十一选五

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时间: 2019-05-15 06:43:41 点击:

十一选五suiranfushanzai《lishidezhongjie》yishudekaipianjiumanhuaihaoqingdixuanbu: “ziyouminzhukenengxingcheng‘renleiyishixingtaijinbudezhongdian’yu‘renleitongzhidezuihouxingtai,yinci,yegoucheng‘lishidezhongjie’。” danziyouzhuyizaidangjinshijiemianlinzhequanmiandetiaozhan,zheiyishiyigebuzhengdeshishi。shiyixuanwukandao,ziyouzhuyimianlindewentishiduofangmiande,jiyoulilunde,yeyoushijiande,jiyouguannianshangde,yeyouzhidushangde,buguo,yuqishuoduiziyouzhuyidetiaozhanlaiziyutaxiangduidegezhongsixianglilun,burushuoshilaiziziyouzhuyineibu,yejiushishuo,ziyouzhuyizaitadeerbaiyuniandeyanbianzhong,zishenjiujinglileyigefuzadebianhuaguocheng,qizhongjiyouziyouzhuyineibudeyuanyin,yeyouwaibugezhonggeyangdesixiangpaibiejiqixianshiwentiduitadeyingxiang。yinci,heweiziyouzhuyi,heweiziyouzhuyideguannian、jiazhiyulixiang,heweiziyouzhuyideguizexitong、zhidumoshiyulilunfangfa,jiubiandegewaizhongyao。bugaoqingchuziyouzhuyideneizaililu,qufenzhenjiaziyouzhuyidexingtai,bawoziyouzhuyisuomianlindeshizhiwenti,renqingziyouzhuyineizaidejibenyuanze,jiunanyiyingduilaizixianshiyulilundenggegefangmiandetiaozhan。longtongdishuoziyouzhuyimianlinyanjundewenti,guranbuwudaoli,danshibuqueqiede,yinweidaomuqianyijinghennanshuohaiyousuoweideziyouzhuyi,jiujingnayizhongziyouzhuyicaishizhenzhengdeziyouzhuyi,nayizhongziyouzhuyizhibuguoshituyouqibiaodelilunfuhao,zheixiewentidouyuanmeiyoujiejue。yinci,shiyixuanwuzaiqianmianjizhangjiaoweixitongdikaochafenxilehayekedefalvyuxianzhengsixiangzhihou,bianshituconghayekedeziyouzhuyidejiaodulaikaochataduiyutiaozhandeyingdui,tebieshitatichudeziyouzhengyideguannianshiruheshulihechengqingzaiziyouzhuyineibuheziyouzhuyiyufeiziyouzhuyizhijianweiraozhezhengyisuochanshengdeyixiliewentide。

yi、ziyouzhuyishifoucunzaijiazhiweiji?

1、bolindewenti

十一选五jinguanziyouzhuyicongchuxianneitianqi,jiumianlinzhegezhonggeyangdepipingyupipan,rubaoshouzhuyi、shehuizhuyi、shehuiminzhuzhuyiheguojiazhuyidengcongyikaishijiucongbutongdefangmianduichuantongdeziyouzhuyitichuletiaozhan,danshi,gengjiayanjundetiaozhanyuweijicongmouzhongyiyilaishuo,haishilaiziziyouzhuyineibu,huozheshuo,ziyouzhuyineibudeyouguanziyouyupingdeng、falvyuziyou、ziyou、falvyuzhengyidengfangmiandemaodunchongtu,weigezhongfeiziyouzhuyiduiziyouzhuyidepipantigongleneizaidetupokou,congerdaozhileziyouzhuyizaijinliangbainiandelishibianqianzhongdeduocifenhua。liru,yingguoshideziyouzhuyiyufaguoshideziyouzhuyizhibutong,weideguogudianzhexuedeziyouliluntigonglebianzhengzhenghedesixiangziyuan,raner,yiheigeerzhexuedaibiaodedeguoshijiushijideziyoulinianjiuhennanshuoshiziyouzhuyide,congmouzhongyiyilaishuo,shenzhishiduiyingguoziyouzhuyideyizhongfandong。keshi,bukefouren,ruguomeiyoufaguosixiangzhongyouguanziyouzhuyidexintuozhan,meiyoulusuoyijifaguodagemingneizhongleixingdeziyouzhuyidetujin,jiubukenengyoudeguodeziyousixianglinian。deguodegudiansixiang,naizhiyoutapeiyuchulaideershishijiyilaizhanjuouzhoudaluzhudaodiweidegezhongliluntixi,ruguojiazhuyi、shehuizhuyi、jiquanzhuyi、cunzaizhuyiyijidangdaideshequnzhuyidengdeng,tamenyuyingguogudianziyouzhuyideduilishibuyaneryude,duici,hayekesihujuedemeiyoubiyaojiyugengduodejieshi。xiangbizhixia,hayekeduiyufaguosixiangquejiyulegewaideguanzhuheshenrudepouxi,tazaozai1955nianchubande《kexuedefangeming》yishuzhongjiuduiouzhoujinxiandaiyilaidelixingzhuyisixiangchuantongzuoguoshenrudepouxi,tebieshiduiyifaguoweidaibiaodeouzhoudaludelixingjiangouzhuyitichuleshenkedezhiyi,zaicihouguanchuantayishengdeyixiliezhushuzhong,doujinjinzhuazhufaguosixiangzheigebazilaichanshitadeziyouzhuyililunheguandian。zaitakanlai,faguosixiang,tebieshifaguodikaerdefangfahelusuodekendingxingdeziyouguan,shilijiezhenzhengdeyingguogudianziyouzhuyidecanzhaoxi,zhiyoutouchedilijielefaguosixiangdelixingsiweidejiangouxingyijizaideguozhexuezhongdejinyibufazhan,cainengzhenzhengdebawoyutaxiangduilidelingwaiyizhongyiyingguoputongfadesiweiweidaibiaodelixingchuantong。

十一选五yibanrendoubafaguodeziyouzhuyishiweiziyouzhuyideyizhongzhongyaodebufen,zhishaoyeshiqibukequeshaodeyigepaibie,raner,hayekerenwei,faguodeziyousixiangcunzaizhehendadewenti,tebieshiqiduiyuziyoudeqiangshiluojidetuichong,congmouzhongyiyishanglaishuo,budanbunengjieshiziyoudecunzaizhuangtai,fanerweiziyoudefanmianjinuyitigongyizhonglixingdeshuoming。hayekedezheiyiguandianshiyutatongshidaidelingyiweisixiangjiabolindeguandianxiangyizhide,zhanzailishidegaodulaikaochajinxiandaiyilaideziyouzhuyiyanbiandelicheng,jiuhuifaxian,faguokaiqidelingwaiyitiaoqiangshiziyoudesixianglujing,budanbushiziyouzhuyideqiadangdebiaoshu,fanerweijiquanzhuyidezhengzhizhidutigonglelilundeyiju。buguo,duiyuziyouzhuyidezuopailaishuo,tamenshibafaguodeziyouzhuyishiweizhenzhengdeziyouzhuyi,renweizheizhongfaguoshideziyouweirenleidezhengzhijiazhitigonglefuyoushengqidelilunzhicheng,duiciyihayekedengrenweidaibiaodeziyouzhuyideyoupaiquechixiangfandeguandian,tamenrenweifaguoshideziyouzuizhongzhihuidaozhizouxiangnuyizhilu。shiyixuanwukandao,jinxiandaiyilai,duiyuziyouzhuyidetiaozhan,hendayigefangmianshizhenduifaguodesixiangchuantongyijiyoucizhankaideshehuishijian。erhayekezhisuoyijinjindingzhufaguodeziyoulinianyulixingjiangouzhuyibufang,yeshiyinweitaqingxingdikandaoletasuodaozhidekepadezainan,suoyi,hayekeshitucongsuoweideziyouzhuyineibu,shuliziyouzhuyideneizailuoji,congerweizhenzhengdeziyouzhuyixunzhaolaiyicunzaidegenji。hayekezaitadeyixiliezhuzuozhongbuyanqifandiyicicizhongfukailietaxinmuzhongdeziyouzhuyidepuximingdan,jiuqiyuanyinyezhengzaiyuci。

十一选五dangran,ziyouzhuyicongchanshengzhiriqi,jiujinglizhebuduandebianhua,jibianshizaiyingguo,ziyouzhuyiyechuxianlegezhongxingshi,renmenyijinghennanjianghoulaidesuoweiziyouzhuyiyugudianziyouzhuyishiweiyiti,buguo,zaiershishijizhongyeyiqian,jinguanziyouzhuyiyichuxianleduozhongduoyangdexingshi,dancongzhenggeoumeisixiangdegejulaikan,faguoshideziyouzhuyiguanniansuochanshengdeyingxiangshizhiguanzhongyaode,anzhaohayekedefenxilujing,wulunshigonglizhuyishideziyouzhuyi,haishifuliguojiashideziyouzhuyi,qisixianglilundejichudoushuyudikaerdelixingjiangouzhuyi,doushilusuoshikendingxingziyoudeyizhongbirandejieguo。yuhayekedezheiyishijiaoxiangyizhi,benshijidelingwaiyigejiqiminruidesixiangjiabolintongyangfaxianleziyouzhuyizheiyishencengdewenti,bingqietichuleliangzhongziyouguandedongjian。bolinzai50niandaisuozuodeguanyu“liangzhongziyougainian”deyanjiang,renmenzaoyishuzhi,zaici,shiyixuanwusuoyaozhichudeshi,bolindeguandianshijishangshijiyuduiziyouzhuyilishiyanbiandeyizhongshenkekaocha,jieshileziyouzhuyineibudeliangzhongluojilujing。

buguo,shiyixuanwuzaicisuoshuode“bolinwenti”,quebingbushishangshubolinyouguanliangzhongziyougainiandekaobian,ershibolinyizaitichudeyigeyouguanziyouzhuyijiazhidehexinwenti,jiyiyuanyuduoyuandewenti。bolinzaiwannianyizhimianlinzheyigekunhuodewenti,neijiushiziyouzhuyidejiazhiweiji,shiyixuanwukandao,zuoweiyiweijingshendeziyouzhuyililunjia,bolinduiyuyixilieziyouzhuyidehexinmingtidouyouguoshenrudeyanjiu,tebieshiduiyuzhengzhiziyouzhuyideyixieguanjianwenti,tadejianjiewuyishishenkede。youguanliangzhongziyougainiandehuafen,jiushiyuanziziyouzhuyineibuduiyuerbaiyunianlishiyanbianzhongsuochanshengdewentideyizhongjiejuefangshi,weiyanjiuhefenbianziyouzhuyiyanbiandelishiguochengjiqixiangguandelilunfenqi,tigongleyizhongluojifenxidexinshijiao。suoyi,zheiyiguandianduidangdaideshehuizhengzhililunchanshenglezhongdayingxiang,cihou,kaochafenxiziyouzhuyi,jiubunengraokaibolindeliangzhongziyougainiansuojieshidewenti。raner,benshijiyilai,tebieshiershishijixiabanye,ziyouzhuyisuomianlindewenti,yibudanchunshiyouguanjijiziyouyuxiaojiziyouzhifenbianwenti,ruguoshuobolinyuhayekede“foudingxingziyou”jiejueleqianyigewenti,jimianyuqiangzhideziyou,neime,zhishaoduiyubolinlaishuo,zeweiyigegengguanjiandewentisuokunhuo,neijiushiziyouzhuyidezhengzhijiazhizhongyouguanyiyuanlunyuduoyuanhuadewenti,yejiushishuo,jiujingziyouzhuyidezhengzhijiazhishishenmeni?shifoucunzaini?ruguocunzaidehua,youruhejiejueyiyuanyuduoyuandemaodunni?

xianran,anzhaobolinduiyuziyouzhuyiderenshi,ziyouzhuyizhisuoyigouchengziyouzhuyi,jiuzaiyutachengrenyizhongduoyuandezhengzhizhuzhang,yejiushishuo,zaizhengzhijiazhifangmianziyouzhuyisuorentongdeshiyizhongduoyuandezhengzhi。tazhichu: “zaishiyixuanwukanlai,‘duoyuanzhuyi’(pluralism),yijitasuoyunhandexiaojiziyou,shibijiaozhenque、bijiaohehurenxinglixiangdezhuzhang,yaobineixiezaidaguimode、shoukongzhidequanweijiegouzhong,xunqiujieji、minzuhuoquanrenleijijizishiyixuanwuzuozhuzhilixiangderenshi,suochiyoudemubiao,gengweizhenque,yegenghehurenxing。duoyuanzhuyibijiaozhenque,yinweitazhishaochengren: renleidemubiaobuzhiyige,erzheixiemubiao,yeweibidounengyongtongyidebiaozhunjiayibijiao,qizhongyouxuduohaibuduanduilikangzheng。renweisuoyoudejiazhi,doukebiaokezaitongyigechidushang,shiyixuanwuzhiyaojiayijianshi,jikeyijuedinghezheweizuigaojiazhi,zheiyileilundiao,zaishiyixuanwukanlai,sihuweibeileshiyixuanwurenwei‘renleishiziyoudexingweizhe’dezhishi,erqiejiangdaodejueze,wushiweiyuanzeshangkeyiyongjisuanchihengliangwanchengdeyizhonggongzuo。”

weici,bolinzaitayixiliezhushuzhongconglianggefangmianjiyulelunzheng: shouxian,shiyixuanwukandaotaduiyujiazhiyiyuanluncaiqulepipandetaidu,tongguojieshiyiyuanlundemiuwu,congbatadejiazhiduoyuanlunbiaoshuchulai。neizhongrenweisuoyouwentidoubiranyouyigezhengquededaan(zhenli),jisuowei“zhenlizhiyouyige”,suoyouqitadaanbirandoushimiuwudeguandian,shixifangsixiangchuantongzhonggenshendigudesixiang,tarenwei,duijiazhiyiyuanlunhewenhuayiyuanlundeqiangliesuqiu,congshizhishangshuonaishiduiyuduoyuanjiazhidekongju,duichayihebuquedingxingdekongju,neizhongguanchuanyuerqiannianlaidexunqiutongyixingdesuqiu,qisixianggenyuanzezaiyutasuoweide“aiaoniyamiuwu”(ionian fallacy),jiguxilazhexuedemiuwu,bolinzhichu: “renleilixiangquanbushixiandeguannian,benshiyizhongxingshishangdemaodun,shiyizhongxingershangdewangxiang。”zaitakanlai,ziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhexueruguocunzaidehua,bunengshizheizhonglixingdeyiyuanlun,eryinggaishiyizhongjiazhiduoyuanzhuyidezhengzhiguan,zaishoudanyimubiaozhipeideshehuili,shibucunzaizhenzhengdezhengzhiwenti,“zhengzhizhexueyinweijiazhideduoyuanxingercunzai”,yinci,xunqiujiazhiduoyuanzhuyiyuziyouzhuyideneizaiguanxi,jiuchengweibolinsixiangdeyige“zhongxinwenti”。geleixiedao,neigeshibolinlilunfuyoushengminglide“jiazhiduoyuanlun,qiyisishi,xuduozhongjirenleijiazhishikeguande,danyoushibukeguiyuediduoyanghuade;zheixieduoyangdejiazhishichongtuzhede,erqiejingchangshibunenghexiegongcunde;youshi,jizaitamenbicichongtudeshihou,tamenshibuketongyuede,jishishuo,meiyourenhehelidechidunengduitamenjiayibijiao。”

十一选五weileshuomingtadeduoyuandejiazhililun,bolinbatadeyanjiushixiantouxianglelishi,qituzaisixiangshidehuajuanzhongxunzhaotadezhiyin。bolinfaxianzaozaiweikedesixiangzhongjiuyouhenduofuyouqifaxingdezhuojian,weikezheiweitachengzhiwei“xiandaiwenhuaguanhewenhuaduoyuanzhuyizhifu”deshibashijizaoqideyidaliren,tadeweidazhichuzaiyutichuleyizhongxindewenhualilun,tarenweimeiyizhongzhenzhengdewenhuadouyouzijidutedeshijieguan,douyouzijidejiazhichidu。bolinhaifaxiantongyangdesixiangyecunzaiyudeguoqimengsixiangjiaheerdeneili,bolinbaheerdedeguandianjieshiwei: “jiazhibushipubiande: meigerenleishehui,meigeminzu-------doujuyoutazijidutedelixiang、biaozhun、shenghuo、sixianghexingweifangshi。nenggougenjuyigedanyideyoulieshunxuduibutongdewenhuaheminzuzuogaodipaixudepubianqieyonghengbubiandepanduanbiaozhunshibucunzaide。”bolinrenwei,zhengshishangshujiazhiduoyuanzhuyigouchengletadeziyouzhuyideyaozhi,yinweiziyouzhuyibunengyisuoweideziyouweipanduanyiqiedejueduibiaozhun, bolinyishengdequanbunuli,jiushizhiliyubaweikeheheerdetichudejiazhiduoyuanlunhewenhuaduoyuanluntishengdaoziyouzhuyijichuhehexindegaodu。geleizhichu: “zhengshizaibolinfanbozheizhongyiyuanlunhuanxiangdeguochengzhong,tichuletadeyiduoyangxingherenleizhenzhengdeshandebuketongyuexingweijichudeduoyuanlunzhuzhang。zheizhongduoyuanlunyeshitadeziyouguanshengqibobo。foudingdeziyouzhisuoyibeichengzanhebeidangzuoshiyizhongjibendeziyou,jiushiyinweitazuifuherenleimudeheshandejingzhengdeduoyangxing。”

juci,bolindeziyouzhuyijiuxianshichujibutongyuchuantongdeziyouzhuyiyebutongyuxiandaiziyouzhuyidedutedetexing,youyutabajiazhideduoyuanxinghebuketongyuexingshiweijibendelixingjichu,neimetasuoweideziyouzhuyijiubushiyizhongjiyuyiyuanjiazhizhishangdeziyouguan,yezhengshiyinweici,tafanduiduiyuziyoudekendingxinglijie,tarenweikendingxingziyouruguozouguoletou,jiuhuilunweiqiangzhixingdeele。bolindezhuzhangshiyizhongxuanzedeziyouzhuyi,jizaiduozhongjiazhizhijian,renmenkeyigenjuzijideyuanwang、yaoqiuhexuyaoxuanzezijidejiazhi,bolincongbeidaoerchidewenhuaxingshizhijiandeshenkejiazhichongtuzhongdechudeyigejielun,jiushibukenengyouchaoyueyiqiewenhuadeziyouyuanze,yemeiyoujibenquanlihuojibenziyoudejiegounengshidezheixiewenhuaxingshideneirongshiquedingdebingshidetamendezuoyongshihexiede。xiangfan,chongtuhekebianxingbeiyinruziyoudeguannianzhong,yirushiyixuanwudeziyoujiushishiyixuanwujimeiyourenhechaowenhuadelixingbiaozhunkexunyoubixuzaijingzhengdehebuketongyuedejiazhizhongjinxingxuanzeshideziyou。

十一选五bolinbaxuanzenenglishiweirenleiqubieyudongwudeyizhongjibentexing,tayuanyurendelishidejinhuaheshengmingdejingli,shiyizhongyouxianlixingdechanwu,erfeijueduiyizhidechanwu,tarenweizhengshirendezishiyixuanwuxuanzehuodongzairenmendexingweihexingzhizhongdaorulebuquedingxingdeyinsu,renzhinengzaizheizhongdaiyouzhegezhongbudingxinghezhuiqiuzhongzhongxinqixingdeqiannengdexuanzenenglizhong,erbushizaineizhongjiadingshiyongjiububiandeyibanxuyaozhong,faxianrendezuituchudetezheng。youcikejian,zhengshirenleidexuanzenenglihetongguoxuanzehuodongweizijichuangzaoleduoyangdebenxing,shirenleideshehuishenghuotixianchufengfudeduoyangxingtezheng。danjinguanruci,geleiyefaxianlezairenleidezhongzhongxuanzedeziyoudangzhong,cunzaizhemouzhong“weiyizhilundeyinsu”,youyubolinduiyupubianyuanzededishitaidu,bingbarenmenduiyuduoyangjiazhidequshejiaojilerendemouzhongbuquedingxingdexuanzenengli,neime,xianranjiuwufapaichurendexuanzederenyi,naizhiduduan。yinggaizhichu: “bolinyouxiandeduoyuanlunyexuyaozheixiepubianyuanze。raner,lingrenbujiedeshi,ziyouzhuyideyuanzequebuzaiqizhong。bolindeduoyuanlunyihanweiziyouzhuyiqijia,jieguoqueshirenkeleziyouzhuyideyigezuixiongedediren——shequnzhuyi。”shiyixuanwukandao,zheizhongduoyuanzhengzhibenshenjiushideziyouzhuyimianlinzheyigezishendenanti,neijiushiziyouzhuyibuzaishiyizhongjiazhizhuzhang,ershiyizhongfangfa,jiziyouzhuyijiangzijijiedingweiyizhongkeyirongnaduozhongzhuzhangdezhengzhipingtai,ziyouzhuyibenshenzhishiyizhonggongjuhuoyizhongfangfa,erzaicizhizhong,keyirongnaduozhongguandian。zheiyangyilai,ziyouzhuyibenshenshifouhaijuyouzijidedutejiazhini?bolinjiejuedefangshishiziyoudexuanze,zheiyangzaibolinneili,ziyouzhuyiwulunruhedoutaotuobulezheiyikunjing: ruguochengrenziyouzhuyishiyizhongjiazhi,neimetajiuhuiyuzuoweiyizhongfangfadeduoyuanzhuzhangxiangmaodun,ruguotabuzaishiyizhongjiazhi,neimetayouruhetigongyigebiaozhunlaipanbieqitadejiazhizhuzhangzhihelixing。xianran,bolinmianlindezheiyikunhuo,duiyuziyouzhuyidezhengzhililunshizhimingde。

anzhaochuantongdeguandian,ziyouzhuyidangranshiyizhongdutedezhengzhijiazhiguan,tayouzheduiyuziyou、zhengyi、minzhu、pingdengdengyixiliejiazhigainianderenshi,guanyuzheixiefangmianderenshiyijingchengweixiandaishehuidejibengongshi,bingqienarulexiandaizhengzhizhidudekuangjiazhinei,shiyixuanwukandao,jinxiandaidelixianminzhuzhengzhicongzongtishanglaishuo,jiushizheiyangyizhongziyouzhuyizhengzhijiazhiguanniandezhiduhuatixian。danshi,wentizaiyuziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhuzhangqiaqiazaitadeluojishenchuyoubiaoxianchuleyigebeilun,neijiushiyizhaoziyouzhuyidezhengzhiluoji,tasuobiaoxianchulaidejiazhizhuzhangqiaqiashiduiyuzishenjiazhideyizhongjiechu,jitongguojianliyizhongduoyuanzhengzhidejiazhizhuzhang,erweigezhongqitadezhengzhijiazhitigongyigepingdengcunzaidewutaihuochangsuo,youcikejian,ziyouzhuyidejiazhisuotixiandeqiaqiashiweitarenzuojiayi,erbushiweizijideyiyuanzhuzhangbianhuhuozhiweizijijianliyigejiazhizishiyixuanwushixiandezhengzhiwutai。

ruguoshuoziyouzhuyizaiqizaoqi,youyucezhongyutongguoduigezhongzhuanzhijiquanzhuyidepipanertichuzijideduoyuanzhengzhiguan,tadeshangshuneizaimaodunyinzhengzhiduishoudecunzaihaibingbumingxian,neimebenshijiyilai,tebieshixiandangdaiyilai,suizhezhuanzhijiquanzhuyizaililunshangyuziyouzhuyilunzhandeshibai,tebieshisuizheshijieyitihuajinchengdejiasuyijiduoyuandeshijiezhengzhigejudejianli,dangziyouzhuyidejibenlinianyijingchengweipubiangongshideshihou,taturanfaxianzijizaiweihuduoyuanzhengzhizhuzhangzhiji,zijidezhizhuxingjiazhifanershiqulelishenzhichu,jiziyouzhuyizaichangdaoduoyuanzhengzhideshihou,zaiduoyuanzhengzhizhongdelilungejuzhong,tazijifanershiquleguyoudejiazhidingwei,chengweiyizhongrenhelilundoukeyinalaishiyongdegongjuhuoshouduan,zheiyangyilai,jiuchuxianlelianggefangmiandewenti。

yigefangmian,zheizhongziyouzhuyidegongjuhuakeyishuoshiziyouzhuyidechenggongzhisuozai,yejiushishuoziyouzhuyidezhengzhijiazhiqiaqiabingbuzaiyutuchuziji,ershizaiyunenggouweiqitaduoyuandezhengzhisuoshiyong,chengweitamenlaiyicunzaidezhidujichu,zhengshiziyouzhuyideduoyuanzhengzhizhuzhang,caishideduoyuanzhengzhizhongderenheyiyuandounenggoucunzai,doujuyoucunzaidehefaquanli。danshi,wentizaiyulingwaiyigefangmian,yejiushishuo,ruguoduoyuanzhengzhinenggouruziyouzhuyisuoyujideneiyang,zaiyigepingdengdekuangjianeizhankaiduoyuanduihua,neimeziyouzhuyidezheizhonggongjuhuagongnengyexujiayousuozhi,ranerqingkuangbingfeiruci,zheizhongduoyuanzhengzhigejuzhongdegefangwangwangzaiziyouzhuyizishenjiazhituiyindeshihou,fanerbiaoxianchuleyizhongqianghuadequshi,tamenbudanzaiduoyuanzhengzhigejuzhongjilishenzhangziji,shenzhidayouyadaoduishouerzouxiangyiyuanhuadezhengzhiqushi。shiyixuanwukandao,shimiteduiyuziyouzhuyidepipan,yezhengshijiyutakandaolezheizhongduoyuanzhengzhizhongsuokenengdaozhidequannengguojialilun,qiaqiashicongziyouzhuyisuotigongdeneizhongduoyuanzhengzhipingtaizhongsuochanshengchulaide。yinci,duiyuziyouzhuyilaishuo,ruguotajinjinshizuoweiyizhongjishuxinggongju,jinjinshiweiqitadeduoyuanzhengzhitigongpingtai,erzishiyixuanwuzuoweiyizhongjiazhizixingtuiyindehua,neimezheizhongziyouzhuyideduoyuanzhengzhiguanjiuyoukenengshiquetadechuzhong,weigezhongzhuanzhijiquanzhuyichangkaifangbianzhimen。yinci,bixuqiangdiaoziyouzhuyibenshenyiranshiyizhongdulidejiazhizhuzhang,tabunengzaitigongpingtaideshihouzishentuiyin,eryinggaijianchizuoweiyizhongdulidezhengzhijiazhizaiduoyuanzhengzhigejuzhongzhanyouyixizhidi。

raner,bolindekunhuoyezhengzaiyuci。yinweiziyouzhuyiruguozuoweiyizhongzhengzhijiazhidehua,neimetajiumianlinzhegengshendeyigewenti,jitajiranshitigonglepingtai,youqituzuoweizheigepingtaizhongdeyigedulidedanyuan,neitazaiduoyuanzhengzhijiegouzhongyuqitadezhengzhijiazhijiuchuzailebupingdengdediwei,huozheshuotachuzaileyouxiandediwei,erzheiyidianqiaqiashiziyouzhuyidezhengzhiyuanzesuofanduide。weishenmezheiyangshuoni?yinweizhengzhishiwuyekeyishizhiweiyichangzhengzhiyouxi,jiranziyouzhuyiweizheigeyouxizhidingleyitaoyouxiguize,jijianlileyigeziyouzhuyiduoyuanzhengzhidepingtai,neitayouruhenenggouzuoweizheigepingtaizhongdeyiyuancanyuyouxihuodongni?danshi,ruguotabucanyuzhengzhiyouxi,neiqiqitadecanyuzhejibianshizunxunzheziyouzhuyideyouxiguize,yerengrankenengdaozhiziyouzhuyisuoburentongdejieguo。zheiyang,shiyixuanwujiuhuifaxian,ziyouzhuyisuojianlidezheigepingtaijiduoyuanhuadezhengzhigeju,jiuhenyoukenengmianlinzhezhongdayinhuan,benlaiziyouzhuyidezongzhijinjinshijianlileisiyuyouxiguizededuoyuanhuazhengzhipingtai,yizhaoyouxiguize,tayinggaibuwenjieguoruhe,zhiwenguizeshifoudedaozunshou,raner,shijishangziyouzhuyibenshenyoubukenengwanquanpaichutadejiazhiqingxiang,ruguozaizheigeduoyuanzhengzhipingtaizhongderenheyiyuanqudeleyadaoxingdeshengli,neimeqijieguohenkenengbingfeiziyouzhuyisuoyuan,ershimouzhongxingshideyiyuanduduanzhuyi,shenzhidaozhijiquanzhuyi,erzheiyoushiyuziyouzhuyidejibenyuanzegenbenduilide。zheiyangyilai,ziyouzhuyidezheizhongduoyuanzhengzhidejieguojiuyutadejiazhiyushexingchenglezhongdademaodun,yinweitabukenengshixianjiadingduoyuanzhengzhigejuzhongderenheyiyuanzaijiazhizhuzhangshangshiyuziyouzhuyixiangyizhide,shenzhiduoyuanzhengzhideduoyuanxingqiaqiatixianletabaoronglegezhonggeyangdezhengzhifenqi,danshi,yizhaoziyouzhuyidejiazhiyushe,qizhongderenheyizhongzhengzhizhuzhangyoudoubunengzaizheizhongzhengzhiyouxizhongqudejueduideshengli,erziyouzhuyizaizhidingzheizhongpingtaideyouxiguizeshi,youbukenengshixianpaichuzheiyangdejieguo,yinci,ziyouzhuyidepingtaizhengzhijiumianlinzheshizhishangdeduoyuanyuyiyuandezhongdachongtu,ruguozheigewentibunengconggenbenshangjiejue,neimeziyouzhuyijiumianlinzhejietideweixian。

shiyixuanwukandao,lingwaiyigezhengzhixuejiashitelaosiyetongyangfaxianleziyouzhuyizhengzhililunzhongyouguanyiyuanyuduoyuandeneizaichongtu,yubolindetaiduyousuobutong,tamingquetichuleziyouzhuyidejiazhiweijiwenti,zaitakanlai,ziyouzhuyizheiyineizaidefangfayujiazhishangdechongtu,shiziyouzhuyidezuidananti,ziyouzhuyiwufazaiweihuzhengzhiduoyuandetongshijianchitadeyiyuanlunjiazhilichang,ruguotajiangzijishiweiyizhongdulidezhengzhijiazhi,neitajiubukenengzhuzhangduoyuanzhengzhi,bukenengweiduoyuanzhengzhitigongyigezhengzhipingtai,erruguotazhishizhizaitigongyizhongduoyuangejudezhengzhipingtai,neitadejiazhizhuzhangjiujiangtuiyinerqu,zheiyangyilai,suoweiduoyuandezhengzhipingtaiyejiunanyiweixi,qijieguobiranshiyichangzhengzhidouzhengzhihousuochanshengdeqiangzhedezhengzhitongzhi。zaizheiyidianshang,shitelaosiyushimitedechulexiangtongdejielun,yitamenzhijian,duoyuanzhuyizhengzhibukenengzhangjiu,huozheshuoziyouzhuyideduoyuanzhuyishibukenengcunzaide,yaomeshiziyouzhuyi,yaomeshiduoyuanzhuyi,bukenengyouziyouzhuyideduoyuanzhuyi。

十一选五zhenduizheizhongduoyuanyuyiyuandezhengzhijiazhideneizaichongtu,shitelaosiyushimitesuotigongdejiejuefanganyoushibutongde。shimiteqiangdiaodeshitongguoyizhongguojiazhuyideyiyuanlunlaijiejueduoyuanlunwenti,tazai《zhengzhidegainian》mengliepengjiziyouzhuyizhengzhilinian,zhichuyaolijiezhengzhidebenzhibixuhuidaozhenshiderenleizhuangkuangjihuobusisuoweideziranzhuangtaizhizhongqu,liweitanshirenleizhengzhidezhenshiqidian,zaiguojiadefalvzhidubeihou,zhichengzhetadeshiguojiadexingershanglixing,huoheigeeryiyishangdeguojialunliheguojiajingshen。duiyushitelaosilaishuo,guojiazhuyidezhengzhiyiyuanlunyeshiyouwentide,shitelaosibatadeshidiantouxianglegudai,zaiduigudaizhengzhishenxuezuoleyifanshenrudekaobianzhihou,tazhichuguxiladegonghezhengzhishizuihaodezhengfuxingshi,zaizheizhongtizhixia,yongyoutudidedizhujieji、chengshiguizuzhishudali,rexingongyishiye,rangtamenlunliuzhizheng,jikeyizunjishoufa,younengweihufalvdezunyan,quebaofalvdeshishi。shiyixuanwukandao,gonghezhuyidezhengzhiguanniancongmouzhongyiyishanglaishuo,yiranshiziyouzhuyideyigelilunyuanyuan,tazaijinxiandaidexifangzhengzhisixiangshizhongyecengduocichuxian。liru,meiguodelianbangdangrensuozhuzhangdejiubushiyibanyiyishangdeminzhuzhuyi,ershigonghezhuyi,yixiebaoshoudezhengzhililunjiarubokedengrenyedoushigonghezhuyi,zhiyuxiandaidezhumingzhengzhililunjiaalunteyeshiyiweigonghezhuyizhe,taduiyujiquanzhuyidepipanguranyouziyouzhuyidechengfen,dangengduodeshixiqulegudaidegonghezhuyichuantong。ciwai,zhidezaiciyitideshi,hayekedeziyouzhuyililunqishijiuyouhenduogonghezhuyideyinsu,tadexianzhengmoshicongmouzhongyiyishanglaishuoyexiqulegudaigonghezhuyidezhengzhichuantong,rusanquanwucengdexianfajiegou、chuncuilifayihuideshezhiyuzuchengdengjiuyoumingxiandegonghezhuyisecai。zongzhi,zhenduiziyouzhuyineizaideyiyuanyuduoyuandezhengzhijiazhichongtu,gonghezhuyidezhengzhifanganwuyijuyouzhongyaodeqifayiyi。

2、luoersidejiejuefangfa

十一选五ziyouzhuyisuomianlindewentizaibolinneilihaizhishiyigekunhuo,erduiyuluoersilaishuo,ziyouzhuyibixujianliyizhongxindelilun,zhengshijiyuziyouzhuyiyouguanjiazhiyiyuanyuduoyuandeneizaimaodun,luoersizai《zhengyilun》zhihou,zhuanxielelingwaiyibenzhongyaodezhuzuo《zhengzhiziyouzhuyi》。luoersidezheiyizhuzuokeyishuoshizhenduiziyouzhuyizhengzhililunsuomianlindeweijiertichudeyizhongxinfangan,jiucilaikan,zhengxiangluoersizijisuozhichude,zheibushuzhongsuotichudeyixiezhuyaoguandianyiyu《zhengyilun》yousuobutong,taxiedao: “zaishiyixuanwudui《zhengyilun》yishumudedegaishuzhong,shehuiqiyuelunchuantongbeikanzuoshidaodezhexuedeyibufen,meiyouqufendaodezhexueyuzhengzhizhexue。zai《zhengyilun》zhong,yizhongpubianfanweidedaodezhengyixueshuomeiyouyuyizhongyangedezhengzhizhengyiguannianqubiekailai。zaiwanbeixingdezhexuexueshuo、daodexueshuoyuxianyuzhengzhilingyudezhuguannianzhijianyeweizuorenheduibi。raner,zaibenshuzheixieyanjiangzhong,zheixiequfenjixiangguanlinianquezhiguanzhongyao。”yinci,tazai《zhengzhiziyouzhuyi》yishusuojianlideziyouzhuyidezhengzhililun,shouxianyaojiejuedebianshiyizhongzhengzhizhengyidedixianyuanze,jibagezhonglilunzhuzhangdewanbeixingneirongcongzhengzhicengmianshangpaichuchuqu,erzaicijichushangjianliyizhongziyouzhuyidezhengzhiyiyuanlun。weicitaxiedao: “zhengzhiziyouzhuyidewentishi: yigeyouziyouerpingdengdegongmin——tamenyingezhonghehulixingdezongjiaoxueshuo、zhexuexueshuohedaodexueshuoerchanshengleshenkedefenhua——suozuchengdewendingergongzhengdeshehuizhizhangzhijiuanruhekeneng?zheishiyigezhengzhidezhengyiwenti,erbushiyigeguanyuzhishandewenti。”

zhenduibolin、shitelaosi、shimitedengrensuojieshideziyouzhuyidezhengzhijiazhiweiji,luoersitichudejiejuefanganqiguanjianzaiyujiangzhengzhizhengyiyushehuizhengyiqufenkailai,bazhengzhizhengyijiedingweiyizhongchunxingshidegonggonglixing,yejiushishuo,tabaziyouzhuyizaiduoyuanyuyiyuanshangdejiazhichongtutongguoyizhongxindezhengzhiyiyuanluneryuyijiejue。shiyixuanwukandao,zheizhongxindedeyiyuanlunzailuoersineilibingbushichuantongziyouzhuyisuorenweideneizhongneirongdeyiyuanlun,ershiyizhongxingshideyiyuanlun,zaitakanlai,chuantongziyouzhuyiwangwangbazhengzhijiazhijiedingweiyizhongwanbeixingdeshanlinian,zheiyangyilai,jiuyuziyouzhuyideduoyuanlunzhuzhangfashenglemaodun,bolinsuoshuodeyiyuanyuduoyuandechongtuqiaqiashiyizhongwanbeixingdeziyoulilunyuqitawanbeixingdezhengzhililunzaiziyouzhuyidezhengzhipingtaizhongsuodaozhidechongtu,eryouciyegouchengleziyouzhuyizishenneibudejiazhizhuzhangyugongjuxingshidemaodun,zheiyimaodunkeyishuoshiziyouzhuyizhengzhizhexuesuomianlindezuishenkedenanti,luoersiqitutongguobaziyouzhuyidewanbeixingneironghaiyuanweiyizhongxingshishangdejiaochagongshi,eryuyijiejue。luoersijiangtadezheizhongfangfachengzhiweizhengzhixuedejianfayuanze,tongguozheiyijianfayuanze,tabudanxiaochuleziyouzhuyidewanbeixingneirong,erqieyexiaochuleqitaduoyuanzhengzhililundewanbeixingneirong,bingzhizaiyiyuanyuduoyuantuoxieyizhidexingshijidianshangdachengzuidicengmiandelixinggongshi。

十一选五zaishiyixuanwukanlai,luoersidezhengzhiziyouzhuyizhuyaoyouruxiasangeyaodianzhichengzhetadejibenguandian。diyi,luoersizhenggezhengzhiziyouzhuyidejishishitatichudejiaochagongshidehexingainian。zaitakanlai,zhisuoyinenggoudachengziyouzhuyiyiyuanyuduoyuandehejie,bingqietigongyigeziyouzhuyizhengzhidepingtai,rongnagezhonggeyangdezhengzhizhuzhang,guanjianzaiyurenmenzhijiancunzaizheyizhongjiaochagongshi。suoweijiaochagongshinaishizhijiyubutongdewanbeixingguandiandeduoyuanzhuzhangzaimougecengmianshangsuodachengdeyizhongduiyugongtongkeyijieshoudejiazhidegongshi,suirangenjubutongdewanbeixinglilunerduizheigejiazhidekanfayousuobutong,danzaizhengzhicengmianshang,tamenquekeyipaochuqijian,batazuoweiyizhongkeyigongtongjieshoudegonggongjiazhijiayirenke,bingzaicidadaoyizhonggongshi,suoweijiaochazhideshibutongguandianzaimougedianshangdejiaohuidiehe。yitazhijian,suirangezhongwanbeixinglilunjiuzishenlaishuo,tamenyouguanzhengzhijiazhidezhuzhangshigebuxiangtongde,shenzhishixianghuduilide,danshitamenzaimougejibendezhengzhiyuanze、zhengzhilinianhuozhengzhizhidushangqueshikenengdadaomouzhongxianghuyizhiderentong,yinci,zhengshizaizheiyijiaochagongshishanggouchengleziyouzhuyizhengzhipingtaidechufadian,suoweizhengzhiziyouzhuyiqiaqiashizaizheiyijiaochadegongshidianshangjianliqilaide。youyugezhongwanbeixinglilunzaijiaochagongshishangqudelemouzhongxingshishangdejibenyizhi,suoyiyejiubuhuichanshengjuliedechongtuyudouzheng,ershiduoyuanhuadejiaohuiyuronghe,zhishaoshibaozhengleyizhongzhidushangdepingwenyuanding。luoersixiedao: “yinci,weilelejiezhixulianghaodeshehuizenyangcainengdadaotongyihewending,shiyixuanwuyinjinlezhengzhiziyouzhuyidelingyigejibenlilun,gaililunyuzhengzhidezhengyilinianxiangfuxiangcheng,tajiushigezhonghehulixingdewanbeixingxueshuodachengzhongdiegongshidelilun。zaicizhonggongshizhong,gehehulixingdexueshuodouconggezideguandianchufagongtongrenkezheiyizhengzhiguannian。shehuidetongyijianlizaiduigaizhengzhiguanniandegongshizhijichushang;erzhiyouzaidachenggongshidegezhongxueshuodedaozhengzhishangjijixingdongdeshehuigongmindequeren,erzhengyiyaoqiuyugongmindegenbenliyi——tamendeshehuianpaipeiyubinggulitamenzhuiqiuzheixiegenbenliyi——youmeiyoutaidachongtudeshihou,wendingcaiyoukeneng。”

十一选五dier,jiaochagongshibujincongfangfashangjiejuelezhengzhishangyiyuanyuduoyuandemaodunchongtu,zailuoersikanlai,zheizhonggongshizuizhonghaishikeyichengjiuyixieneirongde,huozheshuo,suoweijiaochagongshizongyaoyouyigeduixiang,jiduishenmedachenglegongshi,guanyuzheigegongshijibendeneirongluoersichengzhiwei“shouyaoshan”。zai《zhengzhiziyouzhuyi》yishuzhongluoersiweizuoweihelixingdeshouyaoshanerkailieleyigejibendemulu。“shouyaoshandejibenmulujuyouyixiawuge(ruyoubiyao,shiyixuanwuhaikebuchongzhi): (1)jibendequanliheziyou(tamenkeyiliechuyigemulu);(2)yijuziyouyuduoyangxingjihuibeijingxiaduizhiyedexuanze;(3)zaijibenjiegouzhizhengzhizhiduyujingjizhiduzhongxiangyougezhongquanli、zhiweitequanhezeren; (4)shouruhecaifu;yijizuihou(5)zizundeshehuijichu。zheiyimuluzhuyaobaokuogezhongzhidudetezheng,yejiushijibendequanliheziyou、zhiduxingdejihuihezhiweiyuzhiyedetequan、yijishouruyucaifu。erzizundeshehuijichushitongguogonggongzhengzhiwenhuadegezhongtezheng,zhuruduizhengyiyuanzedegonggongrenshihezhuanbian,erdedaoshuomingde。” luoersirenwei,jinguangezhongwanbeixingdezhengzhililunshibutongde,tamendexingershangjiazhilinianyeyouhendachabie,danjiuyigegonggongshehuidezhengzhigongshilaikan,duoyuanhuadezhengzhiwanquankeyizaishangshudejibendianshangdadaojiaochagongshi,renheyizhonglilunzhiyouzaishangshuqingdandeneirongshangdadaojibengongtongderenshihelijie,caikenengzuchengyigeduoyuanhuadezhengzhishehui。anzhaoluoersidekanfa,zheixiejibenjiazhinaishiyixiezuidixiandudejiazhi,tamenwanquankeyiweiduoyuanhuazhengzhigejuzhongderenheyizhongzhengzhililunsuojieshou。

十一选五jinguangezhongzhengzhililundexingershangjiazhibutong,danzaizhengzhicengmianshangtamenqueshiwanquankeyidachenggongshide。dangran,suoweigongshibingbushitiebanyikuai,ershiyizhongdatideyizhirentong,ersibuchongdao,youyumeigerensuochudeweizhibutong,shangshudeshouyaoshankeyigenjuxiangguandeqingkuangzaineirongshangyousuobiandong,jibenjiazhidepailieshunxuyehuiyinreneryi。luoersijucitichulesizhongzhuyaodebianliang,tamenfenbieshidaodehezhilishangnengliyujiyidebianliang,tilinenglihejiyidebianliang,gongminshanguannianshangdebianliang,xingquyupianhaodebianliang,zailuoersikanlai,zhiyaojibendezhengyiyuanzededaomanzu,zheixiebianliangsuodaozhidemeigerensuochuweizhidebutonghegetijiandechayi,jiubuhuiweijidaozhengzhizhengyidegenbenwenti,yejiubunengrenweitamenshibugongzhengde。zongzhi,jiaochagongshisuodachengdejibendezhengzhijiazhijuedingleyigezhengyideshehuishikenengcunzaide,erzhengzhiziyouzhuyisuozhichendeshehuiqiaqiashiyizheizhongjiaochagongshisuodachengdejibenjiazhiweijichuerjianliqilaidegonggongshehui。

disan,duiyuluoersilaishuo,zhengzhiziyouzhuyibingbudanchunshiyizhongguannianxingdelilun,ershiyizhongzhengzhishijian,zaiziyouzhuyikanlai,jianliyigeziyoudezhengzhizhidushiqililundemudesuozai,yinci,xianfagongshidedachengyijixianzhengzhidudejianlishijiaochagongshidejinyibujieguo,youjiaochagongshisuoxingchengdegonggongshehuibiranshiyigejiyuxianfagongshishangdelixianminzhushehui。luoersirenwei,yizhongjiyujiaochagongshidebenzhixingxianfabaohanzheruxiadejibenyuanze: “(1)jutiguidingzhengfuzhiyibanjiegouhezhengzhiyunxingguocheng(baokuolifa、zhifayusifaquan;duoshurentongzhidefanwei)degenbenyuanze;yiji(2)lifadedaduoshurensuozunzhongdegongmindepingdengzhijibenquanliheziyou,zhuruxuanjudequanlihecanjiazhengzhidequanli、liangxinziyou、sixianghejiesheziyou、yijifaguibaohu。”zailuoersikanlai,genbenxingxianfadeliniannaishizhengzhiziyouzhuyihefaxingdejibenbiaoxian,yizhongziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhidujiyinggaishihelide,youyinggaishihefade,jiaochagongshiweicitigonglehelixingdejichu,erxianfaxinggongshizetigonglehefaxingjichu,helixingyuhefaxingdejieheshideluoersiyiyishangdezhengzhiziyouzhuyichengweikeneng。

十一选五shiyixuanwukandao,luoersiyouguanziyouzhuyidezhengzhililuntongguoshangshusangejibenfangmiandezhankai,congertigongleyizhongxindefangan,tade《zhengzhiziyouzhuyi》yishujinguanshejideneirongshiduofangmiande,danzaishiyixuanwukanlai,qizuiyouyiyidedifangshiduiyuyouguanziyouzhuyizhengzhijiazhideweijitichuleyizhongqiangyoulideyingdui。duiyubolindewenti,luoersicaiquleyizhongjianfadezhengzhiyuanze,tongguojiaochagongshidelinianbaziyouzhuyiduoyuanyuyiyuandeneizaimaodunzhengheyuxiaojiedaozuididexingshicengmian,tarenweiziyouzhuyibunengjiangqiwanbeixingdelilunshenrudaojutidezhengzhishijianzhong,huozheshuoziyouzhuyidejiazhizhuzhangzaizhengzhilingyuyinggaiyousuojiezhi。ziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhengyibingmeiyoujiangziyouzhuyidesuoyouwanbeixingjiazhidoubaohanjinqu,xiangfan,taqiaqiashitongguoduiyixiefeizhengzhicengmianshangdeyouguanzongjiao、zhexue、daodedengjiazhineirongdeshanchu,congershidezhengzhiziyouzhuyijuyoulejienaduoyuanzhengzhidekeneng。yejiushishuo,zhengzhiziyouzhuyitigongleyizhongfeiwanbeixingdezhengzhipingtai,zaizheigepingtaishanggezhonggeyangdezhengzhililundouzaiyinqutamendexingershangwanbeixingjiazhideqiantixia,jiumouxiejibendejiazhidachenggongshi,zheixiegongshixianranshiduoyuanyuyiyuandejiaohuidian,zaici,budanziyouzhuyirentongzheixiejiazhi,qitadefeiziyouzhuyiyerentongzheixiejiazhi,erqie,duiyuzheixiejiazhiderentongbingbushiyijugeziwanbeixingdexingershanglilunzuochude,ershiyouyizhonglixingrendejibenlixingnenglisuodachengde。zhiyaoshizuoweiyigexiandaiyiyishangdelixingren,neitayijuzuijibendelixingnenglijiuhuizaizhengzhicengmianshangrentongzheixiejibendegongshi,jiuhuirenweizheixiejibendejiazhibingbushiziyouzhuyisuoduyoudejiazhi,ershisuoyouzhengchangdelixingrenzaiyigehepingyuwendingdeshehuizhongjinxinghezuoyushenghuodejichu。

jiaochagongshishigonggongshehuidejichu,zheiyigongshizuoweiyizhongzhengzhidezhiduhuajieguo,neijiushixianfazhidudechansheng,xianfazhidubingbudanchunshiziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhidu,ershirenheyigelixingrendounenggoujieshoudezhengzhizhidu,qituchutezhengshizhengfuzuzhizunxunzhezhonglixingdechengxuyuanzeeryunzuo,suotixiandezhengyinaishiyizhongchengxuzhengyi。luoersixiedao: “duizhengzhiziyouzhigongpingjiazhidezheizhongbaozhengjuyoujigezhidezhuyidetedian: shouxian,taquebaomeiyigegongmindounenggongpingdihedazhipingdengdiliyonggonggongsheshi,zheizhonggonggongsheshishibeishejiyonglaiweiyizhongmingquedezhengzhimudeshiyixuanwude,jishishuo,rangmeiyigegongmindounenggongpingdihedazhipingdengdiliyongyouxianfafazehexianfachengxusuojutizhidingdeneizhonggonggongsheshi,zhengshizheixiexianfafazehexianfachengxuzhipeizhezheiyiguochengbingkongzhizherenmenjinruzhengzhiquanweidiweiderukou。zhengrushiyixuanwujiangyaozaishaohoutaolundeneiyang,zheixiefazehechengxujiangshiyigegongpingdeguocheng,tamenshibeishejiyonglaichuangzaogongzhengeryouxiaodelifade。”

十一选五3、hayekeziyouzhuyideduchuangxing

duiyuziyouzhuyideneizaiweiji,hayekeyeyoushenqiederenshi,congmouzhongyiyishanglaishuo,taduiyugudianziyouzhuyidehuigui,tebieshitichudexianfaxinmoshi,jiushiduiziyouzhuyineizaiweijideyizhongyingdui。buguo,duiyuhayekelaishuo,ziyouzhuyidejiazhiweijibingfeiwufajiejue,zheizhongweijiyuqishuoshiziyouzhuyideweiji,burushuoshixinziyouzhuyideweiji,huoweiziyouzhuyideweiji,erjiuziyouzhuyibensheneryan,qigudianjingshenyijingyunhanleziyouzhuyijiazhidezhengdangxing,zheizhongzhengdangxingyuanyuanyuzishengzhixudeyanbianguocheng,bingzuoweizhengdangxingweiguizeerweirenmensuozunxun。yinci,ziyouzhuyidejiazhibingfeimouzhonglixingchuangzaodechanwu,ershizishengdeyizhongkeguanxingdejiazhi,yongtadehualaishuo,shiyizhongrenzhixingweierfeirenzhishejidechanwu。duiyuzheizhonglaiyuanyurenzhixingweieryourenzhilixingbujidekeguanxingjiazhi,hayeketebiezhichu,tamenbingfeiyikendingxingdexingshiweirensuorenzhi,ershiyifoudingxingdexingtaixiangrenchengxian,yejiushishuo,zheizhongziyouzhuyidejiazhinaishiyizhongkeguandefoudingxingdejiazhi,renderenzhisuirankenengbuduandikaojinta,danquebukenengzuizhongdadaowanquandelejie,zhengshizheizhongrenzhilixingbujidekeguandefoudingxingdejiazhi,caishiziyouzhuyizishengzhixudejiazhijichu。

zaihayekekanlai,zheizhongjiazhibingmeiyouchuxiansuoweideneizaiweiji,zhibuguoziyouzhuyizaibenshijiyilaidexinxingtaiduizheizhongjiazhiquefashenkederenshi,tamenbingmeiyouzunxunzhewuzhidezhishilunlijieziyouzhuyizhengzhililundefoudingxingdejiazhi,xiangfan,tamendaduoyizhaolixingjiangouzhuyidezhishilunduiziyouzhuyidezhengzhijiazhijiyukendingxingdechanshi。zheiyangyilai,ziyouzhuyijiubianchengleyizhongqiangshidezhengzhiluoji,qitutongguoxiangguandezhiduxingshiyixuanwulaishixianmouzhongzuzhihuojitixingdezhengzhiyiyuanhelixingyizhi,jinguanzheixiebeiguanzhiyimeihaoziyangdezuzhiliyihejitimubiaoduiyuxiandaishehuilaishuomanzuzheduofangmiandexuyao,danshiyidanziyouzhuyituoliletadegerenziyoudefoudingxingjiazhijichu,bidinghuifashengneizaidetuibian,chengweiziyouzhuyideduilimian。shiyixuanwukandao,zheiyiziyouzhuyideliubianxingtaibujinzaifadedengdaluguojiadesixianglilunzhongbiaoxiandeshifentuchu,jibianshizaiyingmeiguojia,xinziyouzhuyiyezhanjuzhezhuliudiwei,neixiedazhesuoweiminzhuzhengzhihefuliguojiadexinziyouzhuyi,naizhiluoersi、dewojindengrendedangdaiziyouzhuyi,qineizaidejingshenyijingyuanlilegudianziyouzhuyidejiazhichuantong,chengweiyugezhonggeyangdeshehuizhuyiheshehuiminzhuzhuyisuozhuzhangdejiazhijiaohuiheliudezhengzhililun。

十一选五jinguanjiushijianshunxulaikan,luoerside《zhengyilun》he《zhengzhiziyouzhuyi》xitongsixiangdewanchengyuhayekedexitonglilun,tebieshi《falv、lifayuziyou》desixiangchuangxin,bingmeiyougoutongdehudongguanxi,erqiehayekezaimeiyoushenruyanjiuluoersidezhengzhililunzhiqianyecengbatayinweitongdao,qishijiujingshenshizhilaishuo,tamenliangrenshiyouzhegenbenxingchayide,zheizhongchayibudantixianzaiduiyuzhengyideshizhixinglijieshang,erqietixianzaiduiyuziyouzhuyineizaiweijideyingduishang。guanyuluoersideyingduishiyixuanwuzaiqianmianyijingjiyuleyidingdefenxi,buguo,ruguoconghayekedeshijiaolaikan,luoersiduiyubolinwentibingmeinengconggenbenshangjiyujiejue。shiyixuanwuzhidao,luoersiqitutongguojiaochagongshidadaoyizhongxiaochulegezhongwanbeixingxueshuodeziyouzhuyizhengzhipingtai,zaici,tayiziyouzhuyiyuqitagezhongzhengzhililunsuogongtongjieshoudejibenzhengzhigongshilaijiejuezhengzhixingtaizhongdeduoyuanyuyiyuandejiazhichongtu,zheiyifangansuiranyongxinliangkubingjuyouzhexingshihelixing,danshi,youyuluoersiquefaduiyuzhengzhijiazhidefoudingxingtezhengdeshenrulijie,yinci,tadejiejueyirancunzaizhezhongdadewenti。diyi,tadezhengzhiziyouzhuyizaigoujianduoyuanzhengzhigejuzhongyijibendejiaochagongshiweijiejueduoyuanyuyiyuanmaodundeshouduan,zheiyangzaitaneilijiuyusheleziyouzhuyiyuqitaduoyuanzhengzhililunsuogongtongdeyixiejiazhineirong,jinguanzheixiejiazhineirongyibeitaxiaochudaosuoweidezuidixiandu,jiyipaichulegezhongzongjiao、zhexueyudaodedengwanbeixinglinian,raner,tabingmeiyouzhengmingzheizhongjiaochagongshishiruhekenengde,yejiushishuo,gezhongzhengzhililunruhenenggoutongguojiaochagongshierdadaosuoweidedixianneirong。dier,jibianshizheizhongjiaochagongshichengweikeneng,neimeziyouzhuyiyuduoyuanzhengzhililunyouruhezaizhengzhilingyuzhongxianshichugezidebutongni?xianranluoersihuozheshizaiyongziyouzhuyideyiyuanlaixiaochuduoyuanbeijing,huozheshizaiduoyuanyuyiyuandejiaochagongshizhongquxiaoziyouzhuyidedutebenzhi,zheiyangyilai,ziyouzhuyiyejiubunengchengqiweiziyouzhuyile,zheizhongjiaochagongshiyenanyiyouxiaodifangzhishimitesuozhichendeneizhongdaozhiquannengguojiadejiquanqingxiang。

yinci,yizhaohayekedelilun,luoersineizhongjianlizailixingrenjichushangdejiaochagongshishijishangyirantixianchulixingjiangouzhuyideqingxiang,tasuodachengdeneizhongjibengongshirengbiaoxianchulekendingxingdejiazhixingtai,eryiciweijichusuoxingchengdeyizhengtaozhengzhizhiduhefalvzhidu,jiluoersisuoweidelixianminzhuzhengzhiyiranshimuqiantongxingdexianfamoshi。shiyixuanwukandao,luoersijinguanzaishehuizhengyihezhengzhizhengyililunzhongduoyoujianshu,dantazaixianzhenglilunzhong,zaixianfamoshidezhidushezhizhongbingwuxinjian,jibenshanghaishiyanxizhechuantongdexianzhengmoshi,bingqieyiliuxingdexianfazhiduweitadezhengzhiziyouzhuyiheshehuizhengyilunsuopingjiedebeijingzhidu,zhengxiangtazijisuoshuode,tadeziyouyouxianquanshijianlizaixifangxianxingdeminzhuzhengzhizheiyizhiduxingtaizhishangde,tasuoweidejiaochagongshisuodachengdeyeshiduizheiyileizhiduxingjiazhidekendingxingrentong,duici,shiyixuanwukeyicongluoersizailiangbushuzhongsuokailiedejiazhiqingdan,zhurugexiangquanlibaozhangtiaokuanyijixiangyingdesanquanfenli、chengxuzhengyideng,kanchutamenbuguoshimuqianxifangminzhuzhengzhidexianshimiaohui。rucikanlai,luoersiduiyuziyouzhuyijiazhiweijidelijiehaizhishitixianzaililunxingtaishang,jiuzhidubenshenlaishuo,tabingmeiyougandaoziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhiduyinqineizaijiazhideweijizhengzaizaoshouzhegezhongwentidechanrao,zouxiangjietinaizhibengkui。congmouzhongyiyishanglaishuo,tadeshehuizhengyilunbudanmeiyouduizheizhongzhidudeweijijiyukuangzheng,fanertongguojiezhuyuzhengfuzaifenpeilingyudequanlikuozhanerzhuzhanglemouzhongquanquanxingguojiadequshi,kanshangquluoersisuotichudeshehuizhengyideliangyuanzejitixianleziyouzhuyideziyouyuanzeyouzhaogudaoleshehuizhuyidepingdengyaoqiu,shiyizhonghenhaodezhezhongfangan,danyouyutazaiduiyuzhengfuquanlidexingshishangfangqileziyouzhuyixianzhengdezuigenbenxingdejingsui,jixianzhizhengfuquanli,yincitadelilunhenkenengweijiquanzhuyisuojieyong。

十一选五zaihayekekanlai,ziyouzhuyiyanbiandaojintianqueshimianlinzheweiji,danshi,taduiyuweijidelijiequeyubolin、luoersidengrenyousuobutong,yitazhijian,ziyouzhuyidezhenzhengweijibingbushizhengzhijiazhideyiyuanyuduoyuanmaodunsuodaozhideweiji,ershiyouyufoudingyukending、neibuguizeyuwaibuguizedemaodunsuodaozhideweiji。zaitakanlai,ziyouzhuyidejiazhijichunaishiyizhongfoudingxingdejiazhi,tebieshizaiheping、ziyouyuzhengyisangeweidadeziyouzhuyizhengzhilixiangfangmian,qineizaidejiazhizhichengnaishiyizhongfoudingxing,congzheizhongfoudingxingdejiazhicaiyinshenchuxiangguandefalvzhiduhexianfamoshidengziyouzhengzhizhixu。yinci,zhiyaozunxunzhefoudingxingdezhengdangxingweiguize,yigezishengdeshehuizhixujiuhuichuxian,bingqiejinhuaweiyizhongrenleidekuozhanxingwenming,zheizhongwenhuajinhualunkeyishuoshihayekesuolijiedeziyouzhuyidekaifangshehuijingguan,ranerzheizhongrenleiwenmingdezishengzhixuqueyinqifalvguizedekendingxinglijieerchuxianlewenti。zheizhongduiyushehuiguizeyuzhixudekendingxinglijie,jinguankeyichengzhiweishiyizhongxinziyouzhuyidelijie,qishitamenbingbushiziyouzhuyi,ershiweiziyouzhuyi,shilixingjiangouzhuyidebiranjieguo。yinggaikandao,duiyujiazhi、guizeyuzhixudezheizhongkendingxinglijiebudanweixinziyouzhuyisuorentong,erqieyeweixingxingsesedeqitazhengzhililun,zhurushizhengfaxuepai、shehuizhuyi、shehuiminzhuzhuyidenglilunsuorentong,yinci,duiyuziyouzhuyidezhengzhililunlaishuo,suomianlindebingbushidanchundeyiyuanyuduoyuandejiazhiguanwenti,ershikendingxingyufoudingxingdejiazhiguanwenti。

ruguozunxunzhefoudingxingdeziyouzhuyijiazhiguan,bolinsuoweideyiyuanyuduoyuandejiazhichongtujiubunanjiejue,yizhaohayekedezhengzhiluoji,ziyouzhuyidezhengzhijiazhibingbushiyiyuandehuoduoyuande,suoweiyiyuanyuduoyuanshijianlizaikendingxingdejiazhibiaozhunzhishangdeyizhongfenlei,ruguoziyouzhuyishiyizhongkendingxingdejiazhi,neijiuhuichanshengyiyuanyuduoyuandechongtu,danruguobaziyouzhuyilijieweiyizhongfoudingxingdejiazhi,baziyouzhuyiyouguanheping、ziyouyuzhengyiyijiminzhu、renquan、pingdengdengjiazhijunshiweiyixiefoudingxingjiazhi,neimeguanyuzheixiejiazhibianwusuoweiyiyuanyuduoyuanzhichongtu。yinweiduiyutamenlaishuo,zuigenbendenaishihuadingyigejiexianhuoshedingyigebiaozhun,ruguobiaozhunshifoudingxingde,bianyiweizhezaibiaozhunsuohuadingdefanweinei,meigerendoukeyigenjuzijidejiazhirentongercongshigezidehuodong,wulunzheixiehuodongshiyiyuandehaishiduoyuande,huozheshuozhengshiyouyurendegexingdeduoyangxing,rendeyuqi、xuyao、nuli、yuanwang、mubiao、lixiangyuxiwangnaizhijihuishiqianchawanbiede,shenzhizaibutongdeshikongqingshixiayeshigebuxiangtongde,caishidemeigerendoushiyigedulidebuketidaidegeti,tadexingweihuotadesuoweibenxinggouchengleshehuishenghuodeduoyangxing,huoduoyuanjiazhi。yinci,congfoudingxingdebiaozhunlaikan,yigeziyoudeshehuizhixuwanquankeyichengzhiweiyigeduoyuanjiazhideyouxushehui。danshi,zheizhongduoyuanjiazhidegongcunbingbushijianlizaisuoweiduiyuzheixiejiazhibenshenzhihelixingderentonghuojiaochagongshishang,luoersililundelizudianshijiangduoyuanjiazhidegongtongyizhizhiyuzheixiejiazhibenshen,zaitakanlaizheixiejiazhibenshendekendingxingneirongsihujiunenggouzhichengqitamendehelixing。ranerduiyuhayekelaishuo,zheizhongjiyujiazhineirongdekendingxingyizhishibucunzaide,yeshibukenengdadaogongshide,raner,foudingxingdebiaozhunqueshideziyoushehuizailingyifangmiandadaolegongshi,zheigegongshiyekeyichengzhiweishiyizhongjiaochagongshi,danzheigegongshidejidianbushiqiduoyuanjiazhideneirong,ershiweizheizhongduoyuanjiazhitigonghengliangbiaozhundefoudingxingguize,huozheigefoudingxingguizesuohuadingdejiexian。

youcikejian,yizhongduoyuanjiazhidegongcunbingbushijianlizaiduiyumouzhongyiyuanjiazhidegongtongrenshishang,renheyizhongzhengzhililundouwufaweizheizhongyiyuandejiaochagongshitigongzhengming,danshi,taquewanquankeyicongfoudingxingdejiaoduweizheizhongduoyuanjiazhidegongcunkongjianhuadingyigejiexian,suoweiyiyuanruguocunzaidehua,neitabingbushiyiweizheyiyuanjiazhidekendingxingneirong,ershiyizhongquyudefenjie,huoyizhonghuafengongyuyusiyu、zhengdangxingweiyuweifaxingweideguizetixi,zheizhongguizetixinaishiyigeduoyuanjiazhisuobixugongtongzunxundeyizhongfoudingxingbiaozhun。zheiyangyilai,suoweideyiyuanyuduoyuandeguanxishijishangjiuzhuanhuanchenghefayuweifadefalvguanxi,yinci,ziyouzhuyidezhengzhililunconggenbenshanglaishuonaishiyizhongfalvlilun,yiyuanyuduoyuandemaodunshijishangshihefayuqiyuduoyangxingjiazhidemaodun。hayekeduiciwentidejiejuesuozunxundebushineizhongkendingxingdedaoyilun,huokendingxingdedaodezhishanzhuyi,ershiyizhongfazhideguizelilun,bolinsuoweideyiyuanyuduoyuanheluoersidejiaochagongshidengwenti,shijishangjiubianchenglehefayuqiheduifalvguizederentongdengfalvzhixuwenti。

dangran,bazhengzhijiazhidewentizhuanbianweifalvzhixuwenti,zheihaimeiyouconggenbenshangjiejueziyouzhuyidejiazhiweiji。yinweiheweifalvni?shenmeshihuafengongyuyusiyudeguizebiaozhunni?zheigewentijiushideziyouzhuyidezhengzhililunjinrulegengshenyigecengci,hayekezhengshiyanzhezheizhongzhengzhiluojierjinrutadefalvlilunde,tazaizheifangmianzuizhongyaodegongxianjiushiqufenleliangzhongguizetixihefalvzhidu,jizuoweiziyouguizedesifazhiduhezuoweizuzhiguizedegongfazhidu。guanyuhayekedefalvyuxianzhenglilunshiyixuanwuzaiqianmianyijingjiyulexiangxidelunshu,zaicibuzaiduoshuo,zheilishiyixuanwusuoguanzhudenaishihayekelilundeduchuangxing。shiyixuanwukandao,hayekeyuqitalilunjiadeyigezhongyaobutongzaiyu,tabushiyuxiancongyouguanrendebenxinghuoyouguanshehuidebenxinglaikaoliangguizeyuzhixu,jibianjiuziyouzhuyilaishuo,tayebushicongyouguanziyouzhuyideyixiejibenjiazhiyushelaituiyanchuyigexiangguandefalvzhiduhezhengzhizhidu。zheiyidianzailuoersidelilunzhongjiubiaoxiandeshifentuchu,luoersidazhishicongsuoweidelixingren、yuanshizhuangtai、wuzhizhimuhezuidazuixiaozhiyuanzedengqiantiyushelaituiluntadeziyouzhuyideyixiejibenjiazhide,bingyiciweijichulaizhengchengyigexiandaiminzhuzhengzhixingtaidezhengdangxingcunzai,yinci,zheitiaolujingzaihayekekanlairengranshuyulixingjiangouzhuyidelilunmoshi。hayekesuozunxundenaishiyizhongxiangfandezhengzhiluoji,tabingmeiyoutongguoyushesuoweidelixingren、yuanshizhuangtaidengqiantilaituiyantadeziyouzhengzhizhixu,zaitakanlai,neixiesuoweiziyouzhuyidejibenjiazhi,renmenbingbunengdadaoquanzhiderenshi,shiyixuanwuzhinengcongxianyoudeguizehezhixuzhongzhujiantantaoyixiexiangguandejiazhi。yinci,hayekeduiyurenxingdelijiebushijiangouxingde,tadelilunsuoguanzhudezhongxinbushisuoweideren,ershirenshenghuoqizhongdexingweiguizejiqifalvzhidu,yitazhijian,zhiyaorenzunxunzhezhengdangdexingweiguize,jiuzuyidachengxiangyingdeyuqi。zhiyurenxingbenshenshishenme,rendejiazhibenshenshishenme,zheixiedoushiyixiewuyiyidewenti,erqieyeshibukenengdedaoyuanmandaande,yinciwanquanmeiyoubiyaoyuxianshedingrendebenxingjiqihexinjiazhi,bingyicilaijiangouyitaofalvhezhengzhizhidu。

zaihayekekanlai,ziyouzhuyidezuidaweijiqiaqiashichuyuneizhongqituyourendelixingtongguokendingxingjiazhideyushelaijiangouwanshanzhidudekuangwangzhiju。yitazhijian,ziyoushehuinaishiyizhongzishengdezhixu,zhengyidefalvhezhiduzhinengshicongshehuijinhuazhongzishengdichanshengchulai。raner,zaizheiyangyigezishengdeshehuiyanjinguochengzhongyouyurendelixingdeqianyue,henkenengdaozhizishengzhixudetuibian,chanshengchuyizhongquanquanxingzhengzhi。suoweiziyouzhuyideweijiruguocunzaidehua,qiaqiashizheiyangyizhongweiji,zheizhongweijibujinfashengzairendelixingjiangouzhong,erqiegengjutidibiaoxianzaiguizehezhixuzhizhong,zaihayekekanlai,yigongfaweihexindexiandaifalvzhiduhexianxingdexianfamoshibiancunzaizhezheizhongdaoxiangjiquanzhengzhideyinhuan。dangran,zheizhongweijibingbushiziyouzhuyizaochengde,ershizuzhixingzhidubenshendeqianzaiguji,tadeyuanyinbingbuzaiyuziyouzhuyi,erzaiyuduiyuziyouzhuyidewujieheqitaxingxingsesedefanziyouzhuyideqitu。

十一选五rucikanlai,hayekesuoguanzhudeshehuizhiduwentiyuluoersiyouzhezhongdadebutong,luoersishiyixianxingdeminzhuzhengzhiweililundezhiduxingbeijingheqianti,bingqitutongguozheizhongzhiduxingdeyusheerjiejueziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhengyiwenti,hayekezexiangfan,tarenweiziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhengyiqiaqiazaixianxingzhiducengmianshangshiyouwentide,xiandaideziyouminzhuzhengzhibudanbunengweiziyouzhuyidezhengyiwentitigongzhiduxingbeijing,erqiexiangfan,zhengshitamenshidezhenzhengdeziyouzhuyidezhengyijiazhishoudaolezuidadewudu,yinweixiandaisuoweideziyouzhuyiminzhuzhengzhishijishangyijingyuanlilegudianziyouzhuyidejingshen,chengweiweiziyouzhuyide,shenzhishiquanquanzhuyizhengzhidezhidubeijing。yinci,hayekesuojinxingdezhongxingongzuobianshijianliyizhongxindefalvguan,bingyicizhiliyuxianfaxinmoshidezhiduchuangxin,zaitakanlai,zhenzhengdefalvnaishitixianzheputongfajingshendesifayuanze,suoweifazhibunengshigongfazhizhi,ershigongfaxingshixiadesifazhizhi,shizhengdangxingweiguizedediaozhengyudiaoshi,ershishizhengdangxingweiguizeqiaqiashixianfafuyuzhengfuzuzhijigoudeshouyaorenwu,xinxianfamoshidejibenyuanzebianshitongguosanquanwucengdezhidushezhiershishisifazhizhi。

zhidetebiezhichudeshi,hayekeduiyusifadegongfazhizhidexianzhengyuanzeyouzhebutongyuxinziyouzhuyidelijie。zaigeshigeyangdesuoweixinziyouzhuyineili,kanshangquyedouqiangdiaofazhi,bingrenweifazhishiziyouzhuyizhengzhidejibenyuanze,ranertamendefazhicongshizhishanglaishuo,yiranshigongfayiyishangdefazhi,tebieshixingzhengfayiyishangdefazhi,budanruci,bingqiehaibagongfafuzhuyuminzhuzhengzhi,renweirenminzhuquanyuanzehuoduoshupiaoyuanzeweigongfazhizhidehefaxingtigonglejianshidejichu。erzaihayekekanlai,qiaqiashizheizhongpubianshengxingdeminzhuzhengzhiconggenjishangdongyaoleziyouzhuyidefazhiyuanze,minzhuguranshiyigehaodedongxi,dantashiyouxiandude,wuxianminzhubudanbunengdaozhifazhi,fanerhuibaihuaifazhijingshen,yinweizhenzhengdefazhiyuanyuanyusifayuanze,zuoweisifadeputongfabingfeiyouduoshupiaoyuanzeshaixuanchanshengde,ershizaizishengshehuizhixuzhongzifadichanshengchulaide。jiushehuizhililaishuo,chuleminzhujuecedeshouduanzhiwai,gongheyeshiyigeshehuizhixudejibenyaosu,suiranhayekezaitadelunshuzhongduiyugonghezhuyibingmeiyoujiyuguoduodeqiangdiao,danshi,shiyixuanwurengrankeyicongtayouguanxinxianfadezhidushezhizhongkandaogongheyinsuduiyutadexianzhenglilundezhongdayingxiang。suoweigonghezhideshiyizhongzhengtidezhiliyuanze,suirancongsifadejiaodulaishuo,gonghebingbushifalvdeyigelaiyuan,yincihayekezaizhuisuyingguofadelishiyuanyuanshibingmeiyoulunjigonghezhuyi,danshitazaijinxingxianfademoshichuangxinshi,queshenshougonghezhuyideyingxiang,erzheiyoushiyugudaichengbangdegonghezhengzhiyijimeiguolixiandangrendegonghesixiangxiangyizhide。zaigudaidefazhililunzhong,qizhudaozuoyongdebingbushisuoweideminzhu,ershigonghe,zheiyidianmeiguodelixiandangrenyouzheshenkederenshi,zaitamenchuangzhimeiguoxianfashi,suoxiqudezhengzhiziyuanzhuyaodeshigudaigonghelilunerfeiminzhulilun,youcijianlidemeilijiangongheguoxianranyeshiyizhongtixianzhegongheyufazhiyuanzedelixianguojia。

十一选五shiyixuanwukandao,hayekeyugudianziyouzhuyizheyiyang,duiyuminzhuzhengzhiyizhibaoyoushifendejingti,taconglaijiuburenweiminzhuzhengzhinenggoujiejueziyouzhuyidewenti,zaitakanlai,minzhuzhishiyizhongxuanjudechengxu,bingbuguanshefazhi,fazhiyuanzebingfeiminzhuyuanzedetixian。renmenwangwangbaminzhuyufazhishiweiyiti,shiminzhuzhengzhiweifazhidejichu,renweizhiyaoshitongguogongkaideminzhuchengxuxuanjuyiyuan,bingyouyihuihuoxiangguandelifajigougenjuminyizhidingxiangyingdefalv,yijuyihuizhidingdefalvzhilishehui,jiunengcongzhidushangbaozhangfazhiyuanzedeshishi。danshi,gudianziyouzhuyiduiyuminzhuzhengzhiqueyouzhebutongdekanfa,tamenrenweidaiyizhidezuoyongshiyouxiande,fazhizhifazhuyaobushiyihuidelifazhifa,ershizaishehuiyanjinzhongzhujianxingchengdeneixiefalvguizedetongzhi,yonghayekedehualaishuo,tamenshizhengdangxingweiguizedeshehuizhili,shiputongfazhizhi。fazhihuoxianzhengzhidudeguanjianzaiyusanquanfenli,dansanquanfenlidesixiangquebushiminzhuzhengzhidechanwu,ershigonghezhengzhidechanwu,hayekejinyibufahuilegudianziyouzhuyiduiyuminzhuzhengzhidebuxinren,tarenweixiandaiminzhuyouyuqimanwujiezhidekuozhangyijingyanzhongweijidaofazhidejishihegonghezhuyidexianzhengtizhi。zaizheiyangyizhongbeijingzhixia,hayekedefalvyuxianzhenglilunzhezhongzailianggefangmiantichuletadesixiangchuangxin,yishitongguotichuzhengdangxingweiguizelaizhongxinquelifazhizhongdesifazhizhiyuanze,ershitongguojianliyigechuncuilifayihuilaihuifugudaixianzhengdegonghezhuyiyuanze。keyizheiyangshuo,hayekedexianfaxinmoshijizhongtixiandenaishifazhizhuyiyugonghezhuyidejingshen,tasuotichude“putongfadefazhiguo”huosifadegongfazhizhiyuxianfazhidujiagouzhongdeliangzhongyihuidemoshi,doumingxiandibiaoxianchufazhizhuyiyugongtongzhuyidejibenqingxiang。

zongshangsuoshu,hayekedeziyouzhuyiwulunzaijibenjiazhidedingweishanghaishizaixianfazhidudemoshishejishang,douyoubieyuqitadeziyouzhuyi,tebieshiyoubieyuziyouzhuyidezuopai,hayekejibenshangshizaiyanxuyingguogudianziyouzhuyidesixiangchuantong,mianduixiandaishehuizhongdelianggefangmiandezhongdawenti,jishehuizhuyijihuajingjizhidudejiquanmoshihexifangxiandaiminzhuzhizhongdegongfahuakuozhang,tichuleyixiliefuyouchuangxindelilun,zheixielilunsuiranmianduidewentishibutongde,danjiuqijibendeluojizhixianglaishuo,youkeyishuoshiduiyubolinwanniansuotichudeyouguanziyouzhuyijiazhizhiyiyuanyuduoyuanmaodundeyizhongzhuoyouchengxiaodehuiying。shiyixuanwuzhidao,bolinsuirantichuleyiyuanyuduoyuandejiazhichongtuwenti,dantashiwufajiejuede,zuizhongbaziyouzhuyizhengzhijiazhidexuanzejiaojilegerendezhuguanyizhi,zaitakanlai,ziyouzhuyizuizhongshiyigezaiduoyuanzhengzhijiazhizhongdeyiyuanxuanzewenti,zheizhongxuanzhejinguanhuibileluoersizhengzhiziyouzhuyidejiaochagongshisuochuxiandewenti,danshiqisuoneizaidewentiqueshixianeryijiande。youyubaziyoujiaojilegerenziji,neimebolincengjingtichudeliangzhongziyougainianzhongdeziyouwentijiubianchengletazaijiejueyiyuanyuduoyuanwentishangyouzhongxinhuilaidewenti,danshiyouyugerendenenglishiyouxiande,tebieshitaderenshishiyouxiande,eryidanziyouzhuyidejiazhixuanzequanbuluozailegerenshenshang,neime,daluchuantongsixiangzhongdeyouguangerenyizhijiuchengweibolinsuowufahuibidesijie。congzheigegerenyizhichufa,ziyouzhuyihennanjingdeqililundezhuiwenhexianshidechongzhuang,zheiyangyilai,faguoshiziyoudelaowentijiuyouzhongxinbaizailebolindemianqian,sheiyounengpaichuyanzhebolindeluxiangbuchuxianyigexindeershiyishijidelusuoni?

十一选五erhayekesuojiejuedewenti,qiaqiashilusuozhihoumengdesijiumianlindewenti,ruguoshuobolintongguotadewanniandelilunkunhuoershidelusuotuxiandehua,neimehayekezeshitongguotadeyizhengdangxingweiguizeweijishidefalvlilunershidemengdesijiuzhongxinchuxian,bolinyouyuhushifalvjiqifalvdezhengyiwentierduiziyouderenshiwufashenrudaoziyouzhuyidejingsui,hayekeqiaqiashizaizheigefangmianxiaozhenglebolindeshiwu。shiyixuanwuzhidao,hayekezaizhonghouqidejinbangeshijidesixiangyanjiuzhong,qizhuyaodejinglishifangzaifalvyuzhengzhiwentishang,tashenkediyishidaoziyouzhuyidehexinwentinaishiyigefazhiyuxianzhengwenti,zhengshizaizheigewentishangtatichuleyizhongquanxindezishengshehuizhixudelilun,yinggaikandao,hayekedezishengzhixulilunshiweitadefalvsixiangshiyixuanwude,shuodegengzhunquexie,shiweitadefalv、ziyouyuzhengyixiangguanliandeziyouzhuyizhengzhililunshiyixuanwude。zhengxiangshiyixuanwuzaiqianmiandezhangjiezhongsuoxiangxilunshude,tongguozishengzhixulilun,hayekezaizhengdangxingweiguize、mianyuqiangzhideziyou、putongfadefazhiguo、sanquanwucengdexianfamoshidengyixiliejutideeryouhexinxingdelunshuzhongquanmianzhanshiletadelilundefengfuxinghefuzaxing,erzheiyiqieyoudoushiweiraozheyigezhongdadejiazhixingbeijing,jifoudingxingdejiazhizhankaide,zhengshifoudingxingjiazhiweishangshudegezhongjutililunnaizhizhenggezishengzhixulilun,tigongleyigebutongyuchuantongziyouzhuyidexindelilunbeijing。

er、duihayekeziyouzhuyidetiaozhan

1、geleijiqitiaozhan

hayekezuoweiershishijizuijuduchuangxingdeziyouzhuyisixiangjia,tadelilunduiyuziyouzhuyizaixiandangdaisuomianlindeyixilieyanjunwentijiyuleqiangyoulideyingzhan,tebieshizaifazhiyuxianzhenglingyu,hayeketongguotadeziyouzhengzhililun,weiziyouzhuyimianduixiandaishehuidexinwentierkenengjinxingdexianfazhiduchuangxin,tigonglelilundeyiju,guanyushangshuneirong,shiyixuanwuzaiqianmiandezhangjiezhongyijingfenbiezuolejiaoweixiangjindelunshu。

十一选五danshi,yeyinggaikandao,hayekedelilunyijingtichu,jiumianlinzhegezhonggeyangdepipanyutiaozhan,qizhongyoulaizishehuizhuyi、shehuiminzhuzhuyi、guojiazhuyiheshequnzhuyidepipan,dangengjianruideshilaiziziyouzhuyineibu。hayekedeziyouzhuyizaidangjinshijiehaiyoupubianyiyima?taduiyuzibenzhuyiyuanshengguochengdelijie、duiyujihuajingjidefenxipipanzaishehuizhuyizhenxianjietizhihouhaiyouduoshaojiazhi?taduiyuminzhuzhengzhidepaichi、duiyujingjipingdengdemieshi、duiyushehuizhengyidefouqijiujingyouheyiju?tasuoweidezishengzhixulilunguozhennenggouyushijideshehuilishibianqianxiangwenhema?tadefangfalunhezhishixuejiujingzainayizhongcengmianshangzhichitadelunzhengni?zheiyixiliewentidoushihayekelilunzichanshengzhiriqijiuyizhimianduide。

xiangbizhixia,shangshuwentizhongpoyoudaibiaoxingdeshigeleiduiyuhayekelilundepipanxingchanshu。shuoqilaigeleiyouguanhayekedeyanjiujinglileyigezhongdadezhuanbian,tacongshenrujieduheyonghuhayekedezishengshehuizhixulilundaohoulaiduiyuhayekeshangshulilundequanmianpipan,queshishishejidaohenduofuzaeryoushenkedewenti,jinguangeleidezhuanbianyouzheduofangmiandeyuanyin,danzaishiyixuanwukanlai,qiaqiashizheigeshanbiandegelei,jiaoyouzigedandanghayekewentidetichuzhe,tahoulaiduiyuhayekelilundequanmiantiaozhanzhengxiangtaqianqiduiyuhayekelilundejingshenchanshiyiyang,duiyushulihayekedewentijuyoushifenzhongyaodeyiyi。geleizai《hayekelunziyou》yishuzhong,zailianggefangmiandefenxiyanjiudedaolexueshujiedeguangfanzhuyi,yifangmianshitaduiyuhayekesixianglilunlaiyuandejingzhishuli,lingyifangmianzeshiduiyuhayekezuiguanjiandezishengshehuizhixugainiandejiedu。zaigeleikanlai,hayekedesixiangzhuyaoyoulianggebutongdeyuanyuan,yigeshiyingguodegudianziyouzhuyichuantong,tebieshixiumodesixiang,lingyigezeshideguozhexuejiakangde。guanyukangdeduihayekesixiangdeyingxiang,zaicixuyaotebieshuoyixia,suiranjuhayekewanniandezixutabingmeiyouduguoduoshaokangdedeshu,danshiyixuanwubingbunengyincijiurenweihayekelilunyukangdezhexuedeguanxishirenmendezhuguanyiduan,geleishijiuhayekelilundeneizaihanyijiqishencengdeluojibeijing,laijieshitasuobaohandesixiangshizhongdekangdewentide,yinci,jibianhayekezhijiedukangdedeshubuduo,dantamendehenduoguandianyoushencengdeanhezhichu,zhishaoconghayekeduikangdefalvsixiangdejiedulaikan,liangzhezhijianqueshicunzaizheneizaidelianxi,yinweiwulunruhe,bijinghayekesuochudexueshufenweijuyouzheshenhoudedeguosixiangdeqixi,kangdezhexuezaibenshijiyilaidezhongdayingxiang,liruduiyuxinkangdezhuyidezhongyaoyingxiang,hayekezaiweiyenashibukenenghaowuganshoude。

suoyi,yinggaishuogeleiduiyuhayekesixiangyuanyuandefenxishifeichangshenkede,tabujinzhichulehayekelilunzhongdezheilianggelaiyuan,gengweizhongyaodeshigeleilunshulezheilianggebutongdelaiyuanzaihayekelilunzhongsuochanshengdefuzaqingkuang。hayekelilundefuzaxinghetasuoshituzhenghedewenti,zaiziyouzhuyisixiangshizhongshiqiansuoweiyoude,chuantongdeyingmeiziyouzhuyi,jibianshichuncuidegudianziyouzhuyi,yeshaoyouhayekeneiyangdeqitu,jizaiyingguogudianziyouzhuyijingshendeshizhizhixiarongnadaludefazhiguosixiang,yinci,hayekelilunzhongliangzhongyuanyuandepengzhuangyuronghui,budanjidadifengfulehayekedesixiang,naizhibaershishijideziyouzhuyililuntuixiangleyigexindegaodu,erqieyeshidehayekedelilunchengxianchuqiansuoweiyoudekunnanyumaodun。qiebushuohayekelilunzishenzhongdezhuduoneirong,jinjiulilunyuanyuanlaikan,liangzhongkanshangqujieranbutongdesixiangyuanliu,jiuhennandiaohezaiyiqi,yifangmianshiyingguojingyanzhuyideyouxianlixing,lingyifangmianshideguogaodusibiandexianyanzhexue,wulunshizaisiweifangfa、luojituilun,haishizaigongjujiazhiyumudezhixiangdengfangmian,doucunzaizhehendadechayi,danshi,hayekequeshiyouzaitamendejieranbutongzhongzhaodaoleyigezuiweigenbenxingderonghuidian,neijiushiduiyuziyoujiazhiderentong。

ruguozanqiepaokaitadexijie,congzhengtishangkaochayixiahayekedesixiangtixi,jiubunanfaxianshixiumoerfeiluokesuodaibiaodeyingguogudianziyouzhuyiduiyuhayekelilunyishizhixingdeyingxiang,tongyangkangdezhexuezhongdeduiyupubianfazedechuncuixingshideqiangdiao,yeduihayekedeziyouguizelilunfahuilezhongdadecujinzuoyong。shiyixuanwuzaiqianmiandejizhangzhongcengjingzhichu,yingguogudianziyouzhuyiduiyuziyoudelijiezuiqihehayekedeneibuguize,hayekeyouguanzhengdangxingweiguizeyuziyoudeguanxi,falvzhixudezishengyanjiang,wuzhidezhishilundeng,douyuxiumodengsugelanqimengxuezheyouzheyimaixiangchengdeguanxi。ciwai,hayekeduiyuziyouguizedepubianxingyuchouxiangxing,naizhifoudingxingtezhengdedeqiangdiao,douyudeguokangdedepubianfazedesixiangyouguan。buguo,zhengrukukatasisuoyan,hayekejiquchulekangdedexianyanfangfalun,youzhihuanletadedaodezhishanzhuyi,jinjinxiqulekangdedepubianfazedechunxingshiyinsu,zaihayekekanlai,kangdededaodezhuyishiyouxiandude,shikangdedepubianfazedaozhiletadedaodexingshizhuyi,hayekeduiyukangdesixiangdexishouguanjianzaiyutadepubianfaze。hayekedeziyouzhuyiyouyubaxiumohekangdejieheqilai,xianshiletadeziyouyufalvsixiangdedutexing。buguo,zheiyezhengshitalilundezuidawentizhichu,xianran,bashangshuliangzhongsixiangjiehezaiyiqi,bushirongyide,shenzhishibukenengde。hayekedejieheruhekeneng,duici,lilunjieyizhicunzaizhehendadezhenglun,kukatasizaitade《hayekeyuxiandaiziyouzhuyi》yishude“qianyan”zhongjiuzhichu,hayekeqitudiaohexiumoyukangdezhexuedenuliconglaimeiyouchenggongguo。

十一选五shuoqilai,geleiduiyuhayekelilunfenxidezuijuyouxijuxingdedifang,bushiyouguansixiangyuanyuandefenxi,ershizishengshehuizhixudelunshu。geleiduiyuhayekezishengzhixuderenshicengjingyingdelehayekebenrenderentong,yigeleizhijian,hayekedezishengzhixubaohanlesangejibendian,tamenfenbieshi“kanbujiandeshou”(deyanjinjizhi)、mohuiheshijidezhishiyijichuantongdeziranyanjin。yinggaikandao,geleidelunshushixiangdangjuyoushuofulide,taqueshizhuazhulehayekeshehuililunzhongzuihexindedifang,shangshusangeyaodianzaihayekedelilunzhongjuyouzhichengxingdeyiyi,duici,shiyixuanwuzaiqianmianyijingtaolunguole。shiyixuanwurenwei,gelei《hayekelunziyou》diyibanzhongduiyuhayekelilunjuyourentongxingdejingcaifenxi,cunzaizhelianggezhongdadewenti,zheiyeweitahoulaiquanmianfoudinghayekedelilunmaixialezhongzi。

diyigewentishigeleiyouguanhayekezishengzhixufenxidedisandian,jichuantongdeziranyanjin,cunzaizheduiyuhayekedewudu,zhishaoshipianmianxingdelijie。guran,hayekeduocilunshurenleishehuizuoweiyigeshifenfuzadexitong,tadeyanhuajizhidezishengxingshiyigezirandexuanzeguocheng,bingchangchangbatamenyuyixiezirandefuzatixi,rurendedanao、xingxi、taiyangxi、youjitidejiegoujinengxiangbijiao,zhichutamengongtongdezhixutezheng。danruguocongzhengtishanglijiehayekedezishengzhixulilun,jiuhuifaxian,hayekezhisuoyizheiyangshuo,suishuobupaichutazishenlilunzhongqueshicunzaizhemaodunyupozhan,dangengduodeyuanyinzeshitaweileshizishengzifazheiyishehuizhixudegenbenxingtexingtuxianchulai,yiqubiezhangqiyilaizaisixianglilunjiezhanjutongzhidiweiderenzaozhixudeguandian,suoyi,caiqiangdiaoshehuizhixudeziranyanjiangyuziranxuanzedetezheng。raner,zheibingbushihayekeyouguanzishengzhixulundequanmianwanzhengdezhunquehanyi。yinwei,hayekezaojiuduizhixuzuolesanfenfadequfen,jiziranzhixu、renzaozhixuyuzishengzhixu,ruguotabashehuizhixushiweiyizhongwanquandeziranguocheng,neijiumeiyoubiyaoduojiayigezishengzhixule,erfenfa,jiziranyurenzaozhifenbiejiukeyile。tajiranbashehuizhixushiweidisanzhongxingtai,jirenzhixingweiyoufeirenzhishejidezishengzhixu,neixianrantajiubushichunzirandeguocheng,jiuyuziranwuliheyoujitideyanjiangyouzheshizhixingdebutong,zheigebutongdeguanjianzaiyuyourendeyinsu、rendexingweizaiqizhong,yourendelixing、yuqi、yuanwang、xuanzedengzaiqizhong。dangran,hayekeyeyizaizhichu,zheigezishengshehuizhixuyouyoubieyurenzaodezhixu,feirendezhuguanshejidechanwu。guanyuhayekedeshangshuguandianjiqineihan,shiyixuanwuzaiqianmiandezhangjiezhongyijingjiyulechongfendelunshu。raner,geleiduiyuhayekezishengzhixulilundezheigejibendetexingquecunzaizhewudu,yizhiyutahoulaidechulezheiyangdejielun,jitarenweihayekedezishengshehuizhixushiyigeneirongbuqingchu、quefalianguanxingdehunluangainian,suoweizhixuchulezhichenmouzhongzishiyixuanwufuzhidejiegouwai,bingbubaokuogengduodeneirong。yizhaogeleideshangshufenxi,hayekedezishengzhixukeyidengtongyuyigequchulejiazhidefeishejide、xiangduiwendingde、nenggouzaiyidingdetiaojianxiazishiyixuanwufuzhidejiegou,yicikanlai,heishehuiyushichangjiaohuandoukeyichengdeshangshizheizhongzishengzhixule。xianzaidewentishi,geleideshangshujieshishihayekedeyisima?hayekerentongbatadezishengzhixudengtongyuheishehuima?

xianran,yucixiangguandeshidiergewenti,jizishengzhixudejiazhibiaozhunwenti。guanyuzheigejiqizhongyaodewenti,geleizai《hayekelunziyou》diyibanzhongbingmeiyouzuoweiyigewentitichulai,huozheshuoshihushile,ranerzai《hayekelunziyou》disanbandehoujizhong,shiyixuanwukandao,geleiduiyuhayekedequanmiantiaozhanqiaqiashicongzheigewentichufade,jitayanxilediyibanzhongsuorenweihayekedezishengzhixudeyanjiangshiyigeziranguochengdeguandian,jinerzaidisanbande“houji”zhongdechulehayekeyouguanzishengzhixudeyanjiangjizhishibuhanjiazhibiaozhun(valu-free)deguandian,tazheiyangfenxishuo,hayekedezishengzhixububaohanjiazhiwenti,shiyigejiazhizhonglidekeguancunzaixingtai,leisiyuziranxianxiangzhongdexingxi、cichanghejingtidengfuzashiwu。geleiyizheiyiguanjianxingjielunzuoweitiaozhanhayekelilundezhidian,congerzuochuleyixilietuilun,tajucirenwei,hayekedehouqisixiangdeyigezuidadewentihuomaodunshiyouguanfalvdeguandian。geleirenweihayekedefalvguancunzaizheyigemiaoshuyuguifandezhimingmaodun,yifangmianhayekedezishengzhixusuozunxundeguizeshishizhengshehuililunyiyishangde,zhijuyoumiaoshudexingzhi,guizebenshenbubaohanjiazhideneihan,lingyifangmianhayekezaishiyongtamenshiyoumingxianfuyuletamenguifandejiazhiyiyi,jirenweifalvguizezhangyikaishijiujuyoujiazhideshuxing。zheiyang,geleirenweihayekedefalvguizeyufalvzhixujiuchuxianleyigebukekefudeneizaimaodun,jizaiyigezishengdejinhuaguochengzhong,ruhenenggouzifadichanshengchuyigejuyoujiazhideguizezhixudeni?

biaomianshangkangeleidefenxisihuyouli,hayekequeshiduiyubadaodejiazhizhirushehuizishengzhixudeguandianduoyoupiping,renweineizhongyidaodeshangdeshanebiaozhunlaihengliangshehuizhiduzhihaohuaidezuofashihuangmiude,tabuzhiyicidixiedao,youshurenshehuixingchengdebuluoquntidedaodeyaoqiuruguoqiangjiayukaifangshehui,jiangwuyiyucuihuirenleidewenmingzhidu。hayekedezheiyidianyuqitadeziyouzhuyidatiyizhi,shenzhigengjiaquyujiduan,yizhiyuzhaozhilehenduolunzhedepipan。danshi,hayekepaichibadaodejiazhizhirushehuizhiducengmian,tebieshizishengdejingjizhixu、falvzhixuhezhengzhizhixuzhizhong,bingbudengyutabuyaojiazhi,budengyutajiurentongyuzishengzhixushiyigebuhanjiazhibiaozhundeziranxingtai。yifangmian,hayekeyuqitaziyouzhuyiyiyang,chengrenzaizhiduzhiwai,zairenyurenzhijiandexiangguanlingyu,daodejiazhishibiyaode,shishehuishenghuodebiyaoneirong,ziyouzhuyibingbufanduidaode,bufanduishanebiaozhun,ershibatamenxianzhizailunlidaodelingyu,bunengshiyongyuzhengzhilingyu,zhengzhizhixuyijisuozunxundefalvguizeshizhijiebaohandaodejiazhiguifandechouxiangtixi。danshi,guanjiandewentilingwaiyigezhongyaodefangmian,neijiushihayekezaiweidaodezhuyihuadinglejiexian,bingqiezhichulefalvzhidudezishengtexingzhihou,tabingmeiyouxianggeleisuorenweideneiyang,foudingzishengzhixudeneizaijiazhi,batashiweiyizhongkeyizishiyixuanwufuzhidefuzajiegou,bingqiebaheishehuineiyangdesuoweizhixuyenaruqizhong。xiangfan,hayekeweitadezishengshehuizhixuconggenjishangquelileyizhongjianshidejiazhi,neijiushixingweiguizedezhengdangxing,yongtadehuashuo,jizhengdangxingweiguize。

十一选五guanyuzhengdangxingweiguize,zhengxiangshiyixuanwuqianmiansuoyan,tajizhongtixianlehayekelilunzhongdezhengyiguan,jinguanhayekemengliedibochilesuoweideshehuizhengyi,dantabingbufanduilingwaiyizhongzhengyi,jiguizezhengyi、falvzhengyi、ziyouzhengyi。ergeleidengrenqiaqiabingmeiyoukandaozheiyihayekelilundehexinyaodian,tamenzhishizhuyidaolehayekeduiyuyuanyudaodezhuyideshehuizhengyidepipanheduiyushehuizhixuzishengxingdeqiangdiao,erbuzhidaohayekedeguizetixiyuzishengzhixushibaohanjiazhide,shijuyouzheziyouzhuyidezhengzhibiaozhunde,hayekeguizeyuzhixulilundeguanjianshizhengdangxing,tazhisuoyitichuzhengdangxingweiguize,erbushixingweiguize,qiyuanyinzaizhengzaiyuci。suoyi,geleidechulehayekezishengzhixudebuhanjiazhidetexing,bingzhichentadeneizaimaodun,xianranshiyizhongwudu。conghayekedezhengdangxingweiguizedejiaodulaikandaigeleishangshusuoshuodehayekeyouguanfalvlilundemaodun,jiuhuifaxianzheigemaodunshibucunzaide,yejiushishuo,hayekedezishengzhixubutongyuzirandefuzaxianxiang,tazunxundeguizenaishizhengdangdexingweiguize,yinci,zheigezhengtideshehuizhixukendingshijuyoujiazhishuxingde,fuheziyouzhengyiyuanzedezishengzhixu。dangran,zhidetebieqiangdiaodeshi,hayekesuoshuodeziyouziyouzhengyi,bingbuyiweizhezheigezhengdangxingdeguizetixishiyourenyouyishi、youmudedishejichulaide,yebushilifadefalvsuoqiangxingzhizaochulaide,hayekeyibeizijielifanduidebianshineizhongrenzaodezhengyiguizehezhengyizhixu,tarenweizhenzhengdezhengyibushilixingdesheji,ershizishengdijinhuaheshengzhangqilaide,tamenyinzangzairendehefadexingweijizhidangzhong,tebieshiyinzangzaijiejuezhengduandeputongfadezhidudangzhong。hayekerenwei,renleishehuidezishengzhixusuozunxundeguizexitongqufenweichanmingyuweichanminglianggexingshi,buguoshiyigexiangduidefenjie,tamenjiyurenderenzhinengli,zheizhongrenzhinenglibingbudanchunshixinzhishangde,erqiehaijushiyidingdeshehuizhengzhixingneihan,tamenshejizhengyi、ziyoudengneirong。yingguoputongfazhisuoyixingchengweichanmingdeguizezhanjuzheyouxiandediwei,zheishiyuyingguodezhengzhichuantongyijiyingguorendefalvsiweixiangguande,zaiyiyingmeiputongfaweizhudaodeshehuizhixuzhong,wangwangweichanmingguizedeyaobichanmingdeguizeduiyusuzaoyigeziyoudeshehuizhixugengweizhongyao,renmendehuodongguranweibanbudefalvtiaowensuoguifan,raner,neixieshangweichanmingdeguizezhiweichuantongxisu、guanli、liyideng,duiyurenmendexingweisuoqidaodeguifanzuoyonggengweimingxian,chengweitamenxingdongdezhinan。dangran,zheixieweichanmingdeguizeyouyurichangyuejiudiweirenmensuozifadijieshou,suoyizaiwuxingzhongyezhuanhuaweirendeyixiezhijue,rusuoweizhengyigandeng。hayekecengjiangzheixieweichanmingdeguizejutidifenweiruxiasangefangmiandeneirong: “(1)zhizaishishishangweirenmensuozunxundanquecongweiyongyucijiayibiaodadeguize;ruguoshiyixuanwushuo‘zhengyigan’huo‘yugan’,neimeshiyixuanwujiushizhizheizhongshiyixuanwuyounenglishiyongdanquebingbumingquezhidaodeguize;(2)jinguanyiweiyucisuobiaodadanquerengzhishibiaoshizhangjiuyilaizaixingdongzhongweirenmensuopubianzunshoudedongxideguize;yiji(3)keyiyinjindecongerbidingyichengwenxingshicunzaideguize”。

十一选五zaigaoqingleshangshulianggezhongyaodewentizhihou,shiyixuanwuzaihuiguotoulaikangeleizai《hayekelunziyou》disanbande“houji”zhongduiyuhayekelilundequanmianfoudingyupipan,jiuhuifaxiantadehenduoguandianshilaiziqianmianlianggewudushangmiande。liru,geleirenweihayekedeshehuililun,tebieshitaduiyushehuizhuyijihuajingjidepipanduiyuhoushehuizhuyishidai(post socialist age)meiyourenhelilunheshijianyiyi, hayeke“bingmeiyouweiziyouzhuyizaiduoyangxingshehuitigongyigezhengdangxinglunzheng”。geleizuihoujuyouzongjiexingdizhichu: “hayekeduiyugudianziyouzhuyidezhongshushibaile,zheibujinjinyinweizuoweitadesixiangzhongxindeduishehuizhuyidepipanbingmeiyouqiadangdijiejuehoushehuizhuyishiqideliangnankunjing,erqiehaitongyangyinweitabulijiehuomeiyouyishidaoyichuyuxiandaishehuizhixiadezibenzhuyiziyoushichangdequchuantonghuahouguo(detraditionlizing effects)。hayekesixiangzhongdezheigequexianbufendiweijinlaiqitadeziyouzhuyisuogongtongjuyou。zaihayekedeliluntixizhong,zhengxiangzailuoersidezuoweigongpingdepingdengzhengyililunhezaibukannandeqiyueshidegerenzhuyineiliyiyang,tamendouxiangdangrandiyiweizhiyaogongtongdijianshouyigezhengyigainianjiuzuyiweixiziyouzhuyidezhidu。” 。weici,geleitichulelingwaiyitiaoziyouzhuyidefazhanxiansuo,tarenweizheitiaoziyouzhuyizhilushiyouyigeguanjianxingdesixiangjia——mulekaiqide,tamenzaimianduixiandaishehuidezhuduokunjingshitigonglebihayekesuotichangdegudianziyouzhuyigengyouxiaodejiejuewentidetujing。geleixiedao: “danghayekedesixiangmingxiandiquyupochanzhiji,muleziyouzhuyide——bagerenzizhuxingdeyaoqiuyushehuihezuodexuyaoxiangxiediaodesixiang——fuyoushengjidejili,zhengshilexiandaixifangshehuidezuixinqingkuang。xuyaopinghenggerendexuanzeyugongtongtidexuanzezhijiandeguanxi,zheiyizhutiyijingzaimuledeweidahoujizhe——yisaiya-bolindezhuzuozhongdedaoxiquhefazhan。zheigeshehuiziyouzhuyidechuantongyoujinyibuzaiyuesefu-lazidezhuzuozhongdedaofazhan,tadegerenzizhuxinggainianzaibenzhixingdiqianrushehuizhizhongshi,zhideshiyixuanwushifenshenrudiyuyiyanjiu。”

guanyugeleiduiyuhayekelilundequanmiantiaozhansuoshejideneirong,shiyixuanwuzaicibingbuzhunbeijiyujutidehuiying,danyinggaizhichu,zhichenggeleinaizhixiandaihenduolunzhepipanziyouzhuyi,tebieshigudianziyouzhuyidedeyigejichuxingguandian,shiziyouzhuyidesuowei“jiazhizhongli”huo“yujiazhiwushe”(value-free)zheiyihexinmingti。shifouziyouzhuyizuizhongjiujiangguishuyuyizhongjishuxingdezhiligongjuxingtaini,huozheshuo,zhiyoubuhanjiazhidezhonglixingtaiducaishiziyouzhuyiyingyoudezhengzhiyishini?zheiyouhuidaoleqianshudeziyouzhuyideyiyuanyuduoyuandezhengzhijiazhiwentishanglai,xianran,neizhongjiangziyouzhuyizhijieshiweiyizhongqiangshidezhengzhijiazhideguandian,shibufuhegudianziyouzhuyideshizhijingshende,tadebiranjiejushifaguodeziyoujingshen,guanyuzheizhongziyouzhuyidezhuduobiduanjiuwuyongduoyanle,hayekezhuzuozhongdeyigezhongxinneirongjiushiduiyuzheizhong“gaolujingshen”depipan。keshifouziyouzhuyijiunenggouxiangbolinneiyangyuyizhongduoyuanzhuyidezhengzhijiazhidiaohezaiyiqini?tongguoshangshudefenxi,shiyixuanwukandao,bolindeduoyuanziyouzhuyimianlinzhewufakefudemaodun。zhengshizaizheiyangdebeijingzhixia,shiyixuanwugandaohayeketichudeneizhongfoudingxingdeziyouzhuyiqueyouzheqiangyoulidechuantouxing,yinwei,tabushineizhongkendingxingdefaguoshideziyou,danyebushibujiangyuanzededuoyuandiaohe,ershizaiqueliziyouzhuyidejibendepubianyuanzezhixiaderuoshideziyou,qihexinzaiyufoudingxingdezhengdangxingweiguize,tabushijiazhizhonglide,huoyujiazhiwushede,ershiyoujiazhixingde,shiziyouzhuyidejiazhi,tadehexinshizhengyi,jiziyouzhengyi,hayekeyouchengzhiweifoudingxingdezhengyijiazhi。

2、sanzhongfoudingxingjiazhilixiang

shiyixuanwukandao,duiyuhayekesixiangtixi,tebieshiduiyutadezishengzhixulilundepipanxingtiaozhan,jinguanshiduofangmiandeyugeshigeyangde,danzuizhongrengranjizhongzaitadeziyouzhuyijiazhilunshang,wulunshijiuqifangfahaishijielunshang,tamendoubukebimiandishejihayekesixiangdejiazhiguan,bolindewentiruci,geleidewentiyeshiruci。youyuchuantongdeziyouzhuyijiazhililunmianlinweiji,yinci,hayekesuodaibiaodeziyouzhuyi,lunzheyouchengzhiweixindeziyouzhishangzhuyi(libertarianism),zheizhongziyouzhishangzhuyisuochiyoudejiazhiguanjiujingruhe,jiubiandegewaiyinrenzhumule。duiyuzheizhongziyouzhuyilaishuo,yibanyiyishangdejiazhilunzaishejirenleishehuidezishengzhixushibudanwuyi,fanerhuihunxiaowentideshizhi,hayekesuoshuodewenmingjinhuadeguizeyijizhidujiazhi,bushizhengzhidaodezhuyi,jibadaodeneirongzhijieyizhidaoshehuideyanjinjizhizhongqu,yidaodebiaozhunzhijiehengliangshehuizhixudejiazhishuxing,ershizhengzhidezhengyijiazhi,jilingyizhongzhengzhizhengyilun,huoziyouzhuyidezhengyiguan,hayekeyoujiangqijingsuichengzhiweizhengdangxingweiguize,huoziyouguize。shiyixuanwukandao,baziyou、guizeyuzhengyisanzhejieheyuyiti,zheishigudianziyouzhuyidejingshensuozai,tatuchuditixianzaiyingguoputongfadelishishijianzhizhong。

十一选五guanyuhayekedeziyouzhengyilun,shiyixuanwuzaiqianmiandezhangjiezhongcengjingjiyulexiangjindelunshu, qishi,ziyouzhuyibingfeibujiangzhengyi,baziyouyuzhengyijiehezaiyiqi,bingyufalvguizeyuzhidumiqiexiangguan,shiyingguochuantongziyouzhuyidejibentezheng,zaozaisimihexiumoyijiheierdengputongfaxuezheneili,jiuduoyoulunshu。hayekechengjileyingguozhengzhisixiangdechuantong,youjinyibubatamenyudaludesifajingshen,yijideguokangdezhexuedepubianfazedepushixingsixianglianjieqilai,tichulesifadegongfazhizhidefazhiguannian,renweiziyouzhuyidejiazhijiuqizhiduyiyilaishuo,naishiyigongfadexingshishishizhengdangxingweiguize,bingjinerchuangzaoxingdigoulechuyigesanquanwucengdexianfaxinmoshi。zaihayekekanlai,taqiongqiyishengdenuliwukezhiyidishiweiletaxinmuzhongdeziyoujiazhi,erjuefeishiweileyigeyujiazhiwushedezishengzhixu,yitazhijian,zishengzhixujuewukenengyujiazhiwushe,dangran,tasuolijiedejiazhishiyizhongfoudingxingdejiazhi,zheiyidianyoushishifenzhongyaode。suiranzongyoulunzhebatashiweibaoshouzhuyi,dantaqueyizhizishiweiyigegudianziyouzhuyizhe,yongtadehuashuo,shiyigelaohuigedangren。zaihayekekanlai,akedunsuoshuodeyouhuigedangren“zuizaotichudeshizhengfazhishangcunzaizheyizhonggenggaojifadeguannian,zeshiyingguorendezuigaochengjiu,yeshihuigedangrenliujizheigeminzudezuiweidadeyichan,duici,shiyixuanwuhaikeyizuoyidianbuchong: zheiyiguannianyeshihuigedangrenliujishijiedezuiweidayichuan。ciyiyuanzegouchengleanggelu-sakexunzhuguogongtongchuantongdejichu;tashiouzhoudaluziyouzhuyicongzhongxiqudezuijujiazhideyibufen;tayeshimeiguozhengfuzhidulaiyiweijichudegenju。”

十一选五shiyixuanwukandao,hayekeyouguanziyouzhuyijiazhidelunshu,wanquanshibiekaishengmiande,tade《falv、lifayuziyou》yishudezuihouyizhangzailunshuletadexianfaxinmoshizhihou,suizhitichuleyouguanrenleiwenmingdesanzhongweidadefoudingxinglixiangdeguandian,zheishihayekezuixitonghezhijiemingquedeyouguanziyouzhuyifoudingxingjiazhidechanshu。zaihayekekanlai,yigewenmingshehuiheziyoudekaifangzhixuzhixia,birancunzaizheyixieweidadelixianghejiazhi,zhengshitamenzhichengzherenleiwenmingzhixudeyanjin。yitazhijian,yousanzhongzhiguanzhongyaodejiazhizaiyingxiangzherenleidexingwei,wulunshiduiyumeigegerenlaishuo,haishiduiyuyizhongwenmingzhidulaishuo,zheisanzhongjiazhidoushijuyouzhongjiyiyide,tamenshiheping、ziyouyuzhengyi。weicitaxiedao: “duiyuyigeziyourenzuchengdedashehuilaishuo,yigezhengfunenggoujiyudezuimeihaodedongxidoushifoudingxingde。---------heping、ziyouhezhengyizheisangeweidadefoudingxinglixiang,shishirenleiwenmingdeyiweixideweiyibukehuoquedejichu,yeshizhengfubixutigongdejichu。” shiyixuanwukandao,hayekezai《falv、lifayuziyou》sanjuanjidezuihouyizhang,zaitaxitongditichuyouguanzhengdangxingweiguizehexianzhengchuangxindengyixiliezhongyaodelilunzhihou,tichurenleiwenmingdezheisangefoudingxingdeweidajiazhi,shiyixuanwurenweijuefeiouran,zheilijizhongtixianlehayekeziyouzhuyidefoudingxingjiazhiguan。

lunshudaohayekedejiazhilun,shiyixuanwushouxianbianmianlinyigewenti,weishenmehayekerenweiheping、ziyouyuzhengyishangshusanzhongjiazhishirenleiwenmingzhixuzuiweizhongyaodezhongjixingjiazhini?duici,hayekebingmeiyouzhijiezaitichuzheiyiguandianshijiyulilunshangdelunshu,yexuzaitakanlai,zheiyishibuzhengzimingdewenti,ruguozixiyanduhayekedeyixiliezhongyaodezhushu,tebieshihouqidezuopin,jiubunanfaxianchulehepingzaitadelilunzhongshenshaochujiwai,ziyouyuzhengyiyizhishihayekeguanzhudeyaodian,keyizheiyangshuo,tadequanbushehuililun,baokuozishengzhixuguan、wuzhidezhishilun、fazhiyuxianzhengsixiangdengdeng,doushiweileziyouyuzhengyizheiyiduihexinjiazhide。suoyi,youguanheping、ziyouyuzhengyidezhongyaoxing,zaiciyiwuxuduoyan,jinguanyeyouyixielilunjiaweibijiutongyizheisanzhongjiazhishizuigenbenxingde,tamenhaihuibaqitayixiejiazhi,zhurupingdeng、minzhudengshiweitongyanggenbenxingdejiazhi。danjiuhayekezuoweiyigegudianziyouzhuyizhelaishuo,taduiyuzhongjijiazhidepaixusihubingmeiyoushenmekezhengyide,jinguantayeyizaizhichu,xiangminzhuyupingdengzheiyangdejiazhiduiyurenlaishuoyeshifeichangzhongyaode,raner,jiuqizuizhongdiweilaishuo,hayekeyiranjianchirenweiheping、ziyouyuzhengyizheisanzhongjiazhishidiyicengcidejiazhi,zhiyuqitadejiazhizeshishuyudiercengcide。

jiyuhayekedelunshu,shiyixuanwurenweitazheiyangpailieyouruxiasangefangmiandekaolv: diyi,hayekejianghepingshiweiyixiangzuizhongyaodejiazhi,erqiemeiyoulunzheng,zheiyidiansihubingmeiyouyinqiduoshaoshizhixingdezhengyi,qiyuanyinzaiyuwulunshiziyouzhuyide,haishifeiziyouzhuyidelilun,tamenzaiyouguanhepingzheiyijiazhizairenleiwenmingzhongdezhongyaoxingdedekanfabingmeiyoushenmechuru。congyibanyiyilaishuo,sheiyemeiyouliyoufourenhepingduiyuyigeshehuinaizhiduiyuyigerendezhiguanzhongyao,tashiyigeyouxushehuihemeihaoshehuidejibenqianti。dangran,xuyaozhichudeshi,hepingzaicibingfeidaodeyiyishangdejiazhi,congdaodexuedejiaodukan,tayouyumeiyoushejirendexinxingwenti,suoyidiweibingbugao,ranercongwenmingzhixuhezhidujiazhilaishuo,hepingwuyishigenbenxingde。duici,kangdecengtichuguoyongjiuhepingdesixiang,zheiyisixiangzaixifangzhengzhisixiangshishangyingxiangshenyuan。dier,zaiyouguanziyoujiazhidedingweishang,fenqijiuchuxianle,xianranruhekandaiziyouyupingdeng、minzhudengjiazhi,butongdelilunjiubiaoxianchuhendadebutong,hayekesuorentongdegudianziyouzhuyiyushehuizhuyi、shehuiminzhuzhuyidenglilundeyigezhongdachayibianzaiyutazishizhizhongdoushibaziyoufangzaileyouxiandediwei,renweiziyoushizuigenbenxingdejiazhi,zhiyouzaiziyoudejichuzhishangcaitandeshangsuoweipingdengyuminzhu。erzailingyixieziyouzhuyikanlai,pingdengyuziyoushiliangxiangzuijibendejiazhi,xianghuzhijianbingmeiyouzhucizhifen,zhishibiaoxianlebutongdefangmian,yucixiangying,minzhujiazhiyeshiyixiangzuijibendejiazhi,qidiweiyebuyingdiyuziyouyupingdeng,zhiyushehuiminzhuzhuyi,huomakesizhuyizaizheigewentishangzeshiyuhayekedeziyouzhuyixiangduilide,tamenrenweipingdengshizuigaodejiazhi,xiangbizhixia,ziyou、minzhudengzeshiciyaodejiazhi。youcikejian,hayeketichuheping、ziyouyuzhengyizuoweisangezhongjixingdejiazhiyuanyuanxianranshizhenduishehuizhuyiheshehuiminzhuzhuyide,tahaobuyouyudijianchirenweigerenziyoudeyouxiandiwei。disan,guanyuzhengyiwenti,keyishuorenheyizhongshehuizhengzhililundouhuibazhengyishiweiyigejiqizhongyaodejiazhi,danguanjianshiruhelijiezhengyi,zaicijiuchuxianlezhongdadefenye。shehuizhuyiheshehuiminzhuzhuyizhuyaoshibazhengyilijieweiyizhongshehuixingdefenpeizhengyi,zhiyuzhongjianpaibiedeziyouzhuyi、shequnzhuyideng,zebazhengyilijieweidiaohexingdejiazhi,ruluoersidezhengyiliangyuanzezuiyoudaibiaoxing。zaihayekekanlai,zhengyinaishiyizhongchouxiangguizedezhengyi,huozhengdangdexingweiguize,tayuqianshugepaililundebenzhixingfenqibuzaiyoumeiyouzhengyi,erzaiyuhezhongzhengyi。

youcikejian,hayeketichudeyouguanheping、ziyouyuzhengyisanzhongzhongjixingjiazhiyouzhefuzadelilunbeijing,buguo,duiyuhayekelaishuo,tadejiazhiguandeyaojinzhichuhaibuzaiyufenleiyupailie,erzaiyutaduiyuzheisanzhongjiazhidefoudingxinglijie,huozheshuo,hayeketongguofuyutamengezifoudingxingdeshuxing,congerjiushidezheisanzhongjiazhixingtaijuyouleyoubieyuqitalilunjiamensuolijiededutebenxing,erzhengshizheizhongfoudingxingdejiazhishuxingcaishihayekezuiweiguanzhude,tamengouchenglehayekeshehuizhengzhililun,tebieshitadefalv(baokuoxianfaxinmoshi)lilundezhigui。zhengxiangtasuozhichude,“yirushiyixuanwusuozhi,shugeshidaideshandongjiayizhidouzaiyangaimouxiejibenshishidezhenxiang,yinci,ruguoshiyixuanwuxianghuifuzheixieshishidezhenxiang,neimeshiyixuanwujiubixuzhongxinlijieweishenmedashehuihuokaifangshehuidejibenjiazhibidingshifoudingxingdejiazhi(negative values): zheixiefoudingxingdejiazhinenggouqueshigerenzaiyigongzhidelingyuneiyouquangenjuzijidezhishiquzhuiqiuzijidemude。deque,weiyouzheiyangdefoudingxingguizecaiyoukenengxinggouchuyizhongzishiyixuanwushengchengdezhixu,yecaiyoukenengshigerendezhishidedaoyunyongbingshigerendeyuqiudedaomanzu。shiyixuanwubixuzuncongzheiyangyigerengweishiyixuanwugandaomoshengdeshishi,jizaiyigeziyourenzuchengdeshehuili,zuigaoquanlijigouzaizhengchangzhuangtaizhongshimeiyouquanlifaburenhekendingxingminglingde。zuigaoquanlijigousuoyingdangxiangyoudeweiyidequanli,bianshigenjuguizefabujinlingdequanli;yincishiyixuanwukeyishuo,zuigaoquanlijigousuohuodedeneizhongzhigaowushangdediweinaishiyitademeixiangxingweidouzunxunmouxiangyibanxingyuanzeweijichude。”

十一选五guanyuziyou、zhengyidefoudingxingbiaozhunjiqishuxing,shiyixuanwuzaiqianmiandezhangjieyijingjiyulejiaoweixiangjindefenxi。yinggaizhichu,hayekezhisuoyiruciqiangdiaozheigewenti,bingfeiweilelilunshangdelunbian,ershijuyouxianshideshenkekaoliang,zaitakanlai,qiaqiashizheizhongfoudingxingdejiazhishuxing,caishidetasuolijiededashehuihuoziyoushehuidezishengzhixu,tebieshizuoweiqizhichengxingdefalvzhixuchengweikeneng,caishiderenleiwenmingdeyizishengzifadiyanjiangyukuozhan。shuoqilai,geleizaitahoulaipipanhayekedewenzhangzhongsihujuechadaozheiyiwenti,tafaxianruguodanchuncongzishengzhixudeyanjinlaikan,sihubukenengziranerrandichanshengyigeziyoudeshehuizhixu,yinci,xuyaoyizhongguifanxingdefalvguizelaisuzaohejiangouchuyigeziyoushehui。weicigeleizhizehayekexianrulekunjing,jitabafalvguizeyuzhixuyeshiweiyizhongzishengdeguocheng,queyouzhiwangtamengoujianchuyigehehuziyoujiazhideshehuizhixu,zheizhongxiangfawuyiyushiyizhong“lilunhuanjue”。shiyixuanwukandao,geleiduiyufalvguizeyuzhixuzaihayekeshehuililunzhongdezuoyongdefenxi,shiyoujuechalide,chengruhayekesuoyan,falv(guizeyuzhixu)wentiqueshishitaqiongqiyishengsuotantaodezhongxinwenti,hayekedeliangbuzhuyaozhuzuo——《ziyouzhixuyuanli》he《falv、lifayuziyou》,tebieshihouyibenzhuzuohuafeileta17niandejinglicaiwancheng,qizhongxinwentishifalvguizeyufalvzhiduwenti,zaishiyixuanwukanlai,hayekehouqisixiangzhongdeliangxiangzuizhongyaodelilunchuangjian,jizhengdangxingweiguizeyusanquanwucengdexianfamoshi,douyufalvwentimiqiexiangguan,huozheshuojiushifalvguizeyufalvzhidudechuangxin。

十一选五raner,geleiduiyuhayekefalvsixiangdelijieshicuowude,pipangengshimeiyoudaolide,yinweihayekebingfeirugeleisuoyan,renweifalvguizehezhiduyujiazhiwushe,shibuhanjiazhibiaozhundegongju,shiyigechunzirandeguizeyuguocheng,xiangshengwuzhongqun、ziranxianxiangruxingxi、cichang、jingtidengziranwudebianhua、yundonghexuanzedezifajiegouyiyang。hayekedefalvzhixucunzaizhejiazhi,shiyizhongjiazhixingdezishengzhixu,qijizhongdebiaoxianweiheping、ziyouyuzhengyisanzhongjiazhi,yejiushishuo,zuoweizishengshehuizhixuzhizhichengdefalvguizeyufalvzhidunaishiyizhongneihanjiazhideguizetixihezhidumoshi,zhibuguohayekesuolijiedejiazhi,bushiyibanrensuoweidekendingxingjiazhi,ershifoudingxingjiazhi,geleizhengshibulijiezheizhongfoudingxingdeyiyi,suoyi,caidechuletadejielun。weishenmeyizhongzhidudejiazhinaizhirenleidewenminglixiangbixushifoudingxingdeni?zheigewentikeyishuoshikunhuozheziyouzhuyideyigegenbenxingwenti,hayekezaitadehouqililunzhongsuojizhongjiejuede,yejiushiziyouhezhengyiruhetongguofoudingxingdejiazhizhixiangergouchengyigezishengdeshehuizhixu,jutidishuo,zheiliangxiangfoudingxingjiazhishiruhezuoweichouxiangguizezhihexinshuxingerxinggouchuyigezishengdeshichangzhixu、falvzhixuhezhengzhizhixude。

san、ruoshidezhengzhizhexue

1、zhengzhidequzhongxinhua

yizhaogudianziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhexue,falvzhiduzuoweiyizhongguizedexitong,tazaigouchengyigeshehuidezhixushi,biranshejizhengzhixingneirong,huozheshuofalvzhiduzishengdiyaoyanjinweiyizhongzhengzhixingtai,huozhengzhizhidu。yinci,congzheigeyiyishanglaishuo,zaihayekesuoqufendeliangzhongfalvguizedebeihou,shijishangcunzaizheyigezhengzhixingwenti,buguo,yihayekezhijian,youyusifayugongfahuoziyouguizeyuzuzhiguizedeshizhixingqubie,qizhengzhixingxiangyingdibiaoxianweiliangzhongbutongdezhengzhiluoji。hayekesuoshuodeneibuguize,gouchengyigeshehuideneibuzhixu,zaiqizhongyizhongzhuyaoyoufalvrenzhizaodesifazhiduhuofaguanzhidu,zaidiaozhenghediaoshirenmenzhijiandeliyiguanxishiqizheguanjianxingdezuoyong,ruguoshuozheizhongfalvzhiduyecunzaizhengzhixingdehua,neitasuozunxundenaishiyizhongruoshidezhengzhiluoji,eryucixiangfandewaibuguize,zhengxiangshiyixuanwusuozhidaode,naishiyizhongzuzhixingdeguizehuolifazhedefalv,zaigouchengyigeshehuidewaibuzhixudeguochengzhong,tasuozunxundezeshiyizhongqiangshidezhengzhiluoji。shiyixuanwukandao,suiranhayekebingmeiyoumingquedijiangzheiqiangruoliangzhongxingtaidezhengzhiluojibiaoshuchulai,danshi,tadeyouguanliangzhongguizeyuzhixuyijikendingxingyufoudingxingjiazhishuxingdequfen,tebieshitazai《falv、lifayuziyou》dezuihouyizhangsuotichude“zhengzhidequzhongxinhua”(the dethronement of politics)deguandian,yiweishiyixuanwusuoyaozhankaideliangzhongzhengzhiluojidelunshutigonglelilundejichu。

zaifalvbeihouyinzangzhezhengzhiluoji,falvguizesuoyijudenaishizhengzhizhexuedeyuanze,hayekeyixilieyouguanjingji、falvheshehuidengfangmiandezhushuconggenbenshangkandoushiweiraozhetadezhengzhizhexuezhankaide,tadeshehuililuncongmouzhongyiyishanglaishuo,suobiaoshudenaishiyizhongzhengzhizhexue。buguo,xuyaozhichudeshi,hayekedezhengzhizhexuebingbuyiweizheweizhengzhihua,huozhengzhizhongxinhua,qiaqiaxiangfan,taqiongqiyishengzaililunshangsuozhilidenaishidui“quanlideezhi”,tayouchengzhiwei“zhengzhidequzhongxinhua”。keyizheiyangshuo,“quanlideezhiyuzhengzhidequzhongxinhua”guandianshihayekezishengshehuizhixulilundezongjiexingjielun,shitade《falv、lifayuziyou》disanjuan“ziyoushehuidezhengzhizhixu”deyaozhi,tadeliangzhongfalvdequfen,shiweiraozhezheiyizhutizhankaide,tadeyouguanfoudingxingjiazhidelunshu,shiweiraozhezheiyizhutizhankaide,zhiyutadexianfaxinmoshidejiagou,gengshiweiraozhezheiyizhutizhankaide,zaihayekekanlai,shangshuyiqienulidemudequanbuzaiyu,weilexiaochurenleiwenmingyanjinzhongdeqiangshizhengzhi,ji“zhengzhidequzhongxinhua”。

十一选五weishenmehayekeyao“zhengzhidequzhongxinhua”ni?guanjianzaiyuziyouyuzhengyijiazhizhidedaobaozhang,yinwei,shiyixuanwuzhidao,taduiyuziyou、zhengyidelijie,shifoudingxingde,shuyuruoshidezhengzhiluoji。ke“zhengzhidezhongxinhua”quezhengxiangfan,hayekexiedao: “congxiangdangpubiandeqingkuanglaikan,zhengzhiyijingbiandetaiguozhongyao、chengbenguoyuangguiqieweihaitaida,erqieyetunshilerenmentaiduotaiduodexinlihewuzhiziyuan;yucitongshi,zhengzhiyezaibuduansangshidazhongduitadereqingzhichihezunzhong,yinweirenmenyijingyulaiyubazhengzhishizuoshitamenbudebuchengshoudeyizhongbiyaodedanquewukejiuzhidee。” zaihayekekanlai,jinxiandaiyilainaizhidaomuqianweizhidezhenggerenleiwenmingdeyanjinguochengzhong,zhengzhiquanlidekuozhangyichengxianchubukeezhizhishi,zaishehuishenghuodejihusuoyoudelingyu,tebieshijingjihezhengzhilingyu,benshijiyilaisihuyijingdadaodengfengzaojidedibu,yiqieyuanbenshuyugerenziyouxingweidesiyukongjianyuelaiyueshoudaoweizhengzhihuaheweishehuihuadeqinshi,qizuidianxingdebiaoxianjiushigongfazhujianqudaisifachengweidiaozhengshehuiguanxidezhuyaoguizetixi。guojiahuozhengfuyuelaiyueyijuzijishouzhongdequanliquganyujingjishenghuo,jianggerennaruyigeshehuidezhengzhiwangluozhizhong,meigerendesirentexingdangranwucun,guojiadekongzhilijihudaolewuyifujiadedibu,tabudantongxiarenmendewaibuhuodong,shenzhishentoudaomeigerendeneibuxinling。zheizhongquanlidepengzhanghekuozhang,hayekechengzhiwei“zhengzhidezhongxinhua”qushi,huo“weishehuihua”qushi。

weishenmehuichanshengzheiyangyizhongzhuangkuangni?yijuhayekedeguandian,shehuibenlaishiyigezishengzhixu,zaiqizhongsuozunxundenaishineibuguize,jibianshiwaibudezhengzhizhixu,yeshizishengzhixukuozhandechanwu,yinci,tamenzuizhongrengrancongshuyuneibuzhixudediaozheng。raner,wentizaiyuxianshideqingkuangbingfeiwanquanruci,shenzhizaijinxiandaiyilaideshehuizhengzhiyanbianzhong,guizehuozhixufashenglediandao,zhenggeshehuiwanquannarudaoyizhongzuzhijiegoudewaibuzhixuzhizhong,kendingxingdegongfachengweidiaozhengshehuigezhongguanxideguizetixi,guojiahuozhengfudequanliyijugongfayuanzeerriyikuozhanghepengzhang,bingqieshentoudaoshehuidegegefangmian。shiyixuanwukandao,zheizhongzhengzhidezhongxinhuaqushishiyusuoweideminzhuzhengzhiheshehuizhengyimiqiexiangguande,tamengouchenglejinxiandaiyilaishehuizhuyi、shehuiminzhuzhuyi、guojiazhuyihexinziyouzhuyidenggeshigeyanglilundejibenneirong,jinguantamenzhijiandeguandianshiqianchawanbiede,danzaiweiraozhegongfazhidudefalvnizhiheqiangdiaozhengfuyuguojiaduiyushichangjingjideganyufangmian,quebiaoxianchuhendachengdudeyizhi,bingqietamenzaineizhongzhizaishixianduoshurenzhengzhiyiyuandeminzhuzhengzhiyufuliguojiadepingdengzhuyisuqiuzhizhong,sihuzhaodaolezhengdangxingdeyiju。qishi,hayekezhichu,zheizhongweishehuihuadezhengzhizhongxinqushishiyugudiandesifazhiduhexianzhengchuantongxiangweibeide,zaitakanlai,sifazuoweidiaozhengyigeyouxushehuideneibuguize,tashiyibaozhanggerenziyouweiqiantideyizhongguizetixi,erxianzhengzhidudaoshuodinaishiduiquanlijinxingyouxiaodexianzhi。hayekexiedao: “shijishang,shixianjinwenmingzhifazhanchengweikenengdeweiyiyixiangdaodeyuanze,bianshigerenziyoudeyuanze。gaixiangdaodeyuanzesuoyizhideshi: gerenzaijuecedeguochengzhongshouzhengdangxingweiguizedezhidao,erbushoujutiminglingdezhidao。zaiyigeziyourenzuchengdeshehuizhong,renheyueshugerendejitixingweiyuanze(principles of collective conduct)doushibukenengyoulizuzhidide。” “duiquanlijinxingyouxiaoxianzhi,keyishuoshiweixushehuizhixufangmiandezuiweizhongyaodewenti。jiuxinggouzheiyangyizhongshehuizhixulaishuo,zhengfuzaibaohusuoyouderenbingshitamenmianshouqitarendeqiangzhihebaolideshishibukehuoquede。danshixuyaoqiangdiaodeshi,yidanzhengfuweiledadaozheigemudeerchengchenggongdilongduanleshishiqiangzhihebaolidequanli,neimetayejiubianchengleweixiegerenziyoudeshouyaoyinsu。yinci,duizhengfudezheizhongquanlijinxingxianzhi,bianchengle17shijihe18shijixianzhengchuangshizhedeweidamubiao。danshi,dangrenmencuowudiyiweizhiyaocaiyongminzhufangshiduiquanlideshishijinxingkongzhibianzuyifangzhizheizhongquanliguofenpengzhangdeshihou,neizhongxianzhizhengfuquanlidenuliyejiuzaibuzhibujuedeguochengzhongjihubeichedifoudingle。”

zaihayekekanlai,dangqianshehuidezhengzhizhongxinhuaqushibiaoxianweiruxiajigefangmian: diyi,weishehuihuadezhengzhililun。zaizheizhonglilunkanlai,shehuijiegoudezhongxinnaishiyouyixiliezuzhihetuantisuogouchengde,gerenzaishehuishenghuozhongbixuzuoweiyigefenzicongshuyuxiangguandegezhongzuzhixitong,erzaiqizhongzuidadezuzhixitongbianshizuoweiguojiahuozhengfudezhengzhizuzhi,zheileizuzhiyiqisuoweidezuzhimubiaoheguojiazhuquanweiqixingshiquanlidezhengdangxingyiju,bagerennarutadezuzhijiegouzhizhong。zheiyangdeyigeyizuzhiweishuniudeshehuibukenengshiyigekaifangdeziyoushehui,ershiyigeweishehuihuadequanquanshehui,zhenduizheizhongweishehuihuadezhengzhililun,hayekezaitadezhuzuozhongjiyulejianruidepipan,tebieshiduizheizhonglilundejiazhijichu,jishehuizhengyiguan,hayekerenweitabuguoshiyizhongweishehuihuadehuanxiang。yinweishehuinaishiyizhongzishengdezhixu,zaiqizhongmeigegerendoushizuoweibuketidaidedulidanyuanziyoudizhuiqiugezideyuqiheliyi,zhiyaotamendexingweifuhefalvguize,jiukeyichongfenfahuizijidegexing,genjucaineng、nulihejiyuershixianzijidegezhongyuqiyuyuanwang,ershehuidezuzhixitongbuguoshiyizhonggongjuhuadegonggongshouduaneryi,yejiushishuo,renbushiweizheshehuihuozuzhierhuozhe,xiangfan,houzhenaishiweiqianzhetigonggonggongshiyixuanwude。

dier,gongfazhiduxiadesuoweifazhiyuanze。yizhaozheiyangyizhongyuanze,zhenggeshehuizuoweiyigezuzhixingdexitong,tazunxundenaishikendingxingdefalv,tamenshiyoulifajigouzhuanmenzhidingchulaideyongyushixiangezhongzuzhimubiaode,tebieshiyongyushixianzuoweizhengfuhuoguojiadeguojialiyihuozhengfuzhengcede,yijuzheileigongfazhilishehui,neimeqijieguobianzhinengshiduiyuquanshehuihemeigegongmindequanlikongzhi,shiqicongshuyuzuzhideyaoqiuyumude,bingzuizhongdaozhiyizhongquanquanxingdeguojia。yuzheizhonggongfazhizhixiangqubie,hayeketichuletadexianzhengchuangxin,zaitakanlai,guranzishengshehuixuyaoyigezuzhixingdezhengfujigoulaizhili,danshi,zheizhongzhengfuzhilishiyoutiaojiande,tashiyizhongyouxianzhengfuerbushiwuxianzhengfu,xianfazuoweizhengfuzhilidefalvyijusuotigongdebingbushiduiyuzhengfuwuxianzhiliquanlideshouquanxingfaan,ershiyizhongxianquanxingfaan,jicongxianfadegaocengjiagoushangduiyugezhongzuzhiguizejiyuyouxiaodeyueshuhezhiyue,shiqizunxunsifadezhengdangxingweiguizeerzhilishehui。yinci,hayekedexianfamoshiconggenbenshanglaishuonaishisifazhizhierbushigongfazhizhi,taxiedao: “gudianziyouzhuyidejibenguannianrenwei: shouxian,zhengfubixubasuoyouderendoushizuoshipingdengzhe,erbuluntamenshishishangyouduomebupingdeng;qici,bulunzhengfuyishenmeyangdefangshiquyueshu(huozhichi)mougerendexingdong,tadoubixugenjutongyangdechouxiangguizequyueshu(huozhichi)suoyouqitarendexingdong。”

disan,suoweiminzhuzhengzhideriyipengzhang。hayekerenweiminzhuzhengzhibingfeibuhao,dantashiyouxiande,ruguotamangmudiyanzheshangshudeweishehuihuahegongfazhizhikuozhang,neimesuodaozhidejiukenengshiyiduoshurendeyizhiweizhuanyideduoshuzhizhi。duiyuzheizhongxianxingdedaiyizhiminzhu,hayekezhichu: “dangxiashengxingdeneizhongwuxianminzhuzhidu,zaihendachengdushangyijingsangshilediyuzhuanduanquanlidenengli。zhongsuozhouzhi,yixierentianzhendiyiwei,dangyiqiequanlidoushoudaominzhuzhidukongzhideshihou,duizhengfuquanlishijiadesuoyouqitaxianzhiyejiukeyiqizhibuyongle;zhengshizheizaizheizhongyouzhiguandiandeyingxiangxia,minzhuzhiduyibuzaishigerenshangyizhongbaozhangcuoshile,tongshiyebuzaishiduilanyongzhengfuquanlidezuofasuoshezhideyizhongyueshujizhile——jinguanrenmencengjingxiwangminzhuzhidunenggoufahuizheiyangdezuoyong。shijishang,dangxiashengxingdeminzhuzhiduyijingbianchenglecushixingzhengjiqichixuqiejiasukuodaquanliheshilidezhuyaoyuanyin。”

十一选五disi,guojiahuozhengfuganyujingjihuodongdeqiangzhixingwei。zhengzhidezhongxinhuazaijingjilingyubiaoxianweisuoweideshengchanziliaodeguoyouhuayijixiangyingdefenpeizhengyililun,zheizhonglilunrenweizhiyoutongguoguojiaquanliduiyujingjishenghuodeganyu,shishijihuajingji,cainengyouxiaodijiejueshehuifenpeibujundengwenti。yuzhixiangfan,hayekerenwei,zheizhongjingjilingyudezhengzhizhongxinhuaqishizhishixiaochuzishengshehuidesiyouchanquanzhidu,suodaozhidejieguozhinengshiduiyujingjizhixudequanmianeshaheduigerenziyoudechedifouding。zaitakanlai,diaozhengshehuijingjishenghuodenaishichouxiangdeshichangguizeerbunengshizhengfudejutizhengce,sifazhidusuoweihudesiyouchanquannaishigerenziyouheyigekaifangdeziyoushehuidejishi,ruguozhengfuyiqiangzhixingquanliganyujingjizhixu,zhihuizaochengzhengfuduiyujingjidelongduan。guojialongduanpohuaishichangzhixudeyouxiguize,fengbiziyoushehuidekuozhan,shizhenggewenmingshehuihuozhetuisuodaoxiaaidebuluoqunti,huozheyanbianweiyizhongjiquanxingdezhuanzhishehui,erhayeketichudexianfaxinmoshiqizhuyaoyigemudebianshiyixianfayuanzezuzhizhengfuquanliduiyuziyoujingjidezhuanhengganyu,taxiedao: “yigeziyoushehuidexianfashenzhiyoubiyaoyongmouxiangzhuanmentiaokuanlaihanweizheixiangyuanze,biruzaixianfazhongmingqueguiding: ‘yihuibudezhidingrenheboduorenmenxiangyouruxiazhiquanlidefalv,yijirenrendouxiangyouyongzijixuanzederenheyizhonghuobilaichiyou、maimaihuojiedai、dijiehetongbingshishihetong、hesuanbingjizhangdequanli’。”

十一选五zongzhi,hayekezhichu,zhengzhidezhongxinhuakeyiguijieweiyizhongkendingxingdezuzhihuaqushi,neizhongjiangshehuijijiedaozhengzhiquanliyunzuozhongqudezuofanaishiyishixianmouzhongkendingxingdejiazhimubiaoweijichude,genjuzheizhonglilun,guojiahuozhengfuxingshizijidequanlishiweileguojiadezongtiliyi,erzaihayekekanlai,zheizhongguojiazhuyidezhengzhiluojishizainanxingde。mianduidangqianshehuidezheizhongzhengzhizhongxinhuaqushi,zaixifangzhengzhililunzhongcengchuxianleyizhongxunzhaosuoweidisantiaoluxiandeshehuizhengzhililun,zheizhonglilunjixiangbaituozhengzhizhongxinhuadequshi,danyoubuxiangfangqiguojiahezhengfuzuzhixingjierushehuizhixudeyixiliezhengzhitequan,shituzaiziyouzhuyiheshehuizhuyizhijianxunzhaoyitiaozhongjiandaolu,duiyuzheizhongzhezhongxingdeshehuizhengzhililun,hayekeyejiyulejianruidepipan,tarenweizhiyouliangzhonggenbenbuxiangronghedexuanze,ciwaimeiyousuoweidezhongjiandaolu。

hayekezhuzhangzhengzhidequzhongxinhua,zhiyuruheezhizhengzhiquanlidekuozhang,hayekerenweibunengcaiqusuoweidedezhi,neizhongqitutongguokaimingtongzhizhededexingzhilierxianzhizhengzhizhongxinhuadeqitu,buguoshiyixietianzhendehuanxiang,duiyuzhengzhijiqizheipiyema,weiyinenggoujiyuyouxiaozhiyuedezhinengshiyizhongjianlizaisifazhidujichushangdefazhiyuxianzheng。shiyixuanwukandao,hayekesuotichudexianfaxinmoshi,jiushicongfalvzhidudecengmianshang,tebieshicongxianfadegaocengjiagoushangduizhengfuquanlijiyuzhidushangdezhiyue,tadesanquanwucengdezhidushezhi,tebieshiyouguanliangzhongyihuidezhiquanhuafen,suozhenduidezhuyaoshixianxingminzhuzhengzhizhongshengxingdequanlifubai,yijikenengchuxiandejiquanzhuyiqushi。zhidetebiezhichudeshi,hayekezhuzhangzhengzhidequzhongxinhua,guanjianzaiyutaweishangshudezhidukuangjiatigongleyizhongfoudingxingdejiazhizhicheng,zhengxiangtasuoshuode,“shiyixuanwuxiangxinduzhebunanfaxian,renmenweicuihuiquanquanxingguojiaersuzhudeneizhongfangshiyijiweicierxinfengdeliangxiangyuanze(jidiyi,suoyouzuigaoquanlidoubixuxianyushishineixieconggenbenshanglaishuoshifoudingxingderenwu——yejiushishuo‘bu’dequanli;dier,yiqiekendingxingdequanlidouzhinengyouneixiebixugenjuguojizuzhichanshengshenyuanyiyideyingxiang。)……jiranzuigaodegongtongjiazhidoushifoudingxingde,neimezuigaodegongtongguizejiubixushijinlingxingdeguize,erqiezuigaodequanlijigouzaigenbenshangyezhinengfabujinlingxingdeguiding。”

2、qiangshiluojiyuruoshiluoji

jiuhayekedezhengzhizhexuelaikan,shiyixuanwufaxianqizhongyinhanzheyizhongneizaidezhengzhiluoji,huozheshuotadezhengzhizhexuesuozunxundenaishiyizhongyutasuopipandelixingjiangouzhuyixiangfandezhengzhiluoji,duiyuhouzhekeyichengzhiweiqiangshidezhengzhiluoji,qianzhezechengzhiweiruoshidezhengzhiluoji,xiamianshiyixuanwuduiyuzheiliangzhongzhengzhiluojilvejiafenxi。

shiyixuanwuzhidao,zaibopuerdezhengzhililunzhongjiucengmingquediqufenguoliangzhongshehuixingtai,yizhongtachengzhiweixitongdeshehuigongcheng,lingwaiyizhongzechengzhiweilingxingshideshehuigongcheng,hayekedezhengzhisixiangjinguanyubopuerbujinxiangtong,dantamendeluojililuqueyouxiangdangyizhidefangmian。zheizhongyizhixingshiweiyixiegudianziyouzhuyizhemensuogongtongjuyou,liru,gongsidangtichude“gudairendeziyouhexiandairendeziyou”defenlei,bolinyouguan“liangzhongziyougainian“defenlei,taermengdeqiangshiminzhuyuruoshiminzhudefenleideng,suobingchengdedoushigudianziyouzhuyidezhengzhichuantong。hayekezaitadelilunzhushuzhong,yetongyangduocilunshuletasuolijiedeziyouzhuyidepuxi,jieshileyingmeiziyouguannianyufadeeziyouguannianzailuojishangdezhongdabutong。xiangbizhixia,hayekedehouqizhuzuozaililunshangdedaolejinyibushenhua,lilunzhongxinyicongliangzhongziyouguanniandeleixingfenxizhuanruziyou、falvyuzhengyizhijiandeshizhixingguanxidelunshu,zhiliyuyouguanliangzhongfalvguize、liangzhongfalvzhidu、liangzhongzhengyiguannian,tebieshiyouguanxianfaxinmoshidelilunshiyixuanwu。shiyixuanwukandao,youguanziyouyuzhengyidekendingxinghefoudingxingtexingbeihayeketishengdaozhengzhizhexuedegaodu,tadezhengdangxingweiguizehexianfaxinmoshidelilunchuangxin,suotixianchulaidenaishiyizhongxindezhengzhiluoji,hayekexinfengdegudianziyouzhuyijingguotadelilunchuangxinerjuyoulexindeyiyi,biaoxianweiyizhongxindezhengzhizhexue,zheizhongzhengzhizhexueneizaideluojiyoukeyichengzhiweiruoshidezhengzhiluoji。

xuyaoshuomingdeshi,hayekesuiranmeiyouzhijieshiyongruoshiluojizheiyigainian,danjiuqililunshizhieryan,tayouguanfalvguizeyuziyouzhengyidechouxiangxinghefoudingxingtezhengdelunshu,suojieshidexianranshiyizhongruoshidezhengzhiluoji,yinweishiyixuanwuzaicisuoshuoderuoshizhidebianshihayekesuoweidechouxiangxinghefoudingxingdeneizaibenxing。weishenmebafalv、ziyouyuzhengyidechouxiangxinghefoudingxinglunzhengshiweiyizhongruoshidezhengzhiluojini?shiyixuanwurenwei,suoweizhengzhiwenticongzhexuedejiaodulaikan,qishishejiyizhongzhengzhidehefaxingyuhelixingzhengcheng,hefaxingyuhelixingdejiehebiangouchenglezhengdangxingwenti,zhengzhizhexueconggenbendeyiyishanglaishuonaishiyizhongzhengyilun,yinci,duiyuheweizhengyideluojichanshizhibutongyejiugouchenglebutongdezhengzhizhexue。zaizheigewentishang,chuantongziyouzhuyiwangwangpianzhongyujiuziyoutanlunziyou,yinciquefayuzhengyideneizailianxi,zheiyangyilai,ziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhexuewangwangbiaoxianchuquefazhengzhiluojidehefaxingyuhelixingdezhengcheng,yejiushishuoziyouzhuyisuomianlindeyigezhongyaowentijiushiruheweiziyoutigongyizhongjiazhishangdezhicheng。zaigongsidang、bolindengrenyouguanliangzhongziyougainiandelunshuzhongyouyuhushileziyouyufalvheziyouyuzhengyizhijiandekaocha,congershidetamendeziyouguanquefayingyoudeshendu,eryixiexinziyouzhuyi,tebieshiluoersidengrensuodaibiaodeziyouzhuyi,tamengurankandaoleziyouyufalvheziyouyuzhengyizhijiandebenzhixingguanxi,danshi,youyutamendelilunpianzhongyugongfayiyishangdefalvheshehuizhengyi,congkendingxingdefangmianlailijieziyou、falvyuzhengyi,zheiyangyejiubukenengconggenbenshangchanshiziyouzhuyidezhengzhizhexue。shiyixuanwukandao,hayekeduiyuziyouzhuyidezuidagongxianjiuzaiyutatongguofoudingxinggainianzheiyizhongdadeluojihuanjiecongerfuyuleziyouzhuyiyizhongwanquanbutongyuxianxinggezhonglilundexindebenzhitezheng,huozheshuozaitaneili,ziyou、falvyuzhengyishimiqiexiangguande,tamensanzhezaifoudingxingdeluojiweiduxiagouchengleyigewanzhengdeziyouzhuyizhengzhizhexue。zheiyizhengzhizhexuesuozunxundenaishiyizhongfoudingxingderuoshiluoji,zheizhongruoshiluojishideziyouzhuyidezhenggeshehuizhengzhililunchengxianchuqiansuoweiyoudeshenduhekaifangxing,gudianziyouzhuyideyixiliejibenyuanze,gongsidang、bolinyouguanliangzhongziyoudehuafen,nuoqikedequanlizigelilundengdeng,doukeyinaruzheizhongruoshidezhengzhiluojizhilie,tebieshizaizheizhongruoshiluojidetuiyanzhong,ziyouzhuyideyixiliejibenmingti,rufazhizhuyi、gonghezhuyi、xianquanxianfa、lixianminzhu、youxianzhengfu、sanquanfenli、ziyoujingji、sifashenchadengdeng,doujucikeyidedaojiaoweilaogudehelixingyuhefaxingdezhengcheng。

20shijiyilai,jinguanziyouzhuyiriqufenhua,danduiyutadepipanrengbujueyulv,qizhongdeguodeshimiteshiyigebukehulvedezhongyaorenwu,zuoweideguonacuishidaidehuangguanfaxuejia,shimitezaidangdaidezhengzhihefalvsixiangzhongzhanyouzhongyaodeweizhi,congmouzhongyiyishanglaishuo,taduiyuziyouzhuyidepipanshijijushenduhechuantouli。shimitebingfeijiandandicongyishixingtaidejiaoduduiziyouzhuyidezhengzhililuntebieshixianzhenglilunjiyupipan,tayouzijiyitaoqiangshidezhengzhiluoji,yinggaikandao,shimitesuojieshidewentiqueshishiziyouzhuyililunzhongdeyixieguanjianxingwenti,hayekexianranyechongfenrenshidaoshimitedezhongyaoxing,suirantameiyoujiushimitelunbiandewentijiyuxitongdehuiying,danrengshibashimitezuoweiyiweiyoudaibiaoxingdelixingjiangouzhuyizhelaikandaide,bingqiezaitaoluntadexianfaxinmoshishiduiyushimitedexianfalilunjiyuguopipan。

diyi,guanyuguojiadeqiangruoshililun。shiyixuanwuzhidao,ziyouzhuyideguojialilunnaishiyizhongzuixiaozhengfu(guojia)deruoshililun,zheizhonglilunrenweizhengfuhuoguojiadezhinengyinggaishoudaoxianzhi,huozheshuoguojiabenshenbianshiyigexugoudecihui,shijicunzaidenaishizhengfu,zhengfuzuoweizuidadezuzhixingtai,tasuizhizhangzhezhengzhi(guojia)dezhuyaoquanneng,danqibenzhiyinggaishiyizhongyouxiandezhengfu,youxianzhengfujiqisanquanfenlishiziyouzhuyizhengzhililundehexinbufen。hayekeduiyushangshuchuantongdeziyouzhuyizhengzhililunjiyulejinyibudeshenhua,guanyuhayekedexianfamoshiyijisanquanwucengdexianzhengjiegou,shiyixuanwuzaiqianmianyijingjiyulelunshu,youcikejian,hayeketongyangjichenglegudianziyouzhuyidezhengzhichuantong,jiangguojiahuozhengfudezhinengxianzhizaiyigeyouxiandefanweizhinei。tayizaizhichu: “zaishiyixuanwukanlai,guojianaishibayidinglingtufanweineiderenjiehezaimougezhengfuzhixiadezuzhi;jinguanguojiashiyigefadashehuideyifazhansuobukehuoquedeyigetiaojian,danshirenmenquejuebunengbatayushehuidengershizhi,huozhegengqueqiedishuo,renmenjuebunengbatayuxiangyouziyouderenzaitamenzhijiansuoxingchengdefuzaduoyangdezishengzifajiegoudengershizhi,yinweizhiyouzheixiejiegoucainenggouzhenzhengdibeichengzhiwei‘shehui’。zaiyigeziyoudeshehuili,guojiazhishizhongduozuzhizhongdeyigezuzhi: zheigezuzhibixutigongyigenenggoushizishengzifazhixudeyiyouxiaoxinggoudewaibukuangjia,danshizheigezuzhidefanweiquezhixianyuzhengfujigou,erqiehaibudejuedingziyoudegerensuojinxingdehuodong。”xianran,hayekedeguojialilun,shuyuruoshidezhengzhiluoji,taderuoshibingbuzaiyuguojiazaihayekedeyanzhongbuyingshiqiangdade,erzaiyuqineizaideluoji,jiguojiadezhengzhizhidaosuozunxundebushizhengquanzhuyidejitidayugetizhihedeluoji,ershiqiangdiaofoudingxingdechouxiangguize,jiguojia(ruguocunzaidehua)bixuzaifalvguizezhixia,bixuyijufalvguizedehuajiexingshizijidequanze。yinci,ruoshidezhengzhiluojishuodaodiyejiushifazhiyuxianzhengdeluoji,jihayekesuoweidesifadegongfazhizhideluoji。

shimitedeguojialilunqueshiyuhayekegenbenbutongdelingwaiyizhongzhengzhililun,tadeguojialilunwanquanshiyizhongyuziyouzhuyixiangduilideqiangshiguojialilun。suoweiqiangshideguojialilunzhideshitatebieqiangdiaoguojiazheiyizhengzhizuzhizairenleishehuigonggonglingyuzhongdequanweizuoyong,tarenweiqiangguojiayuziyoujingjibingbumaodun,zaishimitekanlai,guojiadezuzhixingtaizhisuoyichengweishehuiquntidezhongxin,zheishiyouyuqibenxingsuojuedingde,guojiarenleishehuizailishizhongxingchengdeyizhongyoujidegongtongti。weilelijieshimitedeshangshuguojiaguan,youbiyaoeyaojieshaoyixiashimiteyukaiersenzhijiandeyichangyouguanshizhenglunfalixueyuxinziranfafalixuedejilielunzheng,zaishimitekanlai,yigeguojiadefalvzhixuyingshou“guojiayizhi”zhipei,renheguojiadouyingyongyouzhengzhizhuquanbingtongguoxingshizhuquanhuodedezhengzhihexingzhengtongzhizhixubaozhangguoneidehepinghewending。danguojiabushipingkongchanshengde,ershilishijutidi、youminzuchayidixingchengde,renhexiandaiminzuguojiadouyouzijixichuande“guojialunli”,zheijiushiyigeguojiade“guojiayizhi”,tajuedingyigeguojiayinggaiyoushenmeyangdexianfa。xianfashicijixingde,“guojialunli”caishishoujixingde。yiner,ziyouzhuyidelixinghuapubianxingshihuangmiude,xiandaiminzuguojiagezide“guojiayizhi”butong,xianzhengxingshibiranbutong。zaizheiyangdexianzhengshexiangzhong,gerenziyouyijiziyoudeminzhudangranbushishouyaodezhengzhijiazhi,guojiadequanlixiangdangda,qiquanlidezhengdangxinglaiziwubaoyouminzudechuantongjiazhijiqitongyiti。zaikaiersenkanlai,zheizhongguanwuguojiajiqifalvzhixudeguandianshichuantongziranfadexiandaiban: tongguoyigelunli—zongjiaodequanweishiti(zaigudaishijiaohuihuoshenquantongzhi、zaixiandaishiminzuguojia)laigouchengshizaidefalvguifan。kaiersendeshizhengzhuyi“chuncuifaxue”dejibenzhuzhangshi,fuyushizaidefalvguifanyizizudefayuan,zheijiushifalvguifanzishendexingshizhiti,youjingyandefalvcailiaolaigouchengfalvzhixudewangluo。zongzhi,shimiterenweiziyouzhuyipohuaileguojiadezhengzhitongyitideshizhijiazhijichu,shiguojiachengleshehuixingdezishiyixuanwuzuzhi,erbushijuyouzizhuquanweidezhengzhidezhixuquanli。guojiayinggaidaibiaoyigejiazhilinian,tongguoguojiazheiyixiandaideshisujiti,keyijiangtongzhiyuchaoyuelianjieqilai。meiyouzheizhongchaoyuedelianxi,guojiajinshiyigequanlixingshihequanliyizhi,wanquanmeiyounenglixingchengchaoyuquanlijujidezhengzhitongyiti。

dier,shimiteyuziyouzhuyideguojialilunzaijiyufalvzhiduzheiyifangmianshiyouzhegongtongzhichude,tamendoubaguojiadezhiquanguidingweiyizhongfalvshangdequanlixingtai,zheiyidianyebiaoxianchulefaxuejiashimiteyubujiangfazhidegerenzhuanzhizhuyizhimingxianbutong。zai《guojiadejiazhiyugetideyiyi》zhong,shimitezhongdiankaochaleguojiayufalvdeguanxi,tarenweifalvbixujuyouquanweixingheyouxianxing,“falvzhinengcongzuigaoquanlichufazheitiaoyuanlixianzaidiandaoleguolai,zheijiuyiweizhesuoweizuigaoquanli,zhinengshifalvsuojichudedongxi。falvbingbuyuyuguojiazhinei,xiangfan,guojiazaiyufalvzhizhong。suoweifalvdeyouxianxingyejiuzaiyuci”。danshi,qiangdiaoguojiadefazhibingbudengyuziyouzhuyi,tebieshiduiyuhayekelaishuo,guanjianxingdeshi,heweifalv?heweixianfa?zaizheixiegengweigenbenxingdewentishang,hayekeyushimitedelilunzhichayiyejiuyichangqingchule。liangzhongbutongdeguojiaxueshuoshijianlizaiduiyufalvdeliangzhongbutongrenshizhishangde,suirantamenliangrenyedoujiangfayuxianfa,doujiangguojiazhilisuozunxundeyingshifazhideyuanze,danshiyouyutamenduiyufalvyouzhegenbenbutongderenshi,suoyi,guojiahefazhizaitamenneilijiubiaoxianchugenbendebutong。hayekeweidaibiaodegudianziyouzhuyiduiyufalvdekanfayijiduiyufazhihexianzhengdelilun,shiyixuanwuzaiqianmianyijingjiyulechongfendelunshu,shiyixuanwuzhidao,zheizhongziyouzhuyisuozunxundenaishiyizhongsifadegongfazhizhiyuanze,hayekemingquequfenleneibuguizeyuwaibuguize,bingqiezaitadexianfamoshizhongjieshilexianfasuoteyoudediaoguixingzhi,bingyicijianliqizhizaishishizhengdangxingweiguizedexianfamoshijiqixiangyingdezuzhishezhi。yuhayekedelilunqiaqiaxiangfan,shimitedefalvnaishiyizhonggongfayiyishangdefalvlilun,taqiangdiaodebushizishengdefalvguizehefalvchuantong,ershiyoulifajigouzhidingchulaidetixianzheguojiayizhidefalv,yinci,shimitedefalvguanzhengshihayekesuoshuodeneizhongzuzhiguize,binggenjutixianguojiayizhidecengcizhichabieerfenweibutongdexiaolidengji,qizhongxianfabeishiweiyigeguojiasuoquelidegenbendafa,yincitadefazhinaishilifajigoudegongfazhizhi,shiguojiayizhidepubiantongzhi。hayekeyizaizhichu,“kaer-shimitedehexinxinnianrenwei,yirutazuihouchanshideneiyang,falvjingyouyigeyoulifadangjudeyizhilaicaidingtedingwentide‘juedingxingde’jieduan,erzhujiancongziyouchuantongzheizhong‘guifanxing’sixiangtishengdaoleyizhong‘jutizhixuzhixinggou’deguannian;dangran,zheigefazhanguochengshejidao‘yizhongzaijieshi,yijibaneibuguizedelixiangzhongxinjieshichengyizhongyizhiyijutizhixuhuogongtongtidezhengquanxingdefalvguannian’。huanyanzhi,falvbuzaiyouneixiechouxiangguizegoucheng,ershiyaochengweianpaihuozuzhidegongju;jiuchouxiangguizeeryan,tamennenggoujingyouduigerenxingweizhifanweidexiandingershigerenziyouxingdongduizishengzifazhixudexinggouchengweikeneng,erjiuzuzhidegongjulaijiang,tamensuozhizaidezeshiposhigerenshiyixuanwuyujutidemude。”

disan,duiziyouminzhuzhidepipan。shimitezhanzaishangshuneizhongguojiazhishangdelilunguandianzhishang,duiyuziyouzhuyideminzhuxianzhengzhankailepipan,zaitakanlai,ziyouzhuyisuozhuzhangdeneixieyouguangerenziyou、youxianzhengfu、sanquanfenli、sifadulidengguandian,qishiyoudoukeyiguijiedaotasuozongjiechulaidelianggeyuanze,jifenpeiyuanzehezuzhiyuanzezhizhong。shimitezaicisuoshuodefenpeiyuanzezhideshiziyouzhuyizairuoshiguojiadekuangjianeiduiyugerengezhongzhengzhiquanlidexiangguanfenpei,zuzhiyuanzezhideshizairuoshiguojiadekuangjianeiduiyuzuzhiquanlidexiangguanpeizhi,qianzheshizhenduiyugerende,houzheshizhenduiyuguojiade,congdiweilaishuo,qianzheshimude,houzheshishouduan,houzheshiweileshiyixuanwuyuqianzheershezhiqilaide。yizhaoshimitedeguandian,ziyouzhuyidezheilianggeyuanzecunzaizhezhongdadebiduan,neijiushizuzhiyuanzeweibinenggoudadaofenpeiyuanzedemude,weishenmehuizheiyangni?zheijiushejidaolingwaiyigexiangguandewenti,jizhengzhiduoyuanhuawenti,zaishimitekanlai,youyuziyouzhuyishiyizhongjiangzhengzhizhonglihuadegongjuzhuyililun,suoyidaozhideyigebiranjieguoshizhengzhideduoyuanhua,duoyuanzhengzhishiziyouzhuyizhengzhililundeyigetuchutezheng。shimiterenweiziyouzhuyizheizhongjiangzhengzhizhonglihuadegongjulunzhuzhangcunzaizheruxialianggefangmiandewenti。qiyi,zhengzhizuzhiyouzhezishendeneibuguizeheneizailuoji,bukenengwanquanzhonglihua,jinjinzuoweigongjuweigerenshiyong,xiangfan,zhengzhizuzhitebieshiguojiatizhiyidanzuoweishehuishenghuozhongdeyoujizuzhiti,jiubiranjuyouzhezijidezhutirengeheguojiamude,yinci,ziyouzhuyideruoshiguojiashibukenengcunzaide。qier,ziyouzhuyideduoyuanzhengzhibudanbunengshidegerenzuidachengdudeshixianzijideziyou,xiangfan,duoyuanzhengzhidanggezianzhaozijidezuzhiyizhixingdongshi,jiuhenyoukenengdaozhiyizhongquannengguojiadechuxian。shimitedeshangshuguandianfeichangdute,tatichuleyigeqianzaidewenti,neijiushicongziyouzhuyideminzhuzhengzhizhongjiangyoukenengdaozhijiquanhuaguojia。shimitedezheiyiguandianwuyijuyoutiaozhanxing,congmouzhongyiyishangkaiqilefalankefuxuepaidengxifangxinmakesizhuyideshehuipipanlilun,tamenrenweiyouyuziyouzhuyiquefashehuipipandelixingjingshen,fangrenzhengzhiduoyuanhuaderenyifazhan,jiuhuicongzhongbirandichanshengchumouzhongjiquanxingzhengzhi。

duiyushimitedezheiyimingti,henduoxiandaideziyouzhuyizhequefaqingxingderenshi,tamenwangwangmangmurentongxianxingziyouzhuyidezhengzhitizhi,hushileziyouminzhuzhiduneizaidebiduan,hayekeyutamenbutong,tazaimouxiewentishangdekanfayushimitedeguandianyouzhejingrendexiangsi,tatongyangkandaolejinxiandaiyilaiziyouzhuyiminzhuzhengzhisuodaozhidezhongzhongweiji,kanchuleduoyuanzhengzhizhongdefubaiheshuaitui,zhengfuzuzhidekendingxingtexingyijiduiyufeizhengzhilingyudeqiangzhiganyu,tebieshixiandaiminzhuzhiyunyuledaozhiquanquanxingguojiadekenengxingdengdeng,zheixieyouguanxiandaishehuizhengzhixingtaidekaocha,yushimitezaihenduofangmiandoushiyizhide。yezhengshijiyushangshuhayekeyushimitedexiangsi,kelisitizaitade《shimiteyuquanweiziyouzhuyi》duishimitezuolebaoshouziyouzhuyidejieshi。tarenweishimitegongjideyouzhideziyouzhuyi,er“zhengzhichengshude”ziyouzhuyiyingshijiweihugongminshehui,tongshiyouchengrenzhuquanguojiazhongzhengzhizhuanzhengdebiyaoxing。“shimitedezhenzhenglundiqishibushiziyouzhuyidejiazhilinian,ershifeilvfeimadeziyouminzhuzhengzhi。yigerenzhuyiheduoyuanzhuyideziyoujiazhiweizhengzhijichu,biranxueruoguojiadezhiliquanwei,nalihaitandeshangjueduanguojiadediren。duiyushimitelaishuo,ziyouzhuyijibushizhengzhixingshi,yebushiguojiaxingshi,ershiyizhongjiazhiguan。zhiyouminzhuzhengti、guizuzhengti、junzhuzhengtideleixing,ermeiyoushenmeziyouzhengtiyishuo。ziyoudeshiminshehuibujinkeyitixianzaiminzhuzhizhong,yekeyitixianzaijunzhuzhiheguizuzhizhong。baxianzhenggaochengziyouzhuyidefazhixingshi,genbenwujielezhengzhixingshideshizhi。”buguo,kelisitideguandianrengyoulingrenyihuozhichu,suiranshimitedeqiangshiguojiabutongyusidalinshidejiquantizhi,juyouxianfaxueyiyishangdefalvzhidudexianzhi,danshi,shimitedezhengzhililunshuodaodishiyizhongguojiazhongxinhuadezhengzhililun。yinci,bixuzhichu,hayekeyushimitesuofaxiandewentiyouhenduofangmianshixiangside,shenzhishixiangtongde,keyouyutamendezhengzhijiazhiquxiangyuzhengzhizhexuedeluojilujingbutong,yinci,tamendejielunwangwangshijieranxiangfande。shimitedechudeshizhengzhizhongxinhuajielun,xinfengdeshiqiangshidezhengzhiluoji,hayekedechudezeshizhengzhidequzhongxinhua,zunxundeshiruoshidezhengzhiluoji。shiyixuanwukandao,hayekesuozhiliyuxianzhengzhidudechuangxin,suotichudeliangzhongfalvdeguandian,suoduchuangdesanquanwucengdexianfaxinmoshi,tebieshitasuoyouguanfoudingxingdeziyouhezhengyijiazhidelunshu,biandoushiweiraozhejiejueziyouzhuyidezhengzhiweijierzhankaide,zaizheixiefangmian,hayekedeshangshulilunyushimiteshigenbenbutongde。

zongzhi,ziyouzhuyizaixiandaishehuimianlinzhezhuduowenti,tongguanyixiaershishijidesixianglicheng,shiyixuanwuhuifaxiangezhonggeyangdeziyouzhuyi,qizhongzhumingdeyoukaiyinsidefuliguojiadeziyouzhuyi,luoersidejiaochagongshideziyouzhuyi,bolindeduoyuanlundejingzhengdeziyouzhuyi,shenzhishimitedequanweideziyouzhuyi。danzaitamenzhizhong,weiyouhayekedeziyouzhuyiyiqidutedezitai,gushouzheyingguochuantongziyouzhuyidejingshen,hayekedelilunjiejueleyixiewenti,danyetongshichanshenglelingyixiewenti,yexuziyouzhuyidejingsuijiuzaiyuyibuyibudizaiyongyuanwufadadaoquanzhidewentilianzhonghuanxing。

zhushi

十一选五[1] canjianfrancis fukuyama ,the end of history and the last man,bay way of an introduction.fushanjiezhexiedao: “zheizheijiushishuo,guoqudetongzhixingshiyouzheyanzhongdequexianhebuhelidechengfen,yinci,daozhiletamenzuizhongdeshibai。ziyouzhuyiminzhuzemeiyouzheizhongjibendeneizaimaodun。——jintianwendingdeminzhushehuibingfeimeiyoubugongzhenghuoyanzhongdeshehuiwenti。danshi,zheixiewentizhishilaiyijianlixiandaiminzhudeziyouhepingdengzheiliangtiaoyuanzedeluoshishangbuwanshan,erbushiyuanzebenshendequexian。-----ziyouzhuyiminzhudelixiangmeiyougaijindeyudi。”buguo,xijiuqilai,fushandeguandianshilingrenmihuode,jiujingfushansuoweideziyouzhuyishihezhongziyouzhuyini?zaimeiyouliqingziyouzhuyideshizhizhiqian,congmangdidechurucijielun,bumianshizhiwuduan。suoyi,fushandelunduanyichu,bianzaodaolelaizigegefangmiandejienan,qiebushuofeiziyouzhuyiduoyougoubing,ziyouzhuyineibuduiciyebingburentong。

十一选五[2] dangran,faguohedeguodesixiangjiazhongyeyoushuyuyingguoziyouzhuyipuxide,rumengdesijiu、hongbao、gongsidang、tuokeweierdengren。buguo,jiuzongdeqingxianglaikan,daluguojiadeziyouzhuyiyuyingguodegudianziyouzhuyirengyouyixiezhongyaodequbie,duici,shiyixuanwuzaiqianwenyijingzuoleyidingdefenxi。lingcanjian: hayek,the counter-revolution of science,hohn gray, liberalism.

十一选五[3] hayekezai《xiumodefazhexueyuzhengzhizhexue》yishuwenzhongcengtebietidaoleyigepoyouxijuxingdexijie,1766nian“zheiyinianxiumo55sui,yijibenwanchengletadegongzuo,chengweidangshizuiyoumingwangderenwuzhiyi,tachuncuishichuyucibeixinchang,bayiweitongyangzhumingderenwucongfaguodaidaoyingguo,cirennianlingzhibitaxiaojigeyue,chujingqican,bingqietarenweizijizongshishoudaopohai: zheirenjiushirang-yake-lusuo。neigezaifaguoyi‘haoxindedawei’erwenmingdepingjingxianghedezhexuejia,tongyigeqingxubianhuanbuding、fengfengdiandian、gerenshenghuozhongbuguyiqiedaodezhunzedeweixinzhuyizhedehuimian,shisixiangshizhongzuijuxijuxingdechaquzhiyi。tazhinengyijiliedechongtuergaozhong,erduiyujintianfanshiduguozhenggegushiderenlaishuo,meiyourenhuihuaiyilianggerenzhongjiansheishigengweidadesixiangjiahedaodedianfan。”(jian《hayekesixiangjingcui》,di567-568ye)rucikanlai,shixiumozheigedianxingdeyingguoziyouzhuyizhetixieledangshibeifaguosixiangjieshiweiqierdelusuo,erqiaqiashiyingguodexiumohefaguodelusuo,duiyudeguoshibazhishijiushijideqimengsixianghekuangbiaotujinyundong,tebieshiduikangdenaizhifeixiteheheigeerdesixiangchanshenglezhongdadeyingxiang。

[4] hayek,the counter-revolution ofscience,“shiyixuanwudelundianshi,shehuisixiangzheigelingyu,bujin19shijixiabanye,erqiebaokuoshiyixuanwuzijizheigeshidai,tadexuduotezhengdouyingguiyinyutongchangbeipubianshiweisixiangjieranxiangfandeliangweisixiangjiadeyizhixing: deguode“weixinzhuyizhe”geaoerge·weilian·fulidelixi·heigeer,hefaguode“shizhengzhuyizhe”aogusite·kongde。”(p.192.)“kongdedezhuyaosixiang,shizaiheigeer《fazhexue》detongyinian、tade《zhexuedaquan》tongliangnianneifabiaode,dangrangengshidadazaoyuheigeersihoucaichubande《lishizhexue》――zheiliguqiezhitiyixiaheigeerdezhuyaozhuzuo。huanyanzhi,kongdesuibiheigeerxiao28sui,dancongtamendequanbuyituhemudelaishuo,shiyixuanwubixubatamenshiweitongdairen,erqieyouchongfenliyourenwei,heigeerkenengshouguokongdedeyingxiang,zhengxiangkongdeyeshouguoheigeerdeyingxiangyiyang。”(p.193.)“suoyi,zaiqiangdiaoshiyixuanwuxiangxinheigeerhekongdedegongtongcuowudezheizhongdikaerzhuyiqiyuanshi,shiyixuanwudangransihaobuxiangbiandidikaerweijindaisixiangzuochudeweidagongxian。raner,xuduoyoushengminglidesixiang,jingchanghuidadaozheiyangyigejieduan,tamendechenggongdaozhirenmenjiangqiyongyutamenbuzaishiyongdelingyu。shiyixuanwuxiangxinzheijiushikongdeheheigeersuozuodeshiqing。”(p.196.) “shiyixuanwuzaihendachengdushangrengshouzhezhishaoyoubainianlishideguanniandezuoyou,zhengxiang19shijishishouzhe18shijiguanniandezuoyouyiyang。danshi,xiumohefuertai、yadang·simihekangdedesixiangsuzaole19shijideziyouzhuyi,erheigeerhekongde、feierbahahemakesidesixiang,quedaozhile20shijidejiquanzhuyi。”(p.206.)

十一选五[5] hayekezaibutongdewenzhanghechanghexiaduocikailiechutaxinmuzhongdeziyouzhuyidepuxi,zheigepuxizhongdehenduorenwuzaihayekedelunshuzhongjibenshangshiyizhaotongyangdeshunxupailiede,congzongdefangmianlaishuo,zheigepuxizaihayekedelunshuzhongbingmeiyouduoshaoshizhixingdebianhua,danruozixiduibihayekededuocilunshuyehuifaxianqizhongyouyixiechuru,gebierenwuyoushichuxian,youshibeiyilou,buzhishihayekedeshuhu,haishilingyouhanyi。duiyuhayekedezheigeziyouzhuyidepuxi,dabufenrenwubeishiweishigongrendeshuyuzheigepuxideziyouzhuyisixiangjia,rusimi、xiumo、luoke、mengdesijiu、gongsidangdeng,danyeyougebierenshifoushuyuziyouzhuyizeshiyouzhengyide,ruboke,shenzhikangde。dangran,shiyixuanwurenwei,wentideguanjianzaiyuhayekeyouzijidutedehuafenbiaozhun,tasuolijiedeziyouzhuyishizhishangshimouyileiteshudeziyouzhuyi,huozheshuoshiyizhongqiangdiaochouxiangguizedeziyouzhishangzhuyi,erbushiyibanyiyishangdeziyouzhuyi,zaitakanlai,19shijizhihousuoweideziyouzhuyihuoxinziyouzhuyizaoyibushitashoukendeziyouzhuyile,yincitazailunzhuzhongduochutichuyaoqufenzhenjialiangzhongziyouzhuyi。youyuhayekezaitadeziyouzhuyipuxihuafenzhongguanchuanletadehengliangbiaozhun,suoyi,yifangmianbawentigaofuzale,dantongshilingyifangmian,youshidetasuoweideziyouzhuyibiandefeichangmingxi,congzheigepuxizhongrenmenyiyanjiunengkandaozheishihayekeyiyishangdeziyouzhuyi。

十一选五[6] zaiduiyu“foudingxingdeziyou”delijiehuodingyifangmian,bolinyuhayekedeguandianshidazhixiangtongde,jibenshiyizhongfoudingdebuzuoweidehanyi,hayekejiangqichengzhiwei“mianyutarenyizhideqiangzhi”,bolinchengzhiwei“zaibiandongbujude、danyonghengkeyibianrenchulaidejiexianyinei,bushourenheganrao。”buguo,hayekeyubolinliangzhedeziyouguanqueshiyouqubiede,hayekerenweizhiyoufoudingxingdeziyoucaishizhenzhengdezhidechengxudeziyou,yeshitayanzhongdegudianziyouzhuyisuorentongdeweiyideziyouxingtai。erduiyubolinlaishuo,foudingxingziyouyukendingxingziyoubingbushijieranduilide,suirantadetaidugengpianxiangyuqianzhe,danyidingyiyishangdekendingxingdeziyouyeshixuyaode,guanjianzaiyurendexuanze。duici,geleifenxidao: “bolindeyisibingbushishuoziyouzhishi‘foudingdeziyou’,jiyigerenzaishijidehekenengdexuanzehuodongzhongbushoubierendeganshe,yebushishuozhiyoufoudingdeziyoucaishizhenzhengdeziyou,huozhiyoufoudingdeziyoucaishiyoujiazhideziyou。tadeyisishi,zheiliangzhongziyou——yekeyishuo,anzhaoluoersideshuofa,zheilianggegainian——zhideshitongyijianshiqing。bolinqiangdiaozhichu: ‘kendingdeziyouhefoudingdeziyoudoushiwanquanzhengquedegainian”,“kendingdeziyou……shigongpingdeshenghuofangshideyigebiyaotiaojian”。’zaitazaoqideguandianzhong,tajiuxiangxin,zheilianggegainian‘zailuojishangbingbushibicipaichide,jizhinengyongfoudingdeziyouhuozhezhinengyongkendingdeziyoulaishuomingtongyijianshiqing’。raner,tajixushuodao: ‘kendingdeziyougainianhefoudingdeziyougainianzailishishangdefazhanbingbuzongshianzhaoluojiguifandebuzhouyanzhebeidaoerchidefangxiangjinxing,zhidaozuihouchuxianbicijiandezhijiechongtu’。xiangyingdi,anzhaobolindeguandian,foudingdebuziyouhekendingdebuziyouyejuyouxiangtongdejichu,zheijiushixuanzenenglidexueruo。zheilianggegainiandoutixianleyouxiaodeziyougainian,huozhe,huanjuhuashuo,tixianlekangdesuoshuode‘renyi‘jijibenziyoudebutongfangmianhuobutongweidu。conglishideguandiankan,zheiliangzhongziyoudeguanniandoudedaolerucichengdudefazhan,yizhitamendaibiaozhebutongdejiazhi、butongdeshanhuobutongdetiaojian;zheixiejiazhibujinshibutongde,shishishangtamenhaijingchangshixianghujingzhengde。”(jiangelei,《bolin》,diyizhangziyouguan)

十一选五[7] canjian“gonggongluncong”,di2ji,《shichangshehuiyugonggongzhixu》,di214ye。

十一选五[8] tongshang,di109ye。

[9] canjian《ershishijidezhengzhizhexuejia》,di273ye。

[10] canjiangelei,《bolin》daolun。

[11] 《ershishijidezhengzhizhexuejia》,di285ye。

十一选五[12] canjiangelei,《bolin》diyizhangziyouguan。

[13] geleijiangbolindexuanzedeziyouchengzhiwei“jingzhengdeziyouzhuyi”,duici,tazai《bolin》yishudedaolunzhongfenxishuo: “bolindezhuzuozhongtixiandezheizhongziyouzhuyijuyouduchuangxinghexianmingdetese,tayujinnianlaizaiyingmeishijiejuzhipeidiweideneizhongziyousixiang,yuneixiejiaolaodeziyouzhuyichuantong(xinjindeziyousixiangjiushicongtamendangzhongfazhanchulaide)doushihenbuyizhide。------bolindezheizhongjingzhengdeziyouzhuyi,jirenweineixiejuyouneizaijingzhengxingdeshanzhijianhuichuxianchongtudeziyouzhuyi,jianlizaishiyixuanwubixuzaibuketongyuedezhushanzhongzuochujibenxuanzedejichushang,erbushijianlizailixingxuanzedejichushang。jinyibushuo,zheizhongziyouzhuyirenwei,shiheyuziyoushehuideziyouquanlijiegoubunengcongrenhelilunzhongtuidaochulai,yebushiyourenheyuanzetixisuoguidingde,yinweizheixiejibenxuanzejingchangshizaibuketongyuedejiazhizhijiandexuanze,yeshizaichongtudeziyouquanlizhijianxingshinayizhongquanlidexuanze。zaizheiyifangmian,ruguoshiyixuanwudekanfashizhengquedehua,bolindezheizhongjingzhengdeziyouzhuyijilegezhongziyougonglizhuyi、jibenquanlilunheqiyuelunlilun(zheixielilundoushijinlaideziyouzhuyizhengzhizhexueguanyongdelilun,tamenyujiaozaodeneixieziyousixiangchuantongyouzhezhenzhengdexueyuanguanxi)yijizhimingdedaji。bolindezheizhongxinyingdefuyoutiaozhanxingdeziyouzhuyi,duiyusuoyouchuantongdeziyouzhuyisixiangdelixingjichujuyouhendadedianfuxing。zaijinniandezhengzhizhexuezhongweiyikeyuzhibijiaodeziyouzhuyi,shizaiyuesefu·lazidezhuzuozhongfaxiande,duitashiyixuanwuhoumianhaiyaojingchangtidao,erqie,balazideziyouzhuyiyubolindeziyouzhuyizuobijiaokenenghuishiyijianfuyouyiyidegongzuo。zhengshiduibujinbaohanlelixingxuanzegainianerqieyizhizuoweijichudechuantongziyouzhuyidepipan,shibolindesixiangduixianxingdedaodezhexuehezhengzhizhexuezhiyoujiaoxiaoyingxiangdezuishenkeyuanyin,yinweibolinyiyuwajiedezhengshitamenlaiyishengcundeheyizhijianchidelixingzhuyi。”

十一选五[14] 《ershishijidezhengzhizhexuejia》,di288ye。

[15] canjianshimitede《zhengzhidegainian》。shimitecengjianruidizhichu,youyuxiandaiziyouzhuyixianlunweiyizhongbuhanzhengzhijiazhidegongjuyiyidejishujizhi,suoyiyijinghennanzaizhongjidexingershangyiyishangkefujiquanzhuyi,xiangfan,duoyuanhuadexiandaiziyouzhuyidesuoweiminzhutizhi,qiaqiapeiyulejiquanzhuyi。zheizhongqingkuangbingfeixianyou,weirenmenshuzhideyigezhumingdelizhengshixiteledehefashangtai。

十一选五[16] canjianshitelaosi1957nianfabiaode“shenmeshizhengzhizhexue?”,yijibolinjinianhoufabiaode“zhengzhililunhaicunzaima?”

[17] 《zhengzhiziyouzhuyi》,di13ye。

[18] tongshang,di3ye。

十一选五[19] tongshang,di133ye。

[20] tongshang,di192ye。

[21] tongshang,di195ye。

[22] tongshang,di241ye。

[23] tongshang,di347ye。

十一选五[24] minzhuzailixiandangrenyanzhongnaishiyizhongkepadedongxi,meiguodezhengtinaishiyizhongfuhedegonghezhengti,qixianzhengmoshitixianlexiangdangduodegonghezhuyiyinsu。canjianaositeluomude《fuhegonghezhidezhengzhililun》,di86-102ye。

十一选五[25] canjianm.h.laisinuofudeguandian: “bolinyaoxiangrengranzuogeziyouzhuyizhe,feichangyoubiyaodui(sirenzhuiqiude)mudehe(duigongzhongshixingde)guizejiayiqufen,houzhezaiaokexiaotehehayekedelilunzhongqizheshifenzhongyaodezuoyong。”(《ershishijidezhengzhizhexuejia》,di291ye)

[26] canjianstephenkresge and leif wenar bianjidehayek on hayek,hayekezaiyicifangtanzhongdehuida: “nimenzhidaoyuehan-geleilunshushiyixuanwudeshu——《hayekelunziyou》,tabashiyixuanwujieshiweiyigekangdezhuyizhe。buguoshiyixuanwugengqingxiangyushuo: ‘nikuadalezheizhongyingxiang,shiyixuanwucongmeiyoufeichangzixididuguokangde。’shishishang,zaishiyixuanwu20he21suideguanjianshiqi,shiyixuanwuchenmiyuyigemingjiaoaloisriehldexiandaikangdezhuyizhedezhuzuozhizhong,taxieledaliangdelunshupipanzhuyideshuheliangbubantongsuxingdedaolun。jiaruoshiyixuanwuzhidaoyixiekangdedezhexue,zhuyaoshicongkangdezhuyizheneilidelaide。suoyi,shiyixuanwushouxianyaogaosugelei,bu,shiyixuanwuzhijiezhidaodekangdehaitaishaoyizhiyubunengweizhibianhu,danbixuchengrenshiyixuanwujianjiecongtaneilihuodelehenduo。”(pp.139-140.)

[27] canjianchandrankukathas,hayek and modern liberalism,preface.

十一选五[28] canjian《jingji、kexueyuzhengzhi——hayekesixiangjingcui》,“zheizhongyouxujiegoudecunzai,ruxingxi、taiyangxi、youjitiheqingkuangshifenfanzadeshehuizhixu,biaoxianchumouxiegongtongdetedian,bingzuoweiyigezhengtifucongzhemouxiebunenghuayueweijubuguilvdeguilv,yinweizheizhongguilvhaiqujueyuzhengtiyuweishibufenbaochiduizhengtidejutixingweieryandebiyaozhixudehuanjingzhijiandexianghuzuoyong,zheijiuweimudezaiyufaxian‘pubiandeziranguilv’dekexuefangfalunzaochengleruogankunnan。”(di542-543ye)

十一选五[29] canjianjohngray,1994.hayek,spontaneous order and the post-communist societies intransition”,inc.frei and r.nef(eds.),contending with hayek.bern:petelang.

十一选五[30] canjiandengzhenglaide“yanjiuhayekefalvlilundeyigeqiantixingpingzhu——《falv、lifayuziyou》daiyixu”yiwen,di37ye。

[31] canjianjohy gray,hayek on liberty ,3rd ed,p.148.

[32] tongshang,p.157.

十一选五[33] johy gray, hayek on liberty ,3rd ed,p.160.

十一选五[34] tongshang,p.161.

十一选五[35] canjianbenshudiyizhanghedisanzhangzhongdexiangguanneirong。

十一选五[36] 《ziyouzhixuyuanli》,xia,di204ye。

十一选五[37] 《falv、lifayuziyou》,dier、sanjuan,di461ye。

[38] canjiankangdede“yongjiuhepinglun”,kangderenwei“youyigeminzuquanbuhefadelifasuobixuyijudeyuanshiqiyuedeguannianerdechudeweiyitizhijiushigonghezhi。”bingrenweigonghezhiyeshikeyidaoxiangyongjiuhepingdeweiyitizhi。“gonghetizhichulejuyouchuziquanligainiandechuncuilaiyuanzheiyiqiyuanshangdechunjiexingerwai,haijuyoushiyixuanwusuoyuanwangdehouguo,yijiyongjiuhepingdeqianjing。”(jian《lishilixingpipanwenji》,di106ye)

[39] 《falv、lifayuziyou》,dier、sanjuan,di460ye。

[40] canjianbenshudisanzhang。

[41] genjuhayekedexitongguandian,yinggaibahepingbaokuozainei,shiheping、ziyou、zhengyisanxiangjiazhi,buguohayekeduiyuhepingdefoudingxingjiazhiyiyiyijitazaifalvguizeyuzhidujiagoufangmiandezuoyong,bingmeiyouzhankailunshu。

十一选五[42] canjianbenshudisanzhang。

十一选五[43] 《falv、lifayuziyou》,dier、sanjuan,di487ye。

十一选五[44] tongshang,di491ye。

[45] tongshang,di458ye。

[46] tongshang,di478ye。

十一选五[47] tongshang,di471ye。

[48] tongshang,di486ye。

十一选五[49] tongshang,di489-490ye。

[50] tongshang,di487ye。

[51] guanyuhayekeyushimitedeguanxiyijixiangguandewentishijiqifuzade,youyushimiteyijisitelaosidoushuyubaoshouzhuyiyoupai,tamenduiyushehuizhengzhiwentidekanfa,duiyuziyouzhuyidepipanshiyushehuiminzhuzhuyidezuopaidabuxiangtongde,erhayekezaimouxielunzheyanzhongyejuyounonghoudebaoshouzhuyisecai,suoyi,tamenzhijiandeguanxishifenaimei,jinguanhayekezaitadeyixiliezhushuzhong,congzuizaode《tongwangnuyizhilu》dao《falv、lifayuziyou》dedisanjuan,zhizhi《zhimingdezifu》,duishimitedouyouguodianminghuoweidianmingdepipan。liuxiaofengzaitadelunwen(jian“shimitegushideyoupaijiangfa: quanweideziyouzhuyi?”he“xiandaizhengzhisixiangfenzhengzhongdeshimite”)zhongzhuanshulexifangxuejie,zhuyaoshimaikaomike(john p. mccormick)hekelisiti(renato cristi)duiyuxiangguanwentidekanfa,tamenjunrenweihayekezaiyidingchengdushangshoudaoleshimitedeyingxiang,erqiezaimouxiewentishangdeguandianshiyizhide。maikaomikezai《shimiteduiziyouzhuyidepipan: fanjishulundezhengzhi》(carl schmitt's critique of liberalism: against politics as technology)renwei,zhanhoubeimeizhengzhisixiangdezhuliushoubaoshouzhuyizhengzhililundashishitelaosi(leo strauss)dezhipei,zheitixianzaiwenhualilun(bulumu allan bloom)duichuantongjiazhideqiangdiao、guoneizhengzhisixiang(shenshouhayekeyingxiangdejinliqinewt gingrich)dejinbu-“ziyou”dejishujingjiyishixingtai,heguojizhengzhililunfangmian(hengtingdun samuel p.huntington)zhaoxunxindeguojidiren(juedingdiyoushizhengzhideshouyaowenti)。maikaomikeyiweizheixiesixiangdoukeyizhuisudaoshimitedebaoshouzhuyililun。hayekezaiqi《tongxiangnuyizhilu》zhongfangguoshimite,yeshikeyilijiedele,zaiwenhuashouchengfangmian,hayekeshijixiangdangxinshangshimite。kelisitizai《shimiteyuquanweideziyouzhuyi》(carl schmitt and authoritarian liberalism: strong state, freeeconomy)zhongzhichu,ruguorenzhenshencha,hayekedezhuzhangyushimitezaiweimahouqidelichangwanquanyizhi: baziyouzhuyijiazhiyuquanweidefazhiminzhulunjieheqilai。shimitexiediaominzhulunyuquanweilundeduili、ziyouzhuyiyuquanquanzhuyideduili,kaiqilehayeketansuodeziyoushichangdeshehuiyuquanweiguojiadexiediao。kelisitiduanding,hayekeshijishangshouyiyushimiteshenduo,zhishitabuchengreneryi,qishishimitedequanweiziyouzhuyiyuhayekedeziyouzhuyimeiyoushenmechabie。liuxiaofenggenjushangshukaocha,yejibenshangrentongmaikaomikehekelisitiliangrendekanfa,taxiedao: “zaishiyixuanwukan,qishihayekeyijingduoshaochengrenleshimitedeyingxiang,dangranshizaibuqiyandejiaozhuzhong: ‘shimitezaixitelezhengquantongzhixiadesuozuosuowei,bingmeiyougaibianzheiyangyigeshishi,jizaixiandaideguoxuezhetaolunzheigewenti(fazhi)dewenxiandangzhong,tadelunzheyijiushizuijuxueshiqiezuifudongjianlide。’”buguo,zaishiyixuanwukanlai,jinguanhayekezaimouxiefangmianyushimiteyouguanlianguanxi,shenzhizaiduiyuyingmeixiandaiminzhuzhidepipanfangmianyouyizhizhichu,dantamenrengrancunzaizheshizhixingdechabie,hayekebijingshichuncuiyiyishangdegudianziyouzhuyi,tachishoudeshiziyouzhuyidefoudingxingjiazhi,zhuzhangdeshizhengzhidequzhongxinhua,ershimiteyuzhixiangfan,tadequanweiziyouzhuyibushuyuhayekedeziyouzhuyipuxi,shiyizhongqiangshidezhengzhizhongxinzhuyi,suoyi,hayekeconglaidoubashimiteshiweilixingjiangouzhuyidepuxizhilie。jinguanzaishimiteyukaiersenzhijianyouguojiliedelunzheng,duicihayekebuhuibuzhidao,danhayekerengbatamenhuaweiyigepuxi,zheibushiourandehesuiyide。

十一选五[52] 《falv、lifayuziyou》,dier、sanjuan,di474ye。

[53] shangshuyouguanshimitedeguandianlaiziliuxiaofengdelunwen“shimitegushideyoupaijiangfa: quanweideziyouzhuyi?”he“xiandaizhengzhisixiangfenzhengzhongdeshimite”zhongdeyouguanshuping。duzheruoshenrulejieshimitedexueshuo,kecanyuetade《zhengzhidelangmanpai》、《lunzhuanzheng: congxiandaizhuquansixiangdezhaoxingzhiwuchanzhedejiejidouzheng》、《zhengzhideshenxue》、《luomatianzhujiaoyuzhengzhixingshi》(1923)、《zhengzhidegainian》、《xianfaxueshuo》、《xianfadeshouhuzhe》、《hefaxingyuzhengdangxing》(1932)。

[54]shimite: 《guojiadejiazhiyugetideyiyi》,canjiancaoweidongdefanyi。

十一选五[55] 《falv、lifayuziyou》,diyijuan,di109ye。

[56] liuxiaofeng,“xiandaizhengzhisixiangfenzhengzhongdeshimite”,xianggang《ershiyishiji》zazhi,di54qi。

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