十一选五

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舒远招: 康德道德神学中的正义问题

时间: 2017-06-21 21:13:11 点击:

   zhongsuozhouzhi,kangdezai《chuncuilixingpipan》zhongpipansuoyouconglixingdesibianyuanzeerlaidesibianshenxue,chanminglecongsibianlixingchufazhengmingshangdicunzaidejinyoudesanzhongfangshi——bentilunzhengming、yuzhoulunzhengmingheziranshenxue(ziranmudelun)zhengming——debukenengxing,bingzaicijichushangshitujianliyuanshengyusibianshenxuededaodeshenxue。zai《shijianlixingpipan》zhong,kangdejinyibuzhankailezijidedaodeshenxue,bashangdidecunzaizuoweichuncuishijianlixingdeyitiaozhongyaogongshelaijiayilunshu。zai《panduanlipipan》zhong,kangdebazuoweidaodemudelundedaodeshenxueyuzuoweiziranmudelundeziranshenxuejiayiduizhao,zhichuziranshenxueshilixingyaocongzhinengjingyanxingdibeirenshideziranmudezhongtuilunchushangdi(zirandezhishangyuanyin)jiqishuxingdechangshi,erdaodeshenxuezeshicongziranzhongdelixingcunzaizhedekeyixiantiandibeirenshidedaodemudetuilunchushangdijiqishuxingdechangshi。1 kangdesuolijiedelixingcunzaizhededaodemudejiushishijieshangdezhishan,shideyufudetongyihuoyizhi,huozheshuo,shilixingcunzaizhezaiyudexingfazexiangyizhidekeguantiaojianxia、jizaipeixiangxingfudetiaojianxiachengweixingfude。tarenweizhishanjuebunengzirandidacheng,erbixushedingyouyigejushenxingdeshen,youtalaibaozhengzhishandeshixian。

   benwenshicongzhengyilundejiaodujiedukangdedaodeshenxuedeyigechangshi。shiyixuanwukandao,kangdezailunshudaodeshenxueshi,tadequebadaodeshenxuezhongdeshendangzuoyiweizhengyizhishenlaikandai,zaishendezhuduoshuxingzhong,zhengyizhanyoujiqizhongyaodediwei。youyubaozhengshishangzhishanshixiandeshenbeishiweizhengyide,yinci,renmenyehenzirandiqingxiangyuxiangxin: shensuobaozhengnenggouzaishishangshixiandezhishanbenshenyeshizhengyide。danshi,youyukangdebenrendelunshuyaomeyuyanbuxiang,yaomehuisenandong,jiazhigezhongwenbenzhongdeshuofabingbuwanquanyizhi,yinci,zheiyangyizhongduidaodeshenxuedezhengyilunjieduyejiubunengbuyudaolijieshangdejudakunnan。youjianyuci,benwenshituduikangdedaodeshenxuezhongdezhengyiwentizhankaijutitantao。

   yi、shendezhengyiyiweizheshenme?

十一选五   haowuyiwen,kangdezaiqidaodeshenxuezhongfuyuleshenyiduozhongbutongfanxiangdeshuxing,zheixieshuxingdaduojuyoumingxiandedaodeyiyi。

   zai《chuncuilixingpipan》zhong,kangdezaitandaoshendeyizhishizhichu: “zheigeyizhibixushiquannengde,yibianzhenggeziranyijiziranyushishangdexingdeguanxidoufucongyuta;bixushiquanzhide,yibiantadongxizuineizaideyixiangjiqidaodejiazhi;bixushiquanzaide,yibiantazhijietiejinshishangzhishansuotichudexuyao;bixushiyonghengde,yibianrenheshihoudoubuquefaziranyuziyoudehexie,dengdeng。”2zaizheiduanhuazhong,shenbeifuyuquanneng、quanzhi、quanzai、yonghengdengshuxing,yihandishishenglvelezhengyizheigeshuxing。

   zai《panduanlipipan》zhong,kangdeduishendeshuxingzuochuleleisidekehua: “zaiyuweiyouzaiqitongzhixiacaiyoukenengdezhishandeguanxizhong,yijizaiyuchuyudaodefazexiadelixingcunzaizhedeshengcundeguanxizhong,shiyixuanwujiangbazheigeyuanshicunzaizheshexiangweiquanzhide: yibiannapazuineizaideyixiang(zheigouchenglixingcunzaizhedexingdongdezhenzhengdedaodejiazhi)yebaoluzaitamianqian;shexiangweiquannengde: yibiantanenggoushizhenggezirandoushiheyuzheiyizuigaomude;shexiangweiquanrende,erqietongshishizhengyide: yinweizheiliangzhongshuxing(lianheqilai,zhihui)3gouchengleshijie——zuoweichuyudaodefazexiadezhishan——deyigewushangyuanyindeyuanyinxingdetiaojian;ciwai,haiyousuoyouqitaxianyande、zaiyuzheiyangyizhongzhongjimudedeguanxizhongbeiyushedeshuxing,ruyongheng、quanzaideng(yinweishanlianghezhengyishidaodedeshuxing),yedoubixushexiangshitasuojuyoude。”4zaizheiduanhuazhong,quanzhi、quanneng、yongheng、quanzaisizhongshuxingyu《chuncuilixingpipan》zhongdeshuofajibenyizhi,danzengjialerenci(güte)hezhengyi(gerechtigkeit)zheiliangzhongshuxing。kangdezaicizhichuzheiliangzhongshuxingshidaodeshuxing,bingyuzhihuixiangjiehe。shuotamen“gouchengleshijie——zuoweichuyudaodefazexiadezhishan——deyigewushangyuanyindeyuanyinxingdetiaojian”,yisikenengshi: shenzhisuoyinenggouchengweizuoweizhishandeshijiedewushangdeyuanyin,pingjiedeqiahaoshitasuoyongyoudezheiliangzhongdaodeshuxingde。raner,kangdezaicibujinmeiyoujiangrenci、zhengyiyuzhihuideguanxijiangtouche,yemeiyoujieshishenjiujingshiruhepingjiezheiliangzhongshuxingerchengweizuoweizhishandeshijiedewushangyuanyinde,shenzhiyemeiyoushuomingrenciyuzhengyizhijiandeguanxi。

   《shijianlixingpipan》yeduishendeshuxingzuolexiangjindekehua。kangdeshuo: “shiyixuanwuzhiyoucongyigedaodeshangwanshande(shenshengdeherencide)、tongshiyeshiquannengdeyizhineili,cainengxiwangzhishan。”5zheijiufuyuleshenyishensheng、renci、quannengdengshuxing。zaiqiangdiaoxingfudexiangshoubixuxianhuodexiangshouxingfudedaodezigeshi,kangderenweiyinggaibashendeshenshengxingzhiyurencixingzhiqian,yinweirendepeixiangxingfudezige,qiahaoshizaiyushenzuoweilifazhedeshenshengxingdezhuangyanyizhizhonghuodede,jichuyuduishenshengfazedejingzhongerxingdong。zaijieshishendeyizhideshenshengxing(heiligkeit)shi,kangdehaiteyijiayileyigejiaozhulaishuomingshenyideduozhongshuxing: “zaizheili,weilebiaomingzheigegainiandedutezhichu,shiyixuanwuzhixiangzaishuomingyidian: dangrenmenjianggezhongshuxingfuyushenshi,renmenyefaxiantamendexingzhiyeshiheyubeizaowu,zhishitamenzaishenneiertishengdaolezuigaodedengji,ruliliang、zhishi、zaichang、rencidengdengbeiguanyiquanneng、quanzhi、quanzai、quanrenzhiming。dandequeyousanzhongshuxingshijinjinfuyushende,erqiedequebudailiangdetongweiyu,tamendoushi daodedeshuxing。tashiweiyideshenshengzhe,weiyideyongfuzhe,weiyidezhihuizhe;yinweizheixiegainianyijingbuzaishoudaorenhexianzhi。yizhaotamendezhixu,tayineryejiushishenshengdelifazhe(hechuangzaozhe),rencidetongzhizhe(hebaohuzhe)hezhengyideshenpanzhe。zheisanzhongshuxingzaizishenzhongjiubaohanleshenjieyichengweizongjiaoduixiangdeyiqie,erqieshiheyuzheixieshuxing,xingershangxuedewanshanxingjiuzidongditianjiadaolixingdangzhongle。”6

十一选五   kangdezaicibiaoming: shenzuoweilifazhejuyoushenshengxing,zuoweitongzhizhejuyourencixing,zuoweishenpanzhejuyouzhengyixing。zheisanzhongshuxingjizhongtixianleshenxing,yizhiyushenpingjietamenjiukeyichengweizongjiaoduixiangdeyiqie,suoyi,shiyixuanwuzhiyaolijielezheisanzhongshuxingdehanyi,jiukeyilijiedaodeshenxuezheizhonglixingdezongjiaodeshizhi。

十一选五   kangdeduishenzuoweilifazhedeshenshengxingdejieshishiqingchude: suiranrensuozunxundedaodefazeshirenjiyuziyouyizhizishiyixuanwulifade,danweileqianghuadaodexingweidedongji,shiyixuanwuyoubiyaobashiyixuanwujizijibanbudedaodefazeshexiangchengshizaizhixingshendeshenshengdejieming,youcijiufuyuleshiyixuanwudezishiyixuanwulifayizhuangyandeshenshengxing。shenderencihuoshanyishitanenggoucifuyurenlei,danshi,shenbunengzhiyourenci,tazaicifuyurenleishihaiyinggaishouxianshirenyishidaodaodefazedeshenshengheweiyan,tazhinengbaxingfucijineixiejingzhongfaze、peixiangxingfuderen。suoyi,kangdebashendeshenshengxingpaizaiqirencixingzhiqian,shirencixingshoushenshengxingdexianzhi。dangran,shenbijingshirencide,tabidingnenggoujiangxingfucijisuoyoupeixiangxingfuderen,bushirenmenxiangshouxingfudexiwangluokong。

   chengran,kangdemeiyoujutijieshishenshiruhejinxingzhengyideshenpande,qishenpandezhengyixingtixianzainali,danshi,tazaizheiduanhuazhongmingquedijiangzhengyideshenpanzhedengtongyuweiyidezhihuizhe,zheikeyizuoweishiyixuanwujiedushendezhengyixingdeyigezhongyaoxiansuo。duikangdeeryan,jidujiaoxueshuozhongyigenenggourangpeixiangxingfuzhexiangyouxingfu——zaishenzhitianguozhong——deshen,shi“yigezhihuidehewannengdexingfufenpeizhe”7。zuoweibenyuandezhishan,tashishishangzhishandeyuanquan。tazaifenpeixingfufangmiandezhihuizaiyu: tanenggouanzhaojingquedebilijiangxingfufenpeijijuyoudexingderen。yifangmian,fanyoudezhe,tadouciyuyuqidexingxiangchengdexingfu;lingyifangmian,fanxiangyouxingfuzhe,tadouyaoqiunenggoujuyoudexing。liangfangmianjieheqilai,qiahaojiushishishangdezhishan,tashiyoubenyuandezhishanzhongpaishengchulaide。shenzuoweibenyuandezhishanshiweiyidezhihuizhe,yinweiweiyoutacaizhenzhengyongyouguanyuzhishandezhihui,yinernenggoujirenyishixianzhishandexiwang。zheigeweiyidezhihuizhezaizhihuidifenpeixingfushi,bujinjinjuyourencideyimian,erqiehaishouxianjuyoushenshengdeweiyan,zheishi“yinweizhihuiconglilunshanglaikanyiweizheduizhishandezhishi,ercongshijianshangkanyiweizheyizhiduizhishandeshihexing,suoyishiyixuanwubunengfuyuyigezuigaodedulizhihuiyimouzhongjinjinjianlizairencishangdemude。”8zaishiyixuanwukanlai,shenduiyuxingfudezheizhongzhihuidefenpei,qishijiudengyushenduiyurenmenshifouzijuezunshoufazesuozuodezhengyideshenpan: fanhuaizheduifazedejingzhongerzuozijigaizuode,huozhishaobuzuozijibugaizuode,douyongyoulexiangshouxingfudedaodeziyou,yinpeixiangxingfuerxiangfu。suoyi,zhengyideshenpanbidingjiangxingfujiyupeixiangxingfuzhiren。

   zheidangranshikangdezai《shijianlixingpipan》zhongbingweimingshide,ershishiyixuanwuyijukangdejiangweiyizhedezhihuizheyuzhengyideshenpanzhededengtongertuiduanchulaide。zaikangdexinmuzhong,zhishanxuejiushizhihuixue。shenpingjiezijiguanyuzhishandezhihui、pingjiezijideshenshengxingherencixingernenggouchengweiweiyizhihuidexingfufenpeizhe,tongshiyejiuchenglezhengyideshenpanzhe。shanyoushanbao,zhongguorenjingchangjiangdezheijuhua,jiushikangdedaodeshenxuezhongdezhihuide、zhengyideshensuozuode。gaiyanzhi,shendezhihuihuozhengyi,jiuzaiyushipeixiangxingfuzhexiangyouxingfu,jiuzaiyujirenyishixianzhishandexiwang。

十一选五   er、zhishanbenshenshizhengyidema?

十一选五   jiranshendezhengyizaiyushirennenggoushixianzhishan,neime,zaishedingshendecunzaideqiantixiarenyouwangshixiandezhishanbenshen,yejiuhehuluojidibeifuyulezhengyidehanyi。raner,kangdebenrenbingweimingquediyongzhengyide(gerecht)zheigecilaixingrongzhishan,shiyixuanwuyoushenmeliyourenweizaikangdezheilizhishanshizhengyide?

   zheilisuoshuodezhishan(das höchste gut),dangranbushizhiwushangdeshan(das oberste gut)jidexinghuodexing,ershizhidexingyuxingfuxiangyizhizheigeyiyishangdeyuanmandeshan(das ganze und vollendete gut)。duikangdeeryan,youdewufuhuoquedexiangfudoubushizhishan,yinweidoushibuyuanmande。danduyigerendedefuyizhi,shigetiyiyishangdeyuanmandezhishan,suoyourendedefuyizhi,zegouchengyigeshijiedepubiandezhishan。yuanmancaishizhengyi,deyufudefenlihuobuyizhiyiweizhebuyuanman,yetongshiyiweizhebuzhengyi。

   ruguoyigerenbupeixiangyouxingfu,qixingweiweifandaodefaze,shenzhineixinduifazehaowujingzhongzhiyi,dantaquexiangyoulexingfu,zheijiuyiweizheeyoushanbao,ziranshibuzhengyide。suoyi,fanxiangshouxingfuzhebixujuyoudexing,zheijiushiyuanmandezhishansuoyaoqiude,yeshiyizhongzhengyideyaoqiu。kangdejinguanmeiyoueyoushanbaomingqueshuochengshibuzhengyide,dantadequeshengchengzheishilixingsuobuzantongde。tazai《chuncuilixingpipan》zhongxiedao: “duishiyixuanwudelixingeryan,danyouxingfuhaiyuanbushiyuanmandeshan。tangruotabushiyupeixiangxingfujidexingdeshanxingjiehezaiyiqidehua,lixingshibuzantongzheiyangyizhongxingfude(jinguanaihaoyoukenengyuanwangta)。”9

   ruguoyigerenpeixiangxingfuquemeiyouxiangshouxingfu,zheijiuyiweizheshanyouebao,tongyangshibuzhengyide。yinci,yuanmandezhishanyaoqiupeixiangxingfuzhenenggouxiangshouxingfu,zheiziranshiyizhongzhengyideyaoqiu。kangdezai《chuncuilixingpipan》zhongdeshuofashi: “dandanyoudexing,yijiyudexingyiqi,dandudepeixiangxingfu,yehaiyuanbushiyuanmandeshan。weiledadaoyuanmandeshan,qixingweibingfeipeibushangxingfuderenjiubixunenggouxiwangfenxiangxingfu。jishibushousirenyitujiuchandelixing,dangtabuguzijideliyierzhishenyujibiedecunzaizhefenpeisuoyouxingfudediweishi,yebunengzuochulingwaidepanduan。”10xianran,jipeixiangxingfuzheyixingfushigongdaode,shifuheshendezhihuihuozhengyide。kangdezai《shijianlixingpipan》zhongtongyangyoumingquededuanyan: “yinweixuyaoxingfu,yepeideshangxiangyouxingfu,danquemeiyoufenxiangxingfu,zheishiyuyigetongshiyongyousuoyouweilidecunzaizhe——napashiyixuanwuzhishishexiangyouzheiyangyigecunzaizhe——dewanshanyiyuanbunenggongcunde。”11

十一选五   ranghuairenguodexingfushibuzhengyide,tongyang,ranghaorenguodebuxingtongyangshibuzhengyide。zheiliangzhongqingkuang,doubushishenduiyuxingfudezhihuidefenpei。xingfubixuanzhaodexing、anzhaopeixiangxingfudechengdulaifenpei。

十一选五   dangshiyixuanwubadefuyizhidezhishanlunjieduweiyizhongzhihuixueyiyishangdezhengyilunshi,yejiunenggoulijiekangdelunlixuedeyigedutezhichule。zheijiushi: kangdecongmeiyoujiangzijideyiwulunjiaozuozhengyilun。meigerendouyaojinzijideyiwu,zheiyiweizhexingdongyaozijuedifuhedaodefazedeyaoqiu,bunengyufazexiangweibei。zheizhongyiwulunshangweibaxingfuzheigezhiliaoyiyishangdemudebaokuojinlai,yinerhaibushizhishanlun,yincibushizhengyilun。dangran,youyujinyiwushipeixiangxingfudetiaojian,gouchengzhishandeshouyaodezuchengbufen,yinci,zaizhishanlundekuangjianei,yiwulunyejiuchenglezhengyilundeyigezuchenghuanjiele。zaiciyiyishang,renzailvxingyiwushisuoyongyoudedexingyekeyibeishiweiyizhongzhengyile。zongzhi,jinjindexinghaibushichuncuishijianlixing(yigeyoufazeguidingdeyizhi)dequanbuketi,yiwulunbixuyuxingfulunxiangtongyi,caixingchenglezhishanlunjizhengyilun。

   san、kangdeweihebubazhishanlunjiaozuozhengyilun?

   anzhaoshangshujiedu,kangdesuoshuodeyuanmandezhishanjiushizhengyi,zhishanlunbujinshizhihuixue,yejiushizhengyilun。kangdededaodeshenxuejiyoudezhedailaifenxiangxingfudexiwang,yejiushijitamendailaizhengyideshuguang。zheizhongjiedubujinbazhishanbenshendangzuozhengyi,erqiebabaozhengzhishanshixiandeshenshouxianlijieweizhengyizhishen,tadeshenshengherencidoutongyizaizhihuidezhengyizhizhongle。yinweizhengshitadezhengyideshenpan,baxingfuzuolezhihuide、zhengyidefenpei,jifenpeijipeixiangxingfuzhe。

   danshi,kangdebenrenbijingmeiyouzhijiebazhishanjiushuochengshizhengyide,yemeiyoubazhishanlunjiaozuozhengyilun。zheiqizhongdaodiyouxieshenmeyuanguni?shiyixuanwucongkangdedeqitayixielunzhudelunshuzhong,keyizhaodaowentidedaan。

   zai1791niande《lunshenzhenglunzhongsuoyouzhexuechangshideshibai》yiwenzhong,kangdeyetandaoleshendesanzhongshuxing: shensheng、rencihezhengyi。 zheisanzhongshuxing,shiyushijieshangdesanleiyumudexiangbeidedongxixiangduiyingde。shijieshangyousanzhongyumudexiangbeidedongxi: yishidaodeshangyumudexiangbeidedongxi,jie(zui);ershiziranyumudexiangbeidedongxi,jihuo(ku);sanshishijieshangdefanzuiyuchengfadebuduicheng,jiemeiyoudedaoebao。shenzuoweilifazhedeshenshengyinggaijiejueedefashengdewenti;shenzuoweitongzhizhederenciyinggaijiejuehuodechuxiandewenti;shenzuoweishenpanzhedezhengyiyinggairangfanzuizheshoudaoyingdedechengfa。kangderenwei,zheisanzhongshuxinggongtonggouchengledaodeshangdeshendegainian。12zaizheili,kangdefeichangmingquedizhichu: shendezhengyideshenpanjinjinzhixiangduifanzuidechengfa,erbuzaiyuduidexingdejiangshang。kangdezaiyigejiaozhuzhongzhichu: “zhengyisuiranyilifazhederenshanweiqiantitiaojian(yinweiruguotadeyizhibushizhizaiqichenmindefuzhi,neime,tayejiubunengshizijidechenminchengdanshuncongtadeyiwu);dantaquebushirenshan,yurenshanyoubenzhidequbie,jinguanbaohanzaizhihuidepubiangainianzhong。yinci,jiulianduiqueshaozairenmencishifentandemingyunzhongbiaoxianchulaidezhengyisuozuodebaoyuan,yebushizhenduihaorenguodebuhao,ershizhenduierenguodebuhuai(jinguanruguorangerenguodehao,duibihaijiangjiadazheizhongbuman)。yinweizaiyizhongshendetongzhizhong,jiulianzuihaoderenyebunengbazijixingfushenghuodeyuanwangjianlizaishendezhengyishang,ershibixuzairenheshihoudoujianlizaishenderenshanshang,yinweizhishilvxinglezijizerenderen,bunengduishendeshanxingtichuhefadeyaoqiu。”13

十一选五   zaizheiduanhuazhong,kangderenweidangrenmenbaoyuanquefazhengyishi,zhenduidebushihaorenguodebuhao,ershierenguodebuhuai,yinci,zhiyouduierenshijiachengfacaishizhengyide,erjihaorenyixingfubushuyuzhengyi。shenzuoweishenpanzhedezhengyizhifuzechengfazuie,erbuzaiyujianglidexing。yushi,zhengyizhizaiyueyouebao,ershanyoushanbaoyuzhengyiwuguan,zhinengzhiwangshenderencideenci。

   zai《daodexingershangxue》de“zuihoudefushi”zhong,kangdeyetichu,shendezhengyijinjingenchengfaxiangguan,eryuchoubaowuguan。“yinweichoubao(praemium,remuneratio gratuita[choubao、baibaidejiangshang])genbenbuyuduineixieduibiedecunzaizhezhiyouyiwuermeiyouquanlidecunzaizhedezhengyixiangguan,erjinjinyuaihexingshan(benignitas)xiangguan,zaizheiyangyigecunzaizheneiligengbunengyouchoubao(merces)deyaoqiu,eryizhongchoubaodezhengyi(iustitia brabeutica)zaishangdiduirendeguanxizhongjiushiyigemaodun。”14kangdezaizheilizhuyaoshixiangshuoming: renyushendeguanxishiyizhongchaoyandeguanxi,wanquanbutongyurenyurenzhijiandeneizaidedaodeguanxi。dantayedequeqiangdiaoleaiyuzhengyidequbie。shencifuyuren,zheibushizhengyi,ershiai。renyushenzhijiandeaideguanxishishuangxiangde,renkeyiaishen,shenyekeyiairen。danshi,renbunengyizhengyidemingyi,yaoqiushenjizijidedexingyixingfudechoubao。

十一选五   kejian,kangdesuolijiedeshendezhengyideshenpan,jinjinzhishenduifanzuidechengfa,erbingweibaokuoshenduidexingdejiangshang。yushi,jipeixiangxingfuzheyixingfu,jizhishan,jiuxiandeyuzhengyiwuguanle。

十一选五   congduifanzuidechengfaerbushicongduidexingdejiangshanglaijiedingzhengyi,zheizai《shijianlixingpipan》diyijuan“chuncuishijianlixingdefenxilun”zhongyeyoutixian。kangdexiedao: “zuihou,zaishiyixuanwudeshijianlixingdelinianzhong,haiyoumouzhongyuchufandexingfazexiangbansuidedongxi,zheijiushitadegaidangshoufa。……renhechengfabenshenbixushouxianyouzhengyi,zhengyigouchengchengfagainiandebenzhi。”15kangdehaizhichu,shiyixuanwuneixindeliangzhi(gewissen)yekeyizaishiyixuanwuweifanfazedeshihouzuochugongzhengpanjue(richteraussprüche),shiyixuanwudeneijiuganqishishishiyixuanwuneixinshenpanqizuoyongdetixian。

   zongzhi,dangshiyixuanwubashendezhengyidangzuoyizhongdachengzhishandezhihui,dangzuoshenshengherencidetongyishi,shenyijurenpeixiangxingfudechengduercijirenxingfujiushizhengyide,raner,dangkangdeqiangdiaoaiyuzhengyidequbie,bazuoweishenpanzhedeshendezhengyijinjinjuxianyuduifanzuidechengfashi,yidepeifujiubuzaibeishuochengshizhengyile。zheihuoxushikangdesuiranyizaitichupeixiangxingfuzhelidangxiangfu,quezuizhongmeiyoubazhishanbenshenjiaozuozhengyi,bazhishanlunjiaozuozhengyilundeyuanyin。

   si、yizhongtaolun: shendeshangfanengjieranfenkaima?

   anzhaoshiyixuanwudezhijue,ruguozhenzhengcunzaiyigezhengyizhishen,zetabujinyaoduiyiqieexingshijiachengfa,rangerenguodebuhao,yeyaoduiyiqiedexingjiayijiangshang,ranghaorenguodehenhao。zaixianshishenghuozhong,renmenduiquefazhengyidebaoyuan,bingbuzhishierenguodehenhao,ergengyouhaorenguodebuhao。

十一选五   kangdebenrenyeshenzhicunzaihaorenguodebuhaodeqingkuang。liru,zai《panduanlipipan》zhong,tacengjuchusibinnuoshadelizi。“suoyi,shiyixuanwukeyinayigezhengzhideren(lirusibinnuosha)laishuo,……tacongduidaodelvdezunshouzhongbuweizijiyaoqiurenhehaochu;taningkewusidijinjincuchengshan,duicineigeshenshengdedaodelvjitadeyiqienenglizhichulefangxiang。dantadenulishiyouxianzhide;congziranneili,tasuirannenggouzhiwangyoushiyuneimudeyouyizhongourandezantong,danyongyuanyebunengzhiwangyuzhiyouyizhonghehuguilvdehegenjuchijiudeguize……laiyinzhengdexiediaoyizhi,erzheimudequerengranshitagandaozijiyouzerenbingbeicuicuzhequshixiande。qipian、qiangbaohedujijiangyongyuanzaitasizhouhengxing,jinguantazijishichengshi、wenheyushanyide;ertachulezijiyiwaisuoyudaodeneixiezhengzhideren,buluntamenduomepeidexingfu,danquehuiconghaobugujizheiyidiandeziranjieneilizaoyudaoyiqieqiongkunliaodao、jibingheyiwaisiwangdezaihuo,zhengrudiqiushangdeqitadongwuyiyang,erqie,zhidaoyizuoguangdadefenmulaibatamenquanti(buguanshizhengzhidehaishibuzhengzhidezaizheilidoushiyiyangde)tunmei,bingzheixiekenengxiangxinguoyouchuangzaodezhongjimudederenpaohuidaotamencengcongneilichaobachulaidewuzhidewumudedehundunshenyuanzhongqu,qingkuangyeyiranmeiyougaibian。”16kangdezaizheilibingmeiyoushuodaozheixiemeiyoudedaohaobaodezhengzhizhishidezaoyushibuzhengyide,shencijitamenxingfushizhengyide,tazhishixiangbiaoming: zheiyangyigerenruguoneixinxiangxinyoushenlaibaoyouzijihuodexingfu,jianghuizengqiangzijizunshoudaodefazedexinxin。zheilideyisi,yu《chuncuilixingpipan》zhongdeshuofayizhi: lixingkandao,ruguobujiadingyoulaishi,buxiangxinyouyigenenganzhaoshiyixuanwudexingdechengducijishiyixuanwuxingfudeshen,“tajiubixubadaodelvkanzuoshikongdongdehuanying,yinweidaodelvdebiranhouguo(lixingbazheihouguoyudaodelvlianjieqilai)meiyouneizhongyushejiubiranhuiquxiao。”17

十一选五   danshi,zaikangdezijisuojudelingwaiyigelizizhong,taqishizantongbahaorenbudehaobaodangzuoshibuzhengyide。zheijiushi《lunshenzhenglunzhongsuoyouzhexuechangshideshibai》yiwenzhongdeyuebodelizi。zai《shengjing》jizaizhong,yueboshiyigezhenzhengdehaoren,tacengjingshenghuodefeichangxingfu。“jiankang、fuzu、ziyou、duitanenggoushizhixingfudeqitarenfahaoshiling、zaiyigexingfujiatingdehuaibaozhong、chuzaiqingshenyizhongdepengyouzhongjian;erzaisuoyouzheiyiqiezhishang(zheishizuizhongyaode)haiyouzaiyizhongshandeliangzhizhongdezishiyixuanwumanzu。chulezuihouyidianzhiwai,yicichenzhongde、weikaoyanershijiajitademingyunturanduoqulesuoyouzheixiecaifu。”18yueboyoucikaishibaoyuanmingyunduizijidebugong。tadepengyouweilequyueyushangdi,shengchengyuebodezaoyushitadezuiesuozhaozhidegaidedechengfa,danyueboquejiandingdixiangxinzijiyizhimeiyoufanzui,suoyizijishizaibulijieweishenmehuizaoyueyun。shenzuihoushangshiletadechengshi。zaikangdedexushuzhong,sihuzhengzhideyuebozaoyueyunbingbushiyizhongzhengyidechengfa。dangran,tayemeiyoushuoshenduiyuebodeshangshijiushizhengyide。

   zaishiyixuanwukanlai,zuieweishouchengfaguranshibuzhengyide,danwuzui、shenzhidexingzaoyuzaihuotongyangshibuzhengyide。zhengyideshenzhangbuzhizaiyurangerenshoufa,erqiezaiyuranghaorenxiangfu。shenzuoweizhengyideshenpanzhexuyaoshangfafenming,danshangyufashijinmixiangliande。dangshenduierenwangkaiyimianbujiachengfashi,youyuerendeexingwangwangzaochenglehaorenliyideshousun,yinershijishangyejiuhuidaozhiduihaorendebugongzhengdechengfa。yinci,shenduiyurendedexingdejiangshang,bixuyuduiyurendeexingdechengfatongshibingju。chengfadeshidang,wangwangtongshiyiweizhejiangshangdeshidang。

十一选五   shiyixuanwubunengrenweishenzuoweizhengyideshenpanzhejinjinzaiduiexingzuochuchengfa,ershiyaokandaotaduidexingdejiangshangbenshenjiushiqizhengyideshenpandeyibufen。huanyanzhi,shendezhengyideshenpanbujinyaobachengfajiyuexing,yeyaobajiangshangjiyudexing。

十一选五   shishishang,kangdedaodeshenxuezhongdeshenyedequebuzhishixiwangdexiangzheng,erqieshiyizhongweishedeliliang。ruguoshijieshangzhiyoudexingermeiyouzuie,neime,shensheng、rencideshenguranhuiciyushijieyiyonghengdefuzhi,qizhongmeiyousihaodetongku。danshi,youyurendelixingdeyouxianxing,zairenxiangzhedaodewanshandeguochengzhongshibihuijingchangfanxiazuie,suoyi,shenzaijiangshangrendedexingshi,yehuichengfarendeexing——ruguoshiyixuanwuxiangxinzhenzhengyouyigezhengyizhishendehua。zai《chuncuilixingpipan》zhong,kangdehaibaduiyushendecunzaidexinyang,yudaodefazede“yuzhaozuoyong”(verheißungen)he“weishezuoyong”(drohungen)tongshilianxiqilai。tazhichu,jishimeigerendoubadaodefazeshiweimingling,danruguodaodefazebushixiantiandibatamendehouguoyutamendeguizelianjieqilai,yinweijuyouyuzhaozuoyongheweishezuoyongdehua,zedaodefazejiubuhuishimingling。erruguoshiyixuanwubuxiangxinshendecunzai,zedaodefazeyejiubuhuiyouzheizhongyuzhaozuoyongheweishezuoyong。shenweishenmenengshidaodefazejuyouyuzhaozuoyong?yinweishennengbihusuoyouzijuezunxingdaodefazederennenggouxiangyoupeixiangdexingfu。shenweishenmenengshidaodefazejuyouweishezuoyong?yinweishennengbaozhengsuoyouyouyiweifandaodefazederennenggoushoudaogongzhengdechengfa。shendezhengyideshenpanzuoweiyizhongzhihuidepanduan,dequebuzhishiduizuiedechengfa,erqieshiduidexingdejiangshang。

   *benwenxijiaoyuburenwenshehuikexuezhongdianyanjiujidizhongdianxiangmu《kangdedaoyilunzhongdalilunyushijianwentiyanjiu——zheyanyuduikangdedaoyilundegezhongpiping》(xiangmubianhao: 13jjd720007)hehunanshengshekejijinxiangmu《kangdezhengyilunyanjiu》(xiangmubianhao: 2010yba178)dejieduanxingyanjiuchengguo。

十一选五   1 jian《panduanlipipan》§85.ziranshenxue(physikotheologie)。zaizheili,kangdehaimingquedibadaodeshenxue(moraltheologie)yulunlishenxue(ethikotheologie)dangzuotongyicishiyong。

   2 immanuel kant.kritik der reinen vernunft. nach der ersten und zweiten originalausgabe herausgegeben von jens timmermann.mit einer bibliographie von heiner klemme. felix meiner verlag, hamburg 1998.s.846-847.

十一选五   3 kangdecichujiakuohao,yitubiaomingquanrenyuzhengyizheiliangzhongshuxingyuzhihuideguanxi。yuanwenshi: vereinigt,die weisheit. congzimianshangkan,kangdedebiaodabijiaohanhu。dengxiaomangjiaoshoujiangzhifanyiwei“jiehezhe”zhihui,liqiulingjiaoshoujiangzhifanyiwei“zhihuibatamenjieheqilai”。kangdedeyisiyexushi: quanrenyuzhengyiheqilaiyiweizhezhihui。

十一选五   4 immanuel kant. kritik der urteilskraft. herausgegeben von wilhelm weischedel.in: immnanuel kant werkausgabe x. surkamp verlag. frankfurt am main.erste auflage 1974.s.405-406.

   5 immanuel kant. grundlegung zur metaphysik der sitten. herausgegeben von wilhelm weischedel.in: immnanuel kant werkausgabe vii. surkamp verlag. frankfurt am main.erste auflage 1974.s.261.

十一选五   6 tongshangshu,s.263.

   7 tongshangshu,s.260.

   8 tongshangshu,s.262.

   9 immanuel kant.kritik der reinen vernunft. nach der ersten und zweiten originalausgabe herausgegeben von jens timmermann.mit einer bibliographie von heiner klemme. felix meiner verlag, hamburg 1998.s.845.

   10 tongshang。

十一选五   11 immanuel kant. grundlegung zur metaphysik der sitten. herausgegeben von wilhelm weischedel.in: immnanuel kant werkausgabe vii. surkamp verlag. frankfurt am main.erste auflage 1974.s.238.

十一选五   12 shenzhenglunyaolunzhengdeshi: ruguocunzaizuoweishenshenglifazhedeshen,shijieshangweishenmehuiyouzuie?ruguocunzaizuoweirencitongzhizhedeshen,shijieshangweishenmehuiyouhuohuanhuotongku?ruguocunzaizuoweizhengyishenpanzhedeshen,shijieshangdefanzuiweishenmemeiyoushoudaoyingdedechengfa?kangderenweitongchangduishijieshangyumudexiangbeidedongxidejieshishijiaoyishide,tongtongbunengchengli,dan《shengjing》zhongyuebodejieshishiqueshikexinde,yinweitashichuyuzhencheng、erbushiweilequyueyushangdi,duifashengzaizijishenshangdeyumudexiangbeidedongxizuochujieshide。

   13 《kangdezhuzuoquanji》di8juan,liqiulingzhubian,zhongguorenmindaxuechubanshe,2010niandi1ban,di260-261ye。

   14 《kangdezhuzuoquanji》di6juan,liqiulingzhubian,zhongguorenmindaxuechubanshe,2007niandi1ban,di499ye。

   15 kangde: 《shijianlixingpipan》,dengxiaomangyi,yangzutaoyi,renminchubanshe,2003nianban,di50ye。

十一选五   16 kangde: 《panduanlipipan》,dengxiaomangyi,yangzutaoxiao,renminchubanshe,2002niandi1ban,di311-312ye。

   17 kangde: 《chuncuilixingpipan》,dengxiaomangyi,yangzutaoxiao,renminchubanshe,2004niandi1ban,di616ye。

十一选五   18《kangdezhuzuoquanji》di8juan,liqiulingzhubian,zhongguorenmindaxuechubanshe,2010niandi1ban,di268ye。




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