十一选五

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十一选五zhaiyao: chanshixue/jieshixue(hermeneutik)juyouduozhongyiyi,zuoweizhexuedechanshixueshishicunluncunzaixue(haidegeeryemingzhiwei“cizaidexianxiangxue”);zuoweifangfadechanshixueyouyouxiayiheguangyizhifen,xiayichanshixueshiwenbenquanshidefangfalun,guangyichanshixuezeshirenwenkexuedeyibanfangfalun。benwenrenwei,dangdaichanshixuekewangzaibaochiduoyuanyangtaidejichushangchengweiyizhong“zongtichanshixue”(gesamt-hermeneutik),tayaozaizhexueyufangfa、kexueyurenwen、yishuyuzhexuezhijianjinxingchuangzaoxingzonghe,yejishuo,tamianlinzhesanxiangrenwu: 1、shouxianyaozaichanshixueneibu“pingheng”zuoweizhexuedechanshixueyuzuoweifangfadechanshixue,2、qiciyaozaichanshixuewaibu“diaojie”zuoweikexue(zirankexue)fangfade“shuoming”yuzuoweizhexue(renwenkexue)fangfade“chanshi”,3、zuihougengyaoyixianxiangxuedesixiangzitai,“chishou”“jiegou”yu“jiangou”deerzhongchayihuayundong,kaipi“yishu-zhexue”huozhe“shi-si”“erzhongxing”(zwiefalt)chuangzaozhidao。bixuzhichu,“zongtichanshixue”bushiyaozhongguitongyixingzhexuechuantong,ershiyaoyiweilaiweijibendingxiang,chengweiweilaizhexuedesixiangfangshi(guangyifangfalun)。chanshixuedeweilaishimingyiranzaiyu: mianxiangxinshenghuoshijie,weidikangjishutongzhihezhongzhenrenwenkexuetigongfangfashangdezhunbei。

zuozhe sunzhouxing tongjidaxuerenwenxueyuan

原载《哲学研究》2020年第4期。来源“外国哲学研究”公众号,版权所有:十一选五_十一选五软件-手机版

zicongmading·haidegeerbachanshixue/jieshixue(hermeneutik)tishengweiyizhongshicunlunyiyishangde“zhexue”zhihou,weiraozheimenouzhouxuewendezhengbianchengwei20shijizhexuerenwenkexuedeyidaredian。chanshixueshenzhiyezaizuijinjishinianlaichengweizhongguozhexuejiedeyimenxianxue,zhongguozhexueyuwaiguozhexuelingyuliangfangmiandexuezhedoujieruletaolun。shiyixuanwurenwei,chanshixuezhisuoyishoudaotebiedezhongshi,erqietebiedibeikanhao,yuanyinzhiyizaiyu,renmenduitayizhidouyoumouzhongfangfalunqidai,xiwangtashengchengweizhexuerenwenkexuedezizhufangfalun。zaihaidegeerzhihou,youguanchanshixuedegezhongtuijin,wulunshijiadamoerdezhexuechanshixue,haishiapeierdexianyanchanshixue,huozhebaoluo·likedexianxiangxuechanshixue,doubudebujiuchanyuzhexuechanshixueyufangfachanshixuezhijiandeguanxiwenti: “zhexueyihuofangfa”huozhe“jizhexueyoufangfa”?

benwenshouxiantaolunweiraochanshixuedexiangguanyimingzhizheng,zhichuchanshixue(hermeneutik)deduozhongyiyi。jinershitutichuchanshixuemianlindesandawenti(renwu),ji: 1、ruhe“pingheng”zhexuedechanshixueyufangfadechanshixue?2、ruhe“diaojie”zirankexuede“shuoming”yurenwenkexuede“chanshi/jieshi”?3、ruhe“chishou”“jiangou-jiegou”、“yishu-zhexue”deerzhongxingchayihuayundong?benwendemubiaozaiyu: tongguozheisandawentidetaolun,laizhuiwenyizhong“zongtichanshixue”(gesamt-hermeneutik)dekenengxing。

十一选五1、xiangguanyimingzhizhenghechanshixuededuozhongyiyi

xiwendehermeneutikbiaozhizheyimenxuewen,danshizhijinri,daodishiyinggaiyicheng“chanshixue”“quanshixue”“shiyixue”haishi“jieshixue”?zheirengranshiyigewenti,zheijigebutongdeyimingzaiguoneixuejieyizhidouzaishiyong,yejingchangduoyouzhengyi。shiyixuanwuyiwei,zheizhongqingkuangbuyidingshiwanquanxiaojide。zhuanmingfanyishangdeduoyanghuawangwangbiaozhengzhelijiehechanshidefengfuxing,zhishaokeyibiaomingzheigezhuanmingsuozhichengdedongxishifenzhongyao,biruzaihanyuxuejieyizhimeiyouxingchengdingyide“cunzaixue/bentilun/shilun”(ontologie)he“cunzai/shi”(sein),shejizhongxiwenhuadeshenduchayiwenti;yijikenengfuzaxingchengduzuigaodehaidegeerhouqidejibenciyuereignis(benyou、shengcheng、shijiandengdeng),muqiandagaiyou20zhongzuoyoudebutonghanyuyiming,chabuduoshirenshouyiyi。xiangbizhixia,hermeneutikdezhongyisuiranshangweinengxingchengdingyi,dan“chanshixue”“quanshixue”“shiyixue”he“jieshixue”dengyimingjirenganjuefenqibuda,huozheshuomeiyougenbenxingdefenqi,fenbuqingdaodishuyoushulie,fangfoshiyixiezhiyouchengduchayideyiming。

十一选五shijishang,cong“chanshixue”(hermeneutik)yicidecigenyiyishangshuo,shiyixuanwuyinggaibatayiwei“chuanhuaxue”huozhe“xiaoxixue/yinxinxue”。haidegeercengfajue“chanshixue”(hermeneutik)yicideshenhuayiyi,renweichanshixueshouxianyiweizhe“dailaixiaoxiheyinxin”。haidegeerjieshuodao: “‘chanshixuede’(hermeneutisch)zheigebiaodashicongxilawendedongcihermeneuein[chanshi、jieshi]zhongpaishengchulaide。zheigedongcilianxiyumingcihermeneus[jieshuoren、zhongjianren]。zaiyizhongbikexuedeyangexinggengyouyueshulidesixiangyouxizhong,shiyixuanwukeyibamingcihermeneus[jieshuoren、zhongjianren]yushenheermosi(hermes)zhimingguaqigoulai。heermosishizhushendexinshi。tadailaitianming(geschick)dexiaoxi;hermeneuein[chanshi、jieshi]naishineizhongzhanshi(darlegen),tadailaiyinxin,yinweitanengtingdaomougexiaoxi。zheizhongzhanshihoulaichengweiduiyijingyoushirendaoshuochulaidedongxidechanshi(auslegen);eranbolatuduihua《yiwengpian》(534e)zhongsugeladidehualaishuo,shirenbenshenjiushihermenes estin tontheon,ji‘zhushendeshizhe’”。[ii]

十一选五haidegeerdezheiduanhuayijingweishiyixuanwutishilehermeneutikdeyuanchuyiyi,erzheiyeshitadezimianyiyi。zaifanyishijianzhong,shiyixuanwujingchangyuanyizhuzhangdefanyiyuanzezhiyishi: zimianyiyiyouxian,huozheshuo,ningqu“zimianyi”erjinliangwuqu“jieshiyi”,burandehua,shiyixuanwudefanyijiuhuiluantao,hennanweichijibenyicidewendingxing。buguo,yaobazheigeyuanzefangdaohermeneutikyicishanglai,pashinanyishiyongde。

conghanzihanyiheyuganshanglaijiang,shiyixuanwuchabuduohuitongyizhangjiangjiaoshoudeyimingjianyi,bahermeneutikfanyiwei“chanshixue”。zaitatigongdeliyouzhong,shiyixuanwuyuanyicainadezhuyaoyouyixiajitiao: 1)“jieshixue”yimingzhongde“jie”yu“shi”chabuduoshitongyifanfude;2)“quanshixue”yimingzhongde“quan”zhongyuwenbenyoupianyushili;3)“chanshixue”yimingzhongde“chan”zegengjuyuyikaifangxinghefengfuxing。[iii]

十一选五qishizaiyimingshang,buguanghermeneutikshichengwentide,qitasangexiangguandeguanjianciyudeyimingyebuwuwenti,ru“lijie”(verstehen)“chanshi”(auslegung)yu“quanshi”(interpretation)deng。xianzaixiangguanyimingshangdehunluandeyuanyin,kongpabufendishiyouyuhanyiwufawanquanzhaogudaozheisandazhutici。xianyoude《cunzaiyushijian》zhongyibenbaverstehenyiwei“linghui”,shiyiguxiongweixianshengdejianyi,yiweitebiehao,kenengyeshizuitieqieyuyuanyide,xianyizhechenjiayingjiaoshousuiranshoudaobijiaoduodekangyi,danrengjiuweichizhezheigeyifa。[iv]ruoyaocong“chanshixue”dejiaodulaikan,zheigeyifajiuyouwentile,yinweitashidehaidegeerdexiangguansixiangwufajietong“chanshixue”chuantongluxian。suoyi,guanyuverstehendelianggeyimingji“linghui”yu“lijie”,shiyixuanwurengjiuhuiqingxiangyu“lijie”。zhiyuauslegung,yeyoulianggebutongdeyimingxuanxiang,ji“jieshi”yu“chanshi”,genjushangmianjichudeliyou,shiyixuanwuxianzairenweikeyikaolvgaiyiwei“chanshi”。gengmafandekenengshiinterpretation,yinggaiyoubuzhiliangzhongyifa,danhaoxiangbijiaochangjiande“chanshi”yu“quanshi”(shiyixuanwuzijijiucengjingbatayiwei“chanshi”)[v],kaolvdaointerpretationzhongzaiwenben(text),suoyishiyixuanwukeyibatayiwei“quanshi”。ruci,“lijie”(verstehen)“chanshi”(auslegung)yu“quanshi”(interpretation)sanzheheqilai,jiushi“chanshixue”dejibengongzuole。

十一选五shijishang,weiraohermeneutik(chanshixue)yimingdezhenglunhejiuchan,zhuyaoguanhu“chanshi”(auslegung)yu“quanshi”(interpretation)zheilianggejibenciyudeyililijiehequfen。shiyixuanwurenwei,auslegungshigengju“cunzaixing”de,congergengyouzhexueyiyi,shigengkuodade,zhishaozaihaidegeerqianqizhexuezhong,tayu“lijie”(verstehen)shiyitide,shuyucizaicunzaidejibenshicunjiegouheshicunxingdong,yincijuyoushicunluncunzaixuedeyiyi。erbijiaoeryan,interpretationgengju“yuyanxing”,gengjiejinyuwenbenjieshuodefangfa,anzhaojiadamoerdeshuofa,“‘quanshi’(interpretation)zheigeciyuanbenzhishizhezhongjieguanxi,zhishizhebutongyuyandejianghuazhezhijiandezhongjianrendezuoyong,yejifanyizhedezuoyong,youcichufa,zheigecicaijinyibubeifuyuduinanyilijiedewenbendejieshizhiyi。”[vi]dangran,zheilixuyaozhichudeshi,“quanshi”(interpretation)bingbudiyuhuozheruoyu“chanshi”(auslegung),jiadamoershenzhirenweitayeyu“chanshi”yiyang,tongyangshuyuhaidegeeryiyishangde“zaishijiezhizhongcunzai”(in-der-welt-sein)deyuanshijiegou;buguo,bijing“quanshi”juyougengduode“yuyanxing”huo“zhongjiexing”,huozheshuojuyouguangyide“wenbenxing”,erqiezhengrujiadamoersuozhichudeneiyang,weiyoucong“quanshi”gainianchufa,“wenben”gainiancainenggoubeigouzaoweiyigeyuyanxingjiegouzhongdezhongxingainian。[vii]

十一选五jiyushangshutaolun,shiyixuanwurenweikeyifenbieyi“chanshi”duiyiauslegung,yi“quanshi”duiyiinterpretaion。xiangyingdi,ruguopianyu“cunzaixing”deausleung(chanshi),shiyixuanwujiukeyibahermeneutikyiwei“chanshixue”;erruguopianyu“yuyanxing”deinterpretation,shiyixuanwujiuyinggaibahermeneutikyiwei“quanshixue”。longtongyanzhi,shiyixuanwusihukeyizaizhexueshangbahermeneutikyicheng“chanshixue”,erzaifangfashangbahermeneutikyicheng“quanshixue”。zheishiyishizhinan。danjiu“lijie”(verstehen)yu“chanshi”(auslegen)deyitixingyiji“chanshi”yicigengshiheyuzhexuechanshixueeryan,qie“chanshi”dehanyibi“quanshi”gengkuoda,gushiyixuanwuxianzaiqingxiangyubahermeneutikyiwei“chanshixue”。[viii]

chanshixue/jieshixue(hermeneutik)dehanyufanyizhinan,haizaiyutazailishishangjuyouduozhongyiyi,huozheshuotabenshendeyiyishidongtaidehebuquedingde,geweizhexuejia(chanshixuejia)duizhiyoubutongdefuyi。jinjiuqilishiyiyilaishuo,chanshixuezhishaoyousanzhonghanyi: yi、xiayidechanshixuefangfa,jiwenbenquanshidefangfalun;er、guangyidechanshixuefangfa,jirenwenkexuedeyibanfangfalun;san、zhexuechanshixue,jishicunluncunzaixue/bentilun,haidegeeryemingzhiwei“cizaidexianxiangxue”。

haidegeerhaiyoulingyizhonglijie。zai《cunzaiyushijian》“daoyan”zhong,haidegeerqufenhetaolunle“chanshixue”desanzhonghanyi: diyizhongyiyishangdechanshixueshicizaidexianxiangxue。“……xianxiangxuemiaoshudefangfayiyinaishichanshi(auslegung)。cizaidexianxiangxuedelogosjuyouhermenneuein[chanshi]dexingzhi。tongguozheizhongchanshi,cunzaidebenzhenyiyiyuzaibenjicunzaidejibenjiegoujiuxiangjuyucizaibenshendecunzaizhilijiexuangaochulai。cizaidexianxiangxuejiushichanshixue。”[ix]zheishijiu“chanshixue”yicideyuanshiyiyilaishuode——haidegeeryemingzhiweixianxiangxuede“haiyuan”(reduktion)。dierzhongyiyishangdechanshixueshiyao“zhenglichuyiqiecunzaixuetansuozhisuoyikenengdetiaojian”。[x]cijicunzaixue/bentilunlishizhijiegou——haidegeeryechengzhiweixianxiangxuede“jiegou”(destruktion)。disanzhongyiyishangdechanshixueshi“shicundeshicunlunjiangoudefenxigongzuo”[xi]。cijihaidegeerzai《cunzaiyushijian》zhongshishidecizaishicunlunfenxi——haidegeeryebatajiaozuoxianxiangxuede“jiangou”(konstruktion)。zheijiushihaidegeerzai《xianxiangxuedejibenwenti》zhongtichude“xianxiangxuefangfa”desangehuanjie: “haiyuan-jiegou-jiangou”。zaihaidegeeryanli,zhexueyiyishangdexianxiangxueyuchanshixueshiyitide,zhiyushiyixuanwushangmianjiangdezuoweirenwenkexuezhifangfalundechanshixue,haidegeershuotazhijuyou“paisheng”deyiyi,erqie“zhigenyudisanzhongyiyixiadechanshixue”。[xii]

十一选五2、ruhepinghengzhexuedechanshixueyufangfadechanshixue?

qianhaidegeerdechanshixue/jieshixueyizhijuyougongyilunhuofangfalunsecai。zaidiertaineili,chanshixuebeikuozhanguidingweilishixuederenwenkexue(jingshenkexue)defangfalun。erhaidegeergengjinyibu,ba“lijie”he“chanshi”sheweicizaizaishicunzaideshicunjiegou,congerbachanshixuetishengzhizhexue(shicunluncunzaixue)shuiping,shizhichengwei“zhexuechanshixue”。zaozai1924nianhe《shijiangainian》zhong,haidegeerjiuzheiyangxiedao: “chanshishiyuanchuderenshi。zaiqizhong,zhaoliaozhizhouweishijiezaiqizhiyin(zhankaizhuangtai)detuxianzhuangtaizhongdedaolejuyou。renshi(erkennen)naishi‘zaizhizhongcunzai’deyizhongjibenfangshi。zuoweizheiyangyigedongxi,renshibaochizaiyanshuoheyizhongdangxiadechushenqingtaizhong。yiqiejuezhi(kan、ting)doushijuyouchanshizuoyongde。zaichanshixingdejuezhihedingxiangzhuangtaizhong,cizaihuodezijideshijian(sicht)。”[xiii]zheiduanhuayiweishenzhang。suirancishidehaidegeerhaimeiyouxiangtazai《cunzaiyushijian》zhongneiyang,ba“lijie”(verstehen)he“chanshi”(auslegen)yu“renshi”(erkennen)yangequfenkailai[xiv],dantayijingba“chanshi”shiwei“yuanchuderenshi”,bingqierenweinapazuijiandande“ganzhi/juezhi”yejuyou“chanshizuoyong”。shiyixuanwubamouwukanzuoshenme,shiyixuanwubamourenkanzuoshenme,zheiyangjiandandezhiguanxingweiyeshiyizhong“juyouchanshizuoyongde”xingwei。guangpingzheiyidian,haidegeerjiuyijingbahusaierdexianxiangxuechanshixuehuale。

zai《cunzaiyushijian》zhong,haidegeerzeba“lijie”shiwei“renshi”huo“zhixing”deqiantixingdexingwei,er“renshi”huo“zhixing”zefanguolaizhidui“lijie”gouchengbaolixingwujie: “zhixing(verständigkeit)wulunshi‘lilunde’haishi‘shijiande’,douzhifanmangyukeyouxunshizhoulandecunzaizhe。zhixingdebiejuyigezhichuzaiyutazhiyiweizhejingyan‘shishishangde’cunzaizhe,yibianbaituoduicunzaidelijie(verstehen)。tahushile: suiranbujiandejilijielecunzai,danzhiyou‘shishishang’yilijielecunzai,cainengjingyandaocunzaizhe。zhixingwujielijie。suoyi,fanchaochuzhixinglejiezhiwaiheyaochaochuzhixinglejiezhiwaide,zhixingjiubiranbatashuochengshi‘qiangxingbaoshi’”。[xv]kejianhaidegeercishiyijingqingchudiyishidao,“zhexuechanshixue”derenwuzhiyishichaoyueduirenwenkexuedezhixingyaoqiuhefangfasuqiu,suoyitacaihuishuo,zuoweirenwenkexuezhifangfalundechanshixuezhijuyou“paishengde”yiyi,erqiezhigenyu“cizaishicunlun”。zheijiushishuo,danghaidegeerbafangfalunchanshixueguijiewei——jianjiyu——cizaishicunlunfenxishi,tayijingshichanshixueshiqule——zhishaoruohuale——fangfalundeyiyi。

十一选五houhaidegeerdechanshixue/jieshixueyangshizhongduo,tebiezhideshiyixuanwuzhuyidezhuyaoyouxialiesizhong: 1)jiadamoerdezhexuechanshixue,tajiaozhongshidiweihulehaidegeerdejuyoushicunlunxingzhidechanshixue,dantuozhan——fanhui——zhiyishu、lishiheyuyanzhiwei;2)apeierdexianyanchanshixue(youchengwei“xianyanyuyongxue”),tashituzaichanshixueheyuyongxuefangxiangshangzhongjiekangdeshide“xianyan”wenti,zhongjian“xianyanzhexue”;3)habeimasidepipan/fansichanshixue,tajieshouleapeierdexianyanchanshixue/xianyanyuyongxuesixiang,danjinerbachanshixueyuyishixingtaipipanjieheqilaile;4)baoluo·likedexianxiangxuechanshixue,tajianchihaidegeershidexianxiangxuechanshixue,shituyigenghongdadeshiyefazhanyizhong“zonghechanshixue”。

bixukandao,dangdaichanshixue/jieshixuedezheijidaleixinghuojinluyijingbiaoluchuyizhongzaichanshixueneibu“pingheng”chanshixuezhexue(zuoweizhexuedechanshixue)yuchanshixuefangfa(zuoweifangfadechanshixue)deyituhenuli。tamenduobankendinglehaidegeerdezhexuechanshixuesixiangchengguo,danxianranxinyoubugan,yiranxiwangchanshixuejuyoufangfalunyiyi,duijishushidaidezhexuerenwenkexuechanshengyizhongfangfashangdebaozhanghuozheshuofangfazizhuxing。yinci,duiyudangdaichanshixuehuozhechanshixuedeweilaijinzhanlaishuo,diyiweidewentiyiranzaiyu: ruhe“pingheng”chanshixuezhexueyuchanshixuefangfa,zailiangzhezhijianbaochimouzhongzhanglihedanxing?tebieshibaoluo·likedexianxiangxuechanshixue,yijingweiweilaichanshixuezhimingleyigezonghehuadefangxiang,zhideshiyixuanwuguanzhu。

3、ruhediaojiezirankexuede“shuoming”yurenwenkexuede“chanshi”?

十一选五chuleyaozaichanshixueneibu“pingheng”liangdachanshixueleixing,jizhexuechanshixueyufangfachanshixue,zuowei“zongtichanshixue”deweilaichanshixuehaimianlinzheyixiangrenwu: ruhezaichanshixuewaibu“diaojie”zuoweikexue(zirankexue)fangfade“shuoming”(erklärung)yuzuoweizhexuerenwenkexuefangfade“lijie-chanshi”(verstehen-auslegung)?shiyixuanwuzaizheilishiyonglelingyigedongci“diaojie”(ermeiyouyong“pingheng”huozheqita),yuanyinzaiyu,zirankexuede“shuoming”yurenwenkexuede“lijie/chanshi”zhijiandeguanxiwentimianlinzhexindeshidaichujinghexingshi,xuyaoyouyizhongxindegaibianhediaozheng。zhiyanzhi,danchundeduiliheduikangyijingwuyiqiadangdibiaodaliangzhedexinguanxile,weilaidechanshixuekenengxuyaogaibiancelve,jijidiaojieliangzhedeguanxi。

十一选五shiyixuanwuzhidao,chanshixuedeyixingqidejibendongyinzhiyishijindaizirankexuede“shuoming”yaoqiudepubianhua,jinicaisuoshuode“lilunwenhua”depubianhua。suirannicaisuoweide“lilunwenhua”yiji“kexueleguanzhuyi”shicongsugeladi-bolatuzhexuekaishide,erqiequeshidi,zaiyalishiduodeyijifanxilahuashiqijiuchuxianleyijihexueheluojixueweidaibiaode“xingshikexue”,danzaidangshi,yi“mofang”(mimesis)weizhutideguangyide“yishu”(techne)rengjiushizhuliuxuexihechuangzaofangshi;yizhiyaodaojindaiyihou,gudiande“mofangzhixue”fangshicaideyizhuanhuanwei“shuzhixue”,“xingshikexue”yiyishangde“shuxue”caichengweizhishidianfan,huozheshuo,dikaeryiyishangde“pubianshuxue”(mathemasis universalis)dezhishilixiangcaideyixingcheng。[xvi]

jibianzaidikaershidaiyeyijingchuxianlezeyihepipanzhisheng,suiranshengyinxiandexiangdangweiruo。yidalisixiangjiaweikeshouxianfawen: lishixuerenwenkexuekeyiyongshulifangshilaijiayitantaohebiaodama?weikeyoulvyushidaifengshang,xingcheng“shixingzhihui”shuoyifankangzhuliude“zhixingkexue”jilixingzhuyihekexuezhuyi,shijishangshoucitichulelishixuerenwenxuekedefangfazizhuxingwenti。zaiweikekanlai,“shixing”yu“zhixing”shibuliangli,huweixiaozhang,bukediaohe。hemashidaishixingqiangzezhixingruo,houlaidekexueshidaizefanguolaile,shizhixingqiangshengershixingluobai。zhi19shiji,zuoweishenxuejiadeshilaiermahede“pubianchanshixue”yijingshichanshixuebaituojubuxing,zhuanerchengweiyizhongpushiyuyiqiewenbenchanshidefangfa;diertaizejinyibutuijinweikeshidewenti,bachanshixuetishengweilishixuederenwenxuekedefangfalun。dangdiertaishuo“ziranxuyaoshuoming,ershengmingxuyaolijie”shi,tayijingbazirankexueyurenwenkexuedefangfaduiliyijirenwenkexuedefangfazizhuxingwentichongfentuxianchulaile。jiezhezaizhengge20shijidelishijinchengzhong,renmenguanyurenwenkexuededulixingdefangfalunzhuiwenyizhidoumeiyouxiaotingguo,suowei“shuoming-lijie/chanshizhizheng”chengweichijiudeshijizhizheng,canyuzhezhong,rujiadamoer、apeier、habeimasi、aerbotedengzhexuejia,douzhijiehuozhejianjiedicanyulezheichangzhenglun。

十一选五shizhijinri,shiyixuanwubixuchongfenkaolvdao20shijizhongqicaidedaoquerendewenmingdabianju。ruguoshuojindaidekejiyurenwenzhizhenghaizhishizaikejiwenmingshangshengshiqirenwenxuekedechubufanyinghefankang,neimezi19shijizhongqiyilai,suizhejishugongyezaiouzhoudequanmianshixianyijitongguozhiminhuazaiquanqiufanweineisuoxiangwudidepuzhan,yizhongkeyibeichengwei“jishurenleiwenming”dexinwenmingkaishixingcheng,chuantongde“ziranrenleiwenming”yijingshishihetuiyin,eryizhexuehezongjiaoweihexindechuantongrenwenkexuezhengshi“ziranrenleiwenming”dejingshenbiaodafangshi。makesishizuizaoganzhidaolezheizhongwenmingzhibiandezhexuejia;erdangnicaishuo“shangdisile”shi,taxianranyeyijingkandaolezheigedabianju,yuganleziranrenleijingshenbiaodatixideshuaibaihebengkui。zheihaishizai19shijizhonghouqi,zhiyoushaoshudexianzhizherencaikenengyongyouzheidengchaorenzhijian。zheizhongwenmingdabianjudezuihouquerenzeshi1945nianyuanzidandebaozha,yuanzidanxuangaole“jishutongzhishidai”daolai——xianzaihuiwang,shiyixuanwuyuanyitongyiyixiedizhixuejiadejianyi,ba1945nianshewei“renleishi”(anthropocene)dekaishi;ersuowei“renleishi”,congziranrenleijiaodulaishuo,qiaqiashirenleijinruquziranhuahuofeiziranhuaguochengde“feirenleishi”。[xvii]

十一选五diercishijiedazhanjieshuzhihou,xiandaijishuchengjiasufazhanzhitai,jishuduiyurenleishenghuogelingyudezhipeihekongzhiyuelaiyuejianguqiangshi,renwenxuekedebianyuanhuahekongxinhuayuyanyulie,eryucitongshi,zhongjianrenwenjingyanherenwenxuekedesuqiuyeyuelaiyuepoqie。guanjianwentizaiyu: ruhediaojiezirankexuede“shuoming”yurenwenkexuede“lijie/chanshi”?bixukandao,zai“renleishi”,zai“jishutongzhishidai”,jiandandibakejiyurenwen、jishuwenmingyuziranwenmingduiliqilai,kongpayijingmeiyouduodadeyiyi,suowei“jishutongzhi”zheigeshuofabenshenyijingxuangaoliangzhongwenmingdeqiehuanyijingwancheng,zuoweiziranrenleijingshenbiaodafangshidechuantongrenwenkexueyijingshuaibai,shenzhikeyishuoyijingshixiaole。raner,zheiyebingbuyiweizhezhexuerenwenkexuekeyigancuizibaoziqi,wanquanfangqidikangle,xiangfandi,shiyixuanwurenwei,renwenkexuebixuwanchengzishiyixuanwugengxinhezhongxindingwei,shouyaodi,shiyaowanchengcong“lishixing”dao“weilaixing”dezhongxindingxiang,zheijiushishuo,lishixuederenwenkexueyaozhuanhuanweiyishu-chuangzaoderenwenkexue。zaiciyiyishangkeyishuo,weilaichanshixuederenwuzhiyishi: zaidikangzhongjierujishushenghuoshijie,diaojielilunxingde“shuoming”yuyishuxingde“chanshi”zhijiandejinzhangguanxi。

十一选五4、ruhechishou“jiegou-jiangou”“yishu-zhexue”deerzhongchayihuayundong?

benwenqianmiandetaolunzhongshiyonglelianggedongci,biaomingweilaidechanshixueyaowanchengdelianggejibendongzuo: yishi“pingheng”,ershi“diaojie”。zheilianggedongzuoshiweilaidechanshixueyaozaiwaibuheneibuyibingzhixingdeliangxiangrenwu。zaicishiyixuanwuhaixiangtichudisangedongci“chishou”,shiyixuanwudewentitifashi: ruhechishou“jiegou-jiangou”“yishu-zhexue”deerzhongchayihuayundong?shiyixuanwurenwei,weilaidechanshixuegengyaoyixianxiangxuedesixiangzitaituidong“jiegou-jiangou”deerzhongchayihuayundong,kaipi“yishu-zhexue”huozhe“shi-si”“erzhongxing”chuangzaozhidao。

nicaizai《beijudedansheng》shiqijiuyijingxingchengleguanyuyishuyuzhexuezhierzhongxingguanxidejianjie,renwei“beijuyishu”shirenleishishangzuiweidadeyishu,eryuzhiduiyingdeweidazhexueshi“beijuzhexue”[xviii],liangzhezhijianbenyouzheyiqixiangtouyougesiqizhidepingquanguanxi,danjiezhedaolaidesugeladizhuyichedihuidiaolezheizhonglianghaoguanxi。nicaizhihouwenhuayundongdejibenketishidiaoshiyishuyuzhexuedeguanxi,congyizhongdengjiduikangguanxizhuanhuaweiyizhongpingdengjiaozhihuweideguanxi,houzhekeyichengwei“erzhongxing”。nicaiyebayishu-zhexuedeerzhonghuayundongchengwei“kongzhixingxiediao”,renweizhengshisugeladizhihoudexilawenhuasangshilezheizhong“kongzhixingxiediao”;houqihaidegeergengzaihouzhexuedeyiyishangmingzhiwei“shi-si”zhierzhongxing。

yuqiqianqizhexueyousuobutongdeshi,1930nianyihoudehouqihaidegeerbuzaikuotan“fangfa”yiji“xianxiangxue”he“chanshixue”deng,dantasuoweide“shi-si”erzhongxingguanxirengkehuisuzhiqianqixianxiangxueyiyishangde“jiangou-jiegou”zhi“erzhongxing”。zheilideguanjianwentikongpazaiyu: ruheqiadangdilijiehouqihaidegeeryi“erzhongxing”weibiaoshidesixiangfangshi?haidegeersuoweide“erzhongxing”(zwiefalt)bushi“eryuanxing”,bingbushijiandandeeryuanduilitongyidebianzhengfa,ershiyizhongchayihuadejiaozhiyundong。shiyixuanwukandao,houqihaidegeeryejingchangyi“qufen”(unterschied)“fenjie”(austrag)“jinlin”(nachbarkeit)dengshuofalaimiaoshuzheizhong“erzhongxing”——tajishicunzai/benyou(sein/ereignis)yundongde“erzhongxing”,yeshiyuzhixiangyingde“shi-si”“erzhongxing”。

十一选五zailichangshang,haidegeerde“erzhongxing”sixiangcelvekeyishuoshi“zhiliangduaneryongzhi”de“zhongdao”zitai。zaihaidegeerzheili,“zhongdao”zitaibushihexini,bushimouqiuzhezhonghexie,erdaoshirongrenchongtu、baochizhangli。nayishuyuzhexue(shiyusi)deguanxilaishuo,zai“erzhongxing”yiyishangde“zhongdao”yiweizhezaijinzhangzhonghudong,zaifenjiezhongshixian,cijihaidegeerde“shixingdesi”yu“sihuadeshi”。

20shijihoubanyejingchangbeiguangfanzhengyide“yishudezhongjie”he“zhexuedezhongjie”zhileideshuoci,wufeishiduishiyixuanwuqianmiansuotaolundeyi“renleishi”weibiaoshidewenmingdabianjudemiaoshu。yinci,“renleishi”deyishuyuzhexueshijianjingchangbeiguanyi“houyishu”he“houzhexue”,kewei“houyishudeyishu”he“houzhexuedezhexue”。tebiezaizhanhouxiandeyuelaiyueqiangshidedeguodangdaiyishuhefaguodangdaizhexue(rencheng“faguodangdaililun”)zhong,shiyixuanwuyijingkeyikandaonicaihehaidegeerdewenhualixiangdezhankaiheshixian,kechengwei“zhexueyishuhua”he“yishuzhexuehua”,erzheizhengshi“erzhongxingsixiangfangshi”detixian。

十一选五5 、zongjie: shexiangyizhongzongtichanshixuedekenengxing

十一选五benwendejibenmubiaozaiyushexiangyizhong“zongtichanshixue”(gesamt-hermeneutik)dekenengxing,yejiushiyaozhuiwen: dangdaichanshixueruhekenengchuangzaoxingdizonghezhexueyufangfa、kexueyurenwen、yishuyuzhexue,xingchengyizhonghansheduoyangtai、chaoyuechuantongxianxingshijianguanyijiyizhiweijichudechuantongrenwenxueke、zhimianjishutongzhidexinshenghuoshijie、jiyouzhexuegenjiyoubushifangfayiyideyishurenwenxueke(jingshenkexue)dejichuxuewenhesixiangfangshi。zheilisuoweide“zongtichanshixue”yishuo,shiyixuanwuzhuyaocanzhaole19shijideguoyishujialichade·wagenade“zongtiyishuzuopin”(gesamtkunstwerk)gainian,shiyixuanwurenweizheishidiyigedangdaiyishudelixiang。

shiyixuanwusuoweide“zongtichanshixue”bushiyaoyiweihuiguihebaoshouchuantong,ershiyaozhixiangweilai。zaishiyixuanwukanlai,zheishihaidegeertupodiertaichanshixue、kaichuanghechanfayizhong“zhexuechanshixue”degemingxinggongzuodeyiyisuozai,yinweizaihaidegeerneili,zheiyibushitongguoyizhongyiweilaihekenengxingweidingxiangde“shicunzhexue”detujinglaiwanchengde。haidegeeryoucishixianleshiyixuanwuqianmianmiaoshuderenwenkexuedezhongxindingxiang,chengrujiadamoersuoyan,zaihaidegeerneiliyijingdadaolezheiyangyigejibendongjian: “lishizhishigenjushiyixuanwudeweilaicaiduishiyixuanwucunzai”。[xix]chanshixuedeweilaishimingyiranzaiyu: mianxiangjishushidaidexinshenghuoshijie,weidikangjishutongzhi,weizhongzhenrenwenkexuetigongfangfashangdezhunbei。

guanyuyizhong“zongtichanshixue”,chulebenwenqianmianmiaoshudesanxiangrenwuzhiwai,shiyixuanwuhaiyuanyibuchongtichujigekenengdeyushe,huozheshuodingweihedingxiang:

shouxian,“zongtichanshixue”xuyaozhongxinquerenxianxiangxuedeqianti。baoluo·likecengmingyan: xianxiangxuekenengrengranshichanshixuedebukeyuyuedetiaojian。weishenme?likerenwei,husaierduichanshixuedegongxianyoulianggefangmian: yishihusaierdui“keguanzhuyi”depipan,zheizhongpipan“fanduizirankexuenengweirenwenkexuetigongweiyiyouxiaofangfalunmoshiderenshilunyaoqiu”,bingqiezhijiehuaiyi“diertaipaixiangweijingshenkexuetigongyizhongxiangzirankexuefangfaneiyangkeguandefangfadeshitu。”ershihouqihusaierbaduikeguanzhuyidepipanzhiru“shenghuoshijie”(lebenswelt)wentili,congerwei“lijiecunzailun”saoqingledaolu。[xx]likedeshangshuxiangfaguranmeicuo,danzaishiyixuanwukanlai,dangdaichanshixuezhisuoyixuyaozhongxinquerenxianxiangxuedeqianti,zuigenbendeyuanyinhaizaiyu,xianxiangxuechaichulexin-wueryuandeguannianlunchuantong,tebieshihusaierxianxiangxuede“benzhizhiguan”fangfa,baguannianshijie/benzhishijiehuozheshuo“chaoganxingshijie”ganxinghuale,jinerkaiqilekenengshiheyujishuxinshenghuoshijiedeguanlianxingsiwei。zaiciqiantixia,duoyuandeguanniangouchengfangshidegoutongcaishikenengde。

qici,“zongtichanshixue”yiranyaoyishicunzhexue(cunzaizhuyi)weichufadian。ruqiansuoshu,chanshixuefangfahechanshixuezhexuedexingqihefazhan,benlaijiushirenwenxuekeduibeijishugongyejiajudetongzhihuahezhiduhuadebenzhizhuyi(pubianzhuyi)chuantongdedikang。baoweigetiziyoushijintianheweilaideyishuhezhexuedegenbenshiming。baoluo·likezhichu: “renleiyouxiandebentilunrengranshizhexuesibiandeshiye”。[xxi]likezheilisuoweide“renleiyouxiandebentilun”zhidezhengshihaidegeeryiyishangde“cizaichanshixue”huozheshuo“shicunlunzhexue”。jintianshiyixuanwuhuitoulaikan,qiyu19shijizhongqideshicunzhexue/shicunzhuyisichaobingmeiyousuizhe20shijizhongqideouzhouxueshengyundongdezhongzhierchengweiguoqushi,xiangfan,tayirandangdaizhexuehedangdaiyishudechufadian。jiucieryan,dangdaichanshixue——shiyixuanwusuowei“zongtichanshixue”——haixuyaozhongshenshicunzhexuedejibenlichanghedongji,huodeqiantixingdezhunbeihefangxiangzhiyin。

十一选五zuihou,“zongtichanshixue”yingdangchengweiyizhongzonghefangfalun。jinguanzhexuerenwenkexuezai20shijiquyuruoshi,buduanshoudaoxiandaijishudejiyahezhipei,danyebixukandao,zheigeshijiyoushirenwensichaofencheng、renwenfangfayishijuexingdeshidai,zhuruxianxiangxue、shengmingzhexue、xinlifenxi、xinmakesizhuyi、jiegouzhuyi、dangdaiyishu、jiegoulundengxiandaiduoyuansichaohesixiangfangfa,tamensuiranyoubutongdezhexuechuantong,shuyubutongdezhesifangxiang,danyuchanshixuedouyouzhechengdubudengdeguanlian,zaishiyu、guanqie、dongjidengfangmianduoshaoyuchanshixueyouxianghezhichu,gengyouzhegongtongdejiyushidaisixiangchujingdefangfayaoqiu。“zongtichanshixue”xuyaoyikaifangdezitai,wanchengduixiandaiduoyuanfangfadetunshi。zhiyouzheiyang,tacaishikeqidaide。

zhushi

[i]系作者2019年12月11日上午在由中国社会科学杂志社、中国社会科学院-上海市人民政府上海研究等主办单位:十一选五_十一选五软件-手机版

十一选五[ii]haidegeer: 《zaitongxiangyuyandetuzhong》,dewenban,meiyinfalankefu,1985nian,di115ye;zhongyiben,sunzhouxingyi,shangwuyinshuguan,2015nian,di116-117ye。

[iii]cankanzhangjiang: 《“chan”“quan”bian——chanshidegonggongxingtaolunzhiyi》,zai《zhexueyanjiu》2017niandi12qi。

[iv]cankanhaidegeer: 《cunzaiyushijian》,zhongyiben(xiudingdierban),chenjiaying、wangqingjieyi,shangwuyinshuguan,2016nian。

[v]rukecanjiadamoerdeng: 《defazhizheng》,zhongyiben,sunzhouxingdengyi,shangwuyinshuguan,2015nian。

十一选五[vi]jiadamoer: “wenbenyuquanshi”,zai《wenji》di2juan,dewenban,tubingen,1993nian,di339ye;zhongyibencankanjiadamoerdeng: 《defazhizheng》,zhongyiben,sunzhouxingdengyi,shangwuyinshuguan,2015nian,di16-17ye。

十一选五[vii]jiadamoerdeng: 《defazhizheng》,zhongyiben,di18ye。

[viii]ciwaishiyixuanwurenwei,shiyixuanwuyebufangbaoliu“jieshixue”zheigejiyoudeyiming,buguozheishiyaoyouqiantitiaojiande,qiantishi,shiyixuanwukeyibaqizhongde“jie”lejiewei“lijie”(verstehen)zhi“jie”,baqizhongde“shi”lejiewei“chanshi”(auslegen)zhi“shi”。

[ix]haidegeer: 《cunzaiyushijian》,dewenban,tubingen,1993nian,diye;di37ye;zhongyiben,chenjiaying、wangqingjieyi,shangwuyinshuguan,2016nian,di53ye。

[x]haidegeer: 《cunzaiyushijian》,tongshang。

[xi]haidegeer: 《cunzaiyushijian》,dewenban,di38ye;zhongyiben,di54ye。

[xii]haidegeer: 《cunzaiyushijian》,tongshang。

十一选五[xiii]haidegeer: 《shijiangainian》,dewenban,meiyinfalankefu,2004nian,di37ye。

[xiv]haidegeeryouyan: “renshilixiangbenshenzhishilijiedeyizhongbianti”。cankanhaidegeer.《cunzaiyushijian》,dewenban,di153ye;zhongyiben,di218ye。

[xv]haidegeer: 《cunzaiyushijian》,dewenban,di315ye;zhongyiben,di430ye。

[xvi]参看拙文“模仿、数学与未来之学”,2019年12月14日在江苏师范大学教育学院主办单位:十一选五_十一选五软件-手机版

[xvii]cankanzhuowen“jishutongzhiyuleirenwenming”,zai《kaifangshidai》,2018niandi6qi。

十一选五[xviii]nicaijihuaxieyibenguanyu“beijuzhexue”dezhuzuo,xihuweinengwancheng。cankannicai《xilabeijushidaidezhexue》,keliban《nicaizhuzuoquanji》diyijuan,dewenban,niuyue/bolin,di799yeyixia。

十一选五[xix]cankanjiadamoer: 《zhexuejieshixue》,zhongyiben,xiazhenping、songjianpingyi,shanghaiyiwenchubanshe,1994nian,di8ye。jiadamoerzaicishangxiawenzhongyechengren,zheishihaidegeerjishiyixuanwudezhongyaojiaoyi,yinweihouzhezhanshileweilaiduiyushiyixuanwudehuiyihejiyiyijizhenggelishideshouyaodiwei。

十一选五[xx]baoluo·like: 《cunzaiyuquanshixue》,zaihonghanding(zhubian): 《lijieyujieshi——quanshixuejingdianwenxuan》,dongfangchubanshe,2001nian,di251ye。likezheilisuoweide“lijiecunzailun”(ontologyof understanding)shizhihaidegeerdechanshixuelujing,zheizaihendachengdushangyiweizheyaohuiguihaidegeerde“xianxiangxuedechanshixue”。

十一选五[xxi]baoluo·likeer: 《jieshixueyurenwenkexue》,zhongyiben,taoyuanhua、yuanyaodong、fengjundengyi,hebeirenminchubanshe,1987nian,di27ye。




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