyalishiduodexiangdu、renleixuexiangdu、zongjiaoxiangdu、yizhizhexuehejingshenfenxixuexiangdudouyibeiduchu,shiyixuanwugaizenyangyuedu?nandaorengrantingliuzaiduiyucunzaiyucunzaizhe、benzhenyufeibenzhen、lishiyulishi、weiyupadejinjinledaodequfen?qitajingdianzuopinyeyingzuorushiguan。

十一选五dier,zhongshizaoqixianxiangxueyundongdeyanjiu。zaoqixianxiangxueyundongbingfeihusaier、haidegeerhesheledesanrenxing,ershiyouyipicaihuahengyidexuezhegongtongtuidongde,tamenzaizijidelingyuduixianxiangxuedeyixiemingtihuojieluntichulezhiyihuojichuxindejiejuefangan,raneryouyutamenzhangqichuyuhusaierhehaidegeerdeyinyingzhixia,yizhitamendesixianghenshaoweizhongguoxuezheguanzhu,qizuopinzaihanyuxueshuquanneiyejiaoshaochuxian。yixiexianxiangxuetuanti,xianggetinggenxuepai、muniheixuepai、fulaibaoxuepaideng,tamendexueshufenggeshiyixuanwuhaibunengzhunquedimiaoshu,yixiexuezherua.pufandeer,a.leinahe,m.gaige,a.kewaleideng,tamendechuangzaoxinggongzuohaibuweishiyixuanwusuozhi,shenzhihusaierdejigezhumingdexueshenghuozhushou,rue. shitaiyin,r. yinjiadeng,l. landegeleibei, e. fenkedeng,guoneiduitamendeyanjiucaiganggangkaishi。

disan,yinjiefaguoxinxianxiangxue。“faguoxinxianxiangxue”shiyiguzhumingxianxiangxuezhel.tenggeeryi(l. tengelyi)duifaguodisandaixianxiangxuejiadetongcheng,zheiyichenghaodaibiaozhexianxiangxueyundongzaidangqianjieduandezuixinjinzhanhezuigaochengjiu。yisatehemeiluopangdiweidaibiaodefaguodiyidaixianxiangxuejiawanchengleduideguoxianxiangxuedejieshou、tuozhanhegaizao,yidelida、leweinasihelikeweiqishoudedierdaixianxiangxuejiazaicijichushangtichulequanxindexianxiangxuegainian,tupolechuantongxianxiangxuedejibenmingtihefangfa,jidadikuozhanlexianxiangxuedeyanjiulingyuheyingyongfanwei。daole20shiji80niandai,yipixindexianxiangxuejiatuoyingerchu,daizhexindehuayuzouruxianxiangxueyundongzheigewutaidezhongyang,ru“xianxiangxuedeshenxuezhuanxiang”shuo(jeanluc marion)、xianxiangxuede“jingshenfenxipuxixue”(michel henry)、“yiyidezidonggoucheng”lun(marc richir)、“shijiandefencha”shuo(dominique janicaud)、“xianxiangxuedeshixuxue”(franoise dastur)、“xianxiangxuedeyishulun”(liane escouba)dengdeng,zheixiexindegainianhecihuibeihoushizhengzhengyidaizhexuejiadezijuenuli: duixianxiangxuedebianjiejinxingfanfukantan,baxianxiangxuedejibengainiantuixiangjiduan,zhongxinshenshixianxiangxuedejibenfangfa,yiciweijichu,duichuantongzhexueyouqishixingershangxuejinxingfansihepipan,shituzouchuyitiaojibutongyuchuantongfanshiyoujujuehouxiandaifangandedaolu。

disi,tuijinxianxiangxueyuqitaxuekedeshenduronghe。jiangzhengzaijinxingzhongdexuekejiehe,ruyishuxianxiangxue、jianzhuxianxiangxue、jiaoyuxianxiangxue、jishuxianxiangxuedengdeng,bianchengyoujideronghe,rangxianxiangxuezhenzhengweixiangguanxuekedezhutilunzhenghelilunchuanglitigongfangfalunshangdezhidaoherenshilunshangdezhichi;jiejianhaiwaixuezhederonghesiluhelinian,tichubinglunzhengxianxiangxueyuxinxingxuekenaizhishehuihuodonghuoxianxiangxiangjiehedekexingxingheshixianlujing,liru,mianduixinxingxuekehuozhejiyouxuekedexinjinzhan,shiyixuanwukefoutichujiyingongchengxianxiangxue、xunixianshixianxiangxue、naokexuexianxiangxue、shenjingkexuexianxiangxue?mianduishehuixianshizhongmouxieteshudehuodonghuoxianxiang,shiyixuanwukefoujinxingxiangguandexianxiangxueyanjiu,liru,yexushiyixuanwukeyijienabingzhankaiduibaolixianxiangxue、canjixianxiangxue、hulixianxiangxue、linzhongguanhuaixianxiangxue、juanzengxianxiangxue、xianxiangxuezhiliaodengxuekedeyanjiu。shangshuzheixiexuekemingchengyoudeshangweichengxing,youdezaimeiguo、ribenhezhongguotaiwandengguojiahuodiquzaoyichuxianbingchanshenglexiangdangchengshudelilunheshijian。

xianxiangxueyumakesizhuyideronghejuyouteshudeyiyi,shijishang,jiangxianxiangxueyumakesizhuyixiangjiehedesiluyoulaiyijiu。xianxiangxuezhenyingzhongzuiyoujianshuzhedangtuisate、meiluopangdihedelida,danshi,ruheliyonghanyuxianxiangxuedeziyuanmianduimakesizhuyizaizhongguodejieshixuechuantongbingyoucijianlijiyuzhongguojingyandexianxiangxuemakesizhuyi,zheishiyigesuiranjiannanquezhideqidaideketi,yinweizaizheilijiyoukenengchanshengjidongrenxindefaxian,erzheixiefaxianhuifanguolaiyingxiangxianxiangxuehemakesizhuyi。

diwu,cujinxianxiangxueyuzhongguochuantongwenhuadehuitong。zheishizuihouyidian,yeshizuizhongyaodeyidian。xianxiangxueduiyuzhonghuawenhuaquanyouzheguangfandexiyinli。jiufangfaluneryan,“huidaoshishibenshen!”dekouhaoyuzhexueduiyuanchuangxingsikaodejibenyaoqiuwanquanyizhi;zuoweiyimenjutidegongzuozhexue,xianxiangxuezaiqizhexueyanjiuzhongtigongleyigejinxingduihuahetaolundegonggongpingtai;youyuxianxiangxuedefangfabazhexuejianlizaiduizhijiezhiguandefenxizhishang,tatidaileduijingzhililunhechouxianggainiandejiangou;yangedeshishimiaoshuhefenxishixianxiangxuedujutesedesixiangfangfa,tarangrenyizuijianjiedefangshiqiejindiguanzhuwentibenshen。

jiuzhutiheneirongeryan,xianxiangxueshouxianbeikanzuoshiyimenyishizhexue,zheigeguandianyuhusaierdeyuanbenxiangfashiyizhide。husaierdezheitiaojinlubujinzaiouzhouchuantongzhexueyuneizaixingzhexuehuoxinlingzhexuezhijianjiaqileqiaoliang,erqieshixianxiangxueyuzhongguodelianggebentusixiang,jifojiaodeweishixueherujiadexinxinglun,youkenengjianlilianxi;xianxiangxuetongshiyebeikanzuoshiyimencunzaizhexue,haidegeerduicunzai、zaishi、benyou、shijianheyuyandengdengdesikaoyuzhongguodedaojia、foxueheruxuezhijianyouzhetianrandeqinhexing;qishi,xianxiangxuehaikebeikanzuoshiyimenlunlixue,sheledejiazhizhexueyurujiaduijiazhizhixudetuichongyiquertonggong;zuihou,xianxiangxueyeshiyimenyishuzhexue,faguoxianxiangxuejiadeyishulilunhekongjianxueshuoyudaojiasixiangsuishubutongshidai,danrengranjirenyizhongyaoxianghuyingzhigan。

十一选五suoyouzheixiedourangxianxiangxuezaizhongguozhaodaoshuyutadejingshengongtongti,rangtazuizhongyoukenengzaihanyuwenhuazhongluodishenggen,kaihuajieguo。

xinxingxianxiangxuezhengshizheiyangyiduozhengzaizhanfangdehuaduo。xinxingxianxiangxuecengjingduguoleyigebijiaozhangdeyunyuqi,yigengningheniliangkangweidaibiaodejiantongxianxiangxue、weishixueheruxuedexuezheyilunwen、zhuanzhuhuohuiyidexingshiduisanmenxuewendeguanliangainianzhijiandelianxihequbiezuoguojiliedebianlunheshenrudetantao,qibiaozhixingchengguonongsuoweizuoweixinxingxianxiangxueqianshende“xianxiangxuexinxue”。zheicongniliangkangzhuzuodebiaotizhongkejianyiban。canjianniliangkang: 《xindezhixu: yizhongxianxiangxuexinxueyanjiudekenengxing》,nanjing: jiangsurenminchubanshe,2010nian。 zi2011nianniliangkangfabiaoganglingxinglunwen《xinxingxianxiangxuedeyanjiulingyuyuyanjiufangfa》niliangkang: 《xinxingxianxiangxuedeyanjiulingyuyuyanjiufangfa》,《huadongshifandaxuexuebao》2011niandi1qi。 yilai,xinxingxianxiangxuedehualeikaishizhanfang。2012niandiyijieguojixinxingxianxiangxuezhuantiyantaohuizhengshizhaokai,tongnian,gengningdexinxingxianxiangxuelunwenji《xindexianxiang》chuban,2014niangengningdezhuzuo《renshengdiyidengshi: wangyangmingjiqihouxuelun“zhiliangzhi”》wenshi,guanyuxinxingxianxiangxuedeyanjiuzhuanlankaishichuxian,yipilunwenzheyanyuweiguandegainiangouchengfangshiyuxijiedesiluchengxingguochengduixianxiangxue、weishixueyuruxuedejiaoronghehuitongjinxingshendudeshuli、hukanhepipan,yixiejianjiyusanmenxuewenzhishangdanyouwufaguiruqizhongrenheyimendeyanjiuchengguohelilunchuangjiankaishiyongxian。zaibuyuandejianglai,xinxingxianxiangxueyoukenengzuochuzhongdadelilunchuangxin,shiyixuanwuyouliyouxiangxin,zheiduoxinxingxianxiangxuezhihuazhongjiangjiechufengshuodeguoshi。

十一选五xinxingxianxiangxuedewensilujingweixianxiangxueyuzhongguochuantongwenhuadequanmianjiechutigonglechenggongdefanli,yanzhezheitiaolujing,shiyixuanwukeyichuangjianhuozhongjianyixilieyuchuantongsixiangxiangguanliandejiaochaxueke,ruzhongyixianxiangxue、yixuexianxiangxue、tiandaoxianxiangxue、zhuzixianxiangxue、shufaxianxiangxue、shijingxianxiangxue、chucixianxiangxuedengdeng。dangran,xuyaoshuomingdeshi,zheixiemingchengzhijianbingmeiyouyangedeluojiguanlian,youdeyijingyouxiangguandelunwen,youdehaiweijianduanni,youdexianghuzhongdie,shiyixuanwuzheilibatatichulai,zhizaiqiangdiaoxianxiangxueyuzhongguowenhuafangfangmianmianxiangjiehedekenengxing。

xianzaidewentishi,ruhebazheilidezhongzhongkenengxingzhuanhuaweixianshixingni?ruherangliangzhedebijiaobuzailiuyuxingshierchengweibiciwaizaidepailiezuheni?shiyixuanwuhaishibixujiejianxinxingxianxiangxuedechenggongjingyan,congweiguandejiaoduxianshigainiandegouchengfangshi,congxijiechufakaochasiluhelunzhengdechengxingguocheng,ranhoujinxingshenrudebidui、hukanhepipan,yiqizhijie“mianxiangshishibenshen”。

yexuyourenhuishuo,zheizhongfangfaduiyiqiebijiaoxingdeyanjiudoushiyong,guanjiandewentizaiyuruhedadaozheiyidian。shiyixuanwuxiangshuo,xianxiangxuedeyoushiqiaqiazaiyuzheili。xianxiangxuebujinyuzhongguodechuantongwenhuayouzhexiangjindezhuti,tahaiyouyitaobijinzheixiezhutidejibenyuanzehefangan,zheijiushishiyixuanwuzaiwenzhangyikaishibiantijibinglvejiashuomingdesitiaojibenyuanli: yixiangxing、haiyuan、zhiguanyuxiantian。jiezhuzheiyitaoyuanzehegongju,yixinxingxianxiangxueweikaimo,xianxiangxueyidinghuizhengmingzishenyounenglizhongxinjihuozhongguochuantongwenhuadewentiyishihesikaoluoji,chuangzaoxingdishixiancongchuantongdaoxiandai、conglishidaodangxiadeguodu。shiyixuanwuxiangxin,xianxiangxuezhongyouyitianhuiyizijidefangshixiquchuantongwenhuafugaizaishenshangdechenai、hunzaijilizhongdezazhi,zhongxinhuanfatabenyouderongguang。

dangzheiyitiandaolaideshihou,xianxiangxuekaishilikaizhongguo,fanhuitadefayuandi。zheishidexianxiangxueyibushineidaizheyuanchudeyibinghetezhilaidaozhongguodexianxiangxue,tazaishenkediyingxianghanyuxueshuhechuantongdetongshiyeshenshendiluoshanglehanyusiweideyinji,zaizhongguorenduixianxiangxuejingdiandeyueduzhong、zaizaoqixianxiangxueyundongdeyanjiuzhong、zaifaguoxinxianxiangxuedeyinjiezhong、zaixianxiangxueyuqitaxuekedeshenduronghezhongshizheiyang,zaixianxiangxueyuzhongguochuantongwenhuadehuitongzhonggengshiruci。huitong,shitazhezhijianxianghudezhaoliang。meiyouyixiangxingzhiguang,chuantongwenhuazhongdexingershangxuebufenyexushizhongchuyuheianzhizhong;quefaxianxiangxuehaiyuanzheikezuantou,chuantongwenmingzhongneilingrentanweiguanzhidelilunhefeiyisuosidefangfakenengyongyuanyinzangzailishichenjicengdeshenchu;budongdexianxiangxuezhiguan,jiangwufajihuogurendeyuanchutiyan;fourenxiantianzhiwudecunzai,youhuishiganggangjihuodeyuanchutiyanlunweijingyanlunhexiangduizhuyideqiutu。raner,chuantongwenmingdemouxietezhiqueyoudizhizhexianxiangxuedetanzhaohezuantan,xianxiangxueyexuxuyaogaizaozishendemouxieyuanlicainengtongdazheixietezhi,xianxiangxuedezheixiegaizaoshijishangzhengshiduizishendemouxiequexiandekefu,erzheixiequexianzaitadefashengdishiwufakanchulaide,yinweitasuocongchudexifangwenmingjiubaohanzheixiequexianyuzishenzhizhong。

yexuyouyitian,laizizhongguodexianxiangxuehuizaitadechushengdidedaoyuena,xifangzhexuenaizhixifangwenmingbenshenyincierdedaomouzhonggaizaohejiupian,yinweitadeguangmangzhaojinlexifangwenmingdeyouanzhisuo。

neishi,shiyixuanwubuzaizhanwangxianxiangxuezaizhongguodeweilai。neishiyigekaishishuxiezhongguoxianxiangxueshideshike。




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