十一选五

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时间是直的还是圆的?——以尼采和海德格尔为中心

时间: 2018-12-12 00:05:09 点击:

本文系作者(孙周兴)2019年4月28日下午在四川大学文科楼做的演讲,根据现场录音稿整理成文。版权所有:十一选五_十一选五软件-手机版

内容提要: 从自然生活世界到技术生活世界有一个断裂,这个断裂首先表现为时间和空间经验的转变。现代形而上学批判即起步于此。马克思首先敏锐地洞察到技术工业带来的世界巨变,并且用“以时间消灭空间”来描述之。尼采批判传统的以物质运动为定向的线性时间观,开启了一种以创造性生命经验为基准的“圆性时间”观,后者已经蕴含着时间的空间化。海德格尔后期更进一步,思入一种时间与空间贯通一体的本源性的时-空观。留下的问题是: 这种区别于自然生活世界的时间和空间概念的新时-空观与技术生活世界是何种关系?本文认为,主要由现代思想开启的新时-空观为当代艺术提供了思想前提,同时也通过当代艺术对技术生活世界作出抵抗性反应。

ganxiezhuchirendejieshao,hengaoxingdaosichuandaxuezongjiaoyanjiusuolaizuoyanjiang。shiyixuanwushicongshideguozhexueheyishuzhexueyanjiude,zuodedongxibijiaozaluan,chuledeguozhexue,zuijinjinianshiyixuanwuyezuodangdaiyishulilunyanjiu,shenzhihaicanyucehuayixieyishuhuodong,birushiyixuanwucanyucehuadezhongguodangdaiyishujiawangguangyidexinzuozhan《tongsurenleixueyanjiu》qiantianganggangzaishanghaikaimu。ciwaishiyixuanwuyekaishiguanxinjishuyuweilaideketi,shiyixuanwumingzhiwei“weilaizhexue”。shiyixuanwuyinggaishibijiaoyuanyixuexide,zongshizaibuduanxuexizhong。

jintiangendajiataolunyigeketi,tayushiyixuanwumeigerendouxiangguan,yeshishiyixuanwuzuijinyizhizaisikaodewenti,jiushishijianwenti。shijianshishiyixuanwumeitian——meishimeike——douzaijingliheganshoude,danzheigewentiyaotaolunqilaiqueshijiweimafande,dajiadouzhidaoaogusidingdeyigezhumingshuofa,dayishi: shenmeshishijian?meirenwenshiyixuanwushiyixuanwushizhidaode,yourenwenshiyixuanwushiyixuanwujiubuzhidaole。shijianwentishijishangyiranshizhexuelimianzuinandewentizhiyi,xianzaishiyixuanwuhaimeiyouyigequedingerqingxidedaan。

shiyixuanwujintianjiangdeketizhuyaoyinicai、haidegeerweibeijing,shituzhuiwen: shijianshishenme?shijiandaodishizhidehaishiyuande?shiyixuanwudezhenggebaogaoyoujigemubiao: diyi,pipanchuantongdexianxingshijianguan。chuantongzhexuehekexuebashijianlijieweiyitiaozhixian,guoqushiyijingxiaoshide“xianzai”,jianglaishihaimeidaolaide“xianzai”,zongzhishi“xianzai”zhiliu。zheizhongyi“xianzai”weijidiandeshijianguan,haidegeerchengzhiwei“xianzaishijian”。zheiyangdeshijianguanshiyouwentide,yongshiyixuanwudeshuofajiushi: xianxingshijianrangrenjuewang。yinweizaixianxingshijianguanzhong,shiyixuanwumeigerendoushipangguanzhe,doushizhanzaipangbiandengsideren。dier,shiyixuanwuxiangtichuyigegainian,ji“yuanxingshijian”。shijianbushizhixiande,ershiyuanxingde。zheigexiangfayunicai、haidegeerdezhexueyouguan,shiyixuanwujinyibubatazhankaiwei“yuanxingshijian”gainian。disan,shiyixuanwujinyibuyaotaolundeshi,shiyixuanwusuoweide“yuanxingshijian”daodiyoushenmeyangdeyiyi?shiyixuanwudagaijiujiangzheisandian,zuihoushiyixuanwuxiwangnengliudianshijiangendajiataolun。

benciyanjiangdejibenguandianshishenmeni?wufeishiliangdian: qiyi,shiyixuanwuxiangshuoshijianshiyuande,kongjianshishide。dajiazhidaoshijianzongshiyukongjianxiangguan,shiyixuanwutongchanghuishuokongjianshikongde,danshiyixuanwuxiangdaoguolaishuo,kongjianshishide。huozhehuanjuhualaishuo,shiyixuanwuxiangbiaoming: shijianshibuzhide,kongjianshibukongde。yaozhengmingzheiyidiandangranshiburongyideshi,shiyixuanwuzhinengmianlishishi。qier,shiyixuanwuxiangzaizheiyangdewentibeijinglimianlaitaolunyixiaxiandaizhexuehedangdaiyishu,dazhikeyishuo,xiandaizhexueshiyaopoxianxing-jisuanshijianguan,qiyuanxingshijianguan;erdangdaiyishushiyaopojihe-chouxiangkongjianguan,qijushenkongjianguan。

yi、chuantongxianxingshijianguanpipan

十一选五shiyixuanwuxianlaijiangdiyidian: chuantongxianxingshijianguanpipan。zuijinshiyixuanwuganggangzuowanyibenfanyi,shihaidegeerde《shijiangainian》,zheidagaishishiyixuanwuzuodezuihouyibenhaidegeerfanyi。yinweishiyixuanwujuedefanyideshidaikuaiyaojieshule,yihoujiqirenhuibishiyixuanwuzuodegengwanmei,suoyishiyixuanwuyaogankuaibatalejiediao。shiyixuanwudagaishiguoneiwaiguozhexueyanjiuzhedangzhongzuofanyibijiaoduode,shiyixuanwuzhubiande《haidegeerwenji》yijingchule30juan,qizhong15juanshishiyixuanwuzijiyide;shiyixuanwuzhubiande《nicaizhuzuoquanji》you14juan,haimeizuowan,shiyixuanwuzijiyijingyile4juan;shiyixuanwuzhubiande《weilaiyishucongshu》yijingchubanle10juan,yeyifanyizhuzuoweizhong。zongzhishiyixuanwushizuodemanduode。danxianzaishiyixuanwurenwei,fanyidegongzuoyihoubuxuyaoshiyixuanwuziranrenlaizuole,jiqirenhuijietishiyixuanwudegongzuo。zhongjianhuiyouyigeguodujieduan,shiyouailaixiudingshiyixuanwuziranrenleizuodefanyi,shumingyedebianle,debiaoming“moumourenzhu,moumourenyi,moujiqirenxiao”。zheiyangyigeguodujieduanbuhuitaizhang,dagaiyouwunianzhishiniandeshijian。zongdelaishuozheishihaoshi,shiyixuanwuziranrenleihuibiandegengziyouyixie,shiyixuanwukeyishengchugengduodeshijianlaiganbiedeshiqingle,sikaoa,chuangzaoa!suoyishiyixuanwujuede,shiyixuanwuyebubiduirengongzhinengjishu(jiqiren)chanshengkonghuang。queshishiyixuanwuziranrenleideshenghuoyaomanmangaibianle,xuduogongzuohexingyejianghuixiaoshi,danqinggeweifangxin,zhexueheyishubuhuixiaoshi,zheigeshijiqirengaobulede。

《shijiangainian》yiwenshi1924nianxiechengde,dangshihaidegeerhaixiangdangnianqing,xielezheipianzhangwen(yichengzhongwendagaiyou8wanzi),toujiyigezazhi,danyinweiwenzhangtaizhang,huozhehaiyouqitashenmeyuanyin,zheigezazhizuihoujuedingbunengkanfazheipianwenzhang。zheipianwenzhangjiashangtongqizuodetongmingyanjiang(《shijiangainian》),houlaiyizhidoumeiyoufabiaochulai,dao2004niancaideyichuban。zheiben《shijiangainian》beirenweishi《cunzaiyushijian》(1927nian)zheibenjuzhude“chugao”(urfassung),ji“yuanshigao”。

十一选五gumingsiyi,haidegeergaishuzhongzhuyaotaolunshijianwenti。tashouxianwen,zhexueruhelaizhuiwenshijian?tajichuyigejieshixueyiyishangdeshuofa: “bixugenjushijianlailijieshijian”。(cankanhaidegeer: 《shijiangainian》,《quanji》di64juan,dewenban,meiyinfalankefu,2004nian,di107ye。)weishenmeni?zheishiyaoyushenxuequfenkailai,yinweishenxuebushigenjushijianlailijieshijian,shenxueshigenju“yongheng”(aei)lailijieshijian。keshi,dangshenxuezhenzhengyaojinrudaoshijianzhuiwenshi,birushiyixuanwuganggangshuodaodeaogusiding,tazhuiwendeshishiyixuanwurentiyandaodeshijian,erbushiwulishijian。neimeruhekeneng“genjushijianlailijieshijian”ni?genjualailijiea,zheizailuojishangshitongyifanfu。shiyixuanwubaalijieweib,shiyixuanwubanilijieweixuesheng,bashiyixuanwuzijilijieweilaoshi,zheidoukeyi,yaoshuobashiyixuanwulijieweishiyixuanwu,zheishishayisini?suoyizheilijiuyouwentichulaile。

haidegeershuo,shiyixuanwubushiyaoxiayigepubiandedingyi。zheijuhuaqishishifandongde,suoyoudedingyidouzhixiangpubianxing。xiayigebupubiandedingyi,zheishihaidegeerzaiqianqizhexuezhongzuodeduizhexuelaishuozuichugedeyijianshi。suoyoudezhishihekexuedoushiyaoxiapubianxingdedingyi,birushuoduisugeladizheigegeti,shiyixuanwukeyixiagedingyi,shuo“sugeladishiyigeyadianren,yigenanren,yigezhexuejia,yigerendengdeng”,danhaibunengshuo“sugeladishiyikuaimutou”,suiranshiyixuanwujingchangshuomourenshimutou,danzheishiwenxuedexiucishoufa,shizuobiyuhuodabifang,erbushizhexuehekexuededingyifangshi。haidegeermingquedishuo,shiyixuanwubixujinrudaoyigeqiankexuedezhuangtai,jichuyigebuquedingdedingyi。“buquedingdedingyi”shiyigetebieqiguaideshuofa,tongchangdedingyijiushijieding、queding,buquedingdeguidingbunengjiao“dingyi”。danzaiqianqihaidegeerde“xingshixianshidexianxiangxue”zhong,taqueyaoxia“xingshixianshidedingyi”,jiqiankexuede、zhiyinxingde、budingdedingyi。haidegeerdejibenyituhaishikeyizhangwode,zaitakanlai,duiyugetide、dongtaide、shengfade、budingdeshitaihuoxianxiang,birushuorenshengcizaihezaishixianxiang,birushuoyurenshengcizaixiangguandeshijianwenti,shiyixuanwuguranyeyaoxia“dingyi”,danyoubunengjichuwanquanguhuadebubiandegainianhuadeguiding。

haidegeerxianyaopipanchuantongdeshijianguan。chuantongdeshijianguanzuizaoshizaiyalishiduodeneilixingchengde。yalishiduodejichudeshijiandingyishi: shijianshiguanyuqianhouyundongdeshu,shijianshiyundongdejiliang。zheigeshijiangainianhoulaiyizhiyanxuxialaile。shenmeshishijian?shijianjiushiyigewutideyundongdejiliang,birushuoshiyixuanwuzoudaojiaoshimenkoudagaixuyao6miaozhong。zheijiushishijian,shijishangjiushishizhongdeshijian。zheizhongshijianguanguidinglehoushikexuedeshijianguan。danzaiyalishiduodeneiliyouyigetebieqiguaidexianxiang,shishiyixuanwuyizhimeiyougaoqingchude。tadeshijiangainianjiushihoulaiwulixuedeshijiangainian,dantadekongjiangainianquewanquanbuyiyang,zheishilingrenfeijiede。yalishiduodeshuo,kongjianshibaoguozhewutidebianjie。zheizhongkongjianguanjiubushiniudunwulixueyiyishangdekongjianle。ruguokongjianshibaoguozhewutidebianjie,neime,meigewutidouyouzijidekongjian,zheigekongjianshijutide、duoyangde,erbushijindaiwulixuedesanweikongjian。jiandanshuolai,yalishiduodeguidinglekexuedeshijiangainian,dantadekongjiangainianwanquanbushikexuede。zheijiuzaochengleyigefenlie,zheigefenlieyiweizheshenme?zheishiyigehenyouyisideketi,shiyixuanwuzanshigexiabubiao。daozaoqijidujiaoshenxuejiaaogusidingneier,shijianrengjiushiyaobeiceliangde。zai《chanhuilu》dishiyijuanzhong,aogusidingkaolvdeshijingshenwenti,danyetichuleguanyushijianceliangdewenti,zhuiwenjingshenbenshenshibushijiushishijian?tafanfushuo“duliang”he“celiang”shijian: “shiyixuanwudejingshena,shiyixuanwushizainilimianduliangshijian”, “shiyixuanwuceliangni,gushiyixuanwuceliangshijian。……shiyixuanwuzaizhongfuyici,shiyixuanwuzaiceliangshijianshi,shiyixuanwujiushizaiceliangshiyixuanwuzijidechushen。”(cankanhaidegeer: 《shijiangainian》,《quanji》di64juan,dewenban,di111ye。)

congyalishiduodekaishidezheizhongkeceliangdeshijianshiziranshenghuoshijiedeshijian,keyijiaozuo“ziranshijian”,qishijiushi“shizhongshijian”。renleifamingleshizhong,jishidegongju,shiyixuanwuyonglaiceliangshijian,zheizhongshijianjiushihaidegeersuojiangde“xianzaishijian”(jetztzeit)。tashiwanquanxiangtongde,shitongzhidehejunyunde,yincicaishikeceliangde。ruguobushitongzhidehejunyunde,neijiuwufaceliang。zheishikexuedeshijiangainian,shi“ziranshijian”。zaikexueshangdegaibianyizhiyaodaoaiyinsitandexiangduilun,danzaizhexueshang,daonicaineilijiufashengleyigegenbendebianhua。

dangranzheizhongjianhaiyouyigeyouyisidexiaochaqu,jiushikangdehehamande“shikongzhizheng”。dajiazhidaokangdebashijianhekongjianneihuale,tongshiyoubatamenkexuehuale。shenmeyisini?yinweizaikangdekanlai,shijianhekongjianshishiyixuanwuzhutixiantianjuyoudezhiguanxingshi,youlezheiliangzhongzhiguanxingshi,caiyouleliangmenxingshikexuejisuanshuhejihexue。zhiguanfenweineiganyuwaigan,yushikangdejichulelianggedengshi: neigan——shijian——suanshu;waigan——kongjian——jihexue。neiganguandexingshijiushishijian,genshijianxiangguandeshisuanshu。zheihuatingqilaibuhaojie,danqishishihenposudexiangfa。nixiangxianga,1+1=2,1+2=3,zheijiushiyigeshijianguochenga。kangdeshuo,meiyoushijianzheizhongzhiguanxingshi,suanshujiushibukenengde。kongjianyeshi,kongjianshiwaiganguan,shiyixuanwuguankan,shiyixuanwukandaodongxi,zheizhongkanshikongjianxingde,shisuzaokongjiande,gentaxiangguandeyimenkexueshijihexue。suoyi,kangderenweitayijingbaliangmenjichukexuedejichuwentijiejuehaole。

十一选五zheishichuxianleyigerenwu,jiaozuohaman。hamanzheigezhexuejiahenshaoyourenzhidaota,dantashiyigeyouyisidetiancairenwu。dangniangedejiutebiechongbaihaman。hamanshikangde《chuncuilixingpipan》dediyigeduzhe,yinggaishikangdezijijiaohamankanzheibenshudeqingyang。hamankanwanyihou,jiushipolekangdedebaxi,xieledayuesansiqiangehanzideyipianxiaowenzhanglaipipankangde。zheishiguanyukangde《chuncuilixingpipan》dediyipianpipanwenzhang。shejidaoshijianhekongjianwenti,hamandesilutaiyouyisile。hamanshuo,shijianhekongjiandangrangenshiyixuanwudeganguanxiangguan,yutingheshixiangguan,tingchulaideshishijian,kanchulaideshikongjian,tingheshiquebushishenme“zhiguanxingshi”,ershiyuyanfangshi,yutingheshixiangguandebushisuanshuhejihexue,ershiliangmenzuiyuanshideyishujiyinlehehuihua。

yushizhenggegejubaichulaile,shiyixuanwukeyikandaoouzhoujindaiwenhuadeyigezuigenbendechongtu,jikexueyuyishudechongtu。kangdeyuhamandezhenglunyiyizhongda,geweiyidingdehaohaoxiangxiang。kangdeshiyaojixingshikexuedianji,hamanqueshuonizheigedianjibenlaijiushicuode。shenmejiaoting?shenmejiaokan?shenmejiaoshijian?shenmejiaokongjian?tamenshishiyixuanwuyuyandexingshi,gentamenxiangguandeshiyishuerbushikexue,yishushibikexuegengjiayuanbende。liangzhedezhenglunjiaodianshishijianhekongjian。kangdebashijianlianxiyusuanshu,biaomingtayiranshouzaichuantongdekeyijiliangdexianzaishijianguanzhizhong,zheiyidianshishiyixuanwuyaozhuyide。

zai《shijiangainian》zhong,haidegeerzhankaileduichuantongshijianguandepipan。haidegeershuo: “yushijiandeyuanshishiyixuanwufangshibushiceliang”。zheijuhuahenzhongyao,qianwanbuyaoyiweishijiandoushiceliangdeshijian;shijianshibujunyunde,bushijunyundexianxingde,yebushikeyiceliangde。tajiezheshuo: “ruguoshiyixuanwushitucongziranshijianshangtuichushenmeshishijian,neimexianzaijiushiguoquhejianglaidechidu”。haidegeerzheishihoumeiyoushuo“xianzaishijian”,neishi《cunzaiyushijian》lidejiangfa,xianzaitashuo“dangqianshijian”。tashuo: “dangqianshijianbeijieshiweibuduangundongzhetongguoxianzaideliushixulie: zheizhongqianhouxiangjidexuliezaifangxiangshangbeishuochengshidanxiangdehebukenide。”hao,suoweidexianxingdekeceliangdeshijianyoulianggetedian: yishibukeni,ershixianzaidiandejunzhihua。tashijunyunde,“junzhihua”shibashijiandengtongyukongjian,dengtongyuchuncuidezaichang。zheishiguanjiandian,meiyouchuxiandeheyijingxiaoshideshigenjuxianzai、dangqianlaipanduande,zheijiushihoulaidelidapipande“zaichangdexingershangxue”le。zheishiyizhongbasuoyoudeshijiancongzishenzhongqugandaodangqianzhongdequshi,shijianwanquanbeishuxuehuale,bianchengleyukongjianzuobiaox、y、zbingliedezuobiaot,tashibukenide。zheigeshiyixuanwucongxiaojiuxuele,houlaishiyixuanwujiushuokongjianshix、y、zsanwei,shijianshikongjianzhiwaihaiyouyiweit。zheishiyigejibendepipan,shiyixuanwurenweishi《cunzaiyushijian》limeiyoubiaodachulaide。

chuantongshijianguanshizheyanyu“dangqian/xianzai”dexianxingshijian: zuoweiyundongdejiliang,chuantongshijianguanshixianxingyiweide“xianzaishijian”,jibashijiankanzuoyizhong“xianzaizhiliu”,guoqushiyijingxiaoshide“xianzai”,jianglaishishangweidaolaide“xianzai”。chuantongshijianguanjuyouziranxing,tashiziranrenleijingshenbiaodadejichu,tebieshichuantongzhexue、zongjiao、yishudejichu。zheiyidianshiyixuanwuyaoxiangqingchu,shiyixuanwuxianzaizhengchuyulingwaiyigeshidai,shiyixuanwubatajiaozuo“jishurenleishenghuoshijie”。shiyixuanwuyijingcong“ziranrenleideshenghuoshijie”zhuanbianru“jishurenleishenghuoshijie”zhongle。xianzaishiyixuanwurenwei,nicaisuowei“shangdisile”yinggaizaizheigeyiyishanglailijie。“shangdisile”yiweizhe“ziranrenlei”jingshenbiaodaxitongdebengkui,shishangmiansuoshuode“zhuanbian”debiaoda。shiyixuanwuxiamianyaojiangdaonicaiweishenmeyaotongguo“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”xueshuolaisikaoyizhongxindeshijiangainian。weishenme?yinweianshiyixuanwuzuijindeyigeshuofa: xianxingshijianlingrenjuewang。zaixianxingshijianguandezhipeixia,shiyixuanwumeigerenshuodaodidoushidengsizhe,shiyixuanwuzaishijiande“xianzaizhihe”pangdengdaizheshengmingbukezudangdeliushihexiaoshi。

十一选五zenmekefuzheizhongyongbuhuitoudeyonghengdeliushi,zheishiziranrenleijingshenzuidadewenti,zhengshimianduizheiyangdewenti,weileduifushengmingdewuxianliushi,weilekefuzheiyangyizhongbuduande、wukezudangdeliushi,“xianzaishijian”dewuxiandeliushi,renleigeminzu(ziranrenlei)chuangzaoleyonghengdezongjiao,zaiouzhouhaichuangzaolezhexue。zheijiushishuo,yaobaituoxianxingshijiandebuduanliushi,bixuyouyigewushijiande,yonghengdebianhuozhetianguo,houzheshimeiyoushijianxingde,shijianxingshishiyixuanwumeigeyaosiderendegainian,yonghengshangdishimeiyoushijianxingde。xianxingshijianguanshizongjiaodejichu,zheishishiyixuanwuyaoqiangdiaozhichudeyidian。

er、yuanxingshijianguanzhijieshi: congnicaidaohaidegeer

xiamianshiyixuanwulaitaolunnicaidexinshijianguan。shiyixuanwurenwei,nicaide“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”xueshuofanduixianxingshijianguan,kaiqileyizhongyi“shunjian-shiji”weihexinde“yuanxingshijian”lijie。

cong1884nianzuoyoukaishi,yizhidao1889nian1yue3haofafeng,nicaizaizheiduanshijianzhongrenzhenzhuomoleyijianshiqing: shengming/cunzaidebenzhiheyiyidaodishishenme?zheigeshiqingtaxiangtongle,tarenweishengming/cunzaidebenzhijiuzaiyuzhuiqiugengqiangdadeliliang,tajichuleyigeshuyu,jiaozuo“will to power”ji“quanliyizhi”。wulunshiyibandedongwu,haishishiyixuanwurenlei,douzaizhuiqiugengdadeliliang(quanli)。nicaizuolehaoduodezhengming,zhengmingshengmingdebenzhijiushizhuiqiugengdadeliliang,zheizhongliliangkeyibiaodawei“quanli”(macht)。shibushibamachtyiwei“quanli”,qishishiyixuanwushiyizhiyouyude。shiyixuanwucengjingyejuede“quanli”taibaoli,xiangbamachtyicheng“qiangli”,jiqiangdadeliliang,danyourenjinggaoshiyixuanwu,shuo“qiangli”zheigeyifakenenggengbaoli,yushishiyixuanwuyoubatagaicheng“quanli”le。nicairenwei,napayigepuren,yigenuli,yeshiyou“quanliyizhi”de。richangshenghuozhongjingchangfashengzheiyangdexianxiang: nupugaozhegaozhe,bazhurenkongzhiqilaile,zhunuguanxidiandaole,zhurenlibukainupule,keyishuonupushixianlezijide“quanliyizhi”。yizhidebenzhishizengzhi,shizengshang。zheijiushinicaide“quanliyizhi”。

buguo,zhicihaiyouyigewentimeiyoujiejue,shenmewentini?nicaishuoshengming/cunzaiyongyuanzaizhuiqiu“quanli”,zhuiqiuyizhongqiangdadeliliang,zheinandaobushiyizhongxianxingdepengzhangma?buduanpengzhang,buduanzengshang,neimeheshishigejintouni?zaishuo,zheiyangyizhongbuduanliushirangrenhenkongbu,renzaizhilishangbunengrongrenzheizhongwuxianxing。nicaixiang,zheibuduia,zheibugoua,zhexuebunengzheiyangsikaowentide。guangshuoshengmingdebenzhizaiyuzhuiqiugengdadeliliang,zheigehaoxiangmanhaoting,danxianranhaibugou。houlaizhexuejiaximeieryougeshuofa,shuonicaiwufeishiyaogaosushiyixuanwu: shenghuoyiweizhegengduodishenghuo。shengmingjiushizheiyangbuduandizhuiqiu,buduandipengzhangme?dangdaifaguozhexuejiasidigelejiushuo,youzengshangyedeyoufushang。shengmingbunengyiweipengzhangde,yiweipengzhanghuibaoliede,zheigediqiuhuibaozhade。renleiyijingcongjinyujinruzongyushidai。renleiyijingxiguanyuyuqiu,danyuwangguoshengdehouguoshishenmeni?houguoshishiyixuanwuxianzaimeiyouyuwangle,chuyuwunengzhuangtaile。shixiayouyigexingainianjiao“xingxiaotiao”,zheibingbushishuoxingchanyebuxingle,ershishuoxianzainanshengbuxiangzhuiqiunvshengle,nvshengduinanrenyemeixingqule。taixiangyaoledaozhibuhuiyaole,yaobulele。suoyouzheixiewentinicaidangshidouxiangdaolede,nicaishuozheiyangxiaqubuxing,guangshuoshengmingde“quanli”hegengdalilianghaimeiyoujiejuewenti。

十一选五youyitiannicaizaisaiersi-maliyadeyigehubiansanbu,naohaiturantiaochulaiyigegainian,zheigegainianjiushi“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”。nicairenweizheigegainianjiejuelegenbenwenti。shengmingdebenzhishizhuiqiugengdadeliliang,erlingyifangmian,shengmingyoushizaimeiyigeshunjianchuangzaoxingdizhankaide,“xiangtongzhe”zaimeiyigeshunjianfufanhelunhui。zheiyangyigexiangfaweishenmerangnicairucixingfenni?shiyixuanwuzhidaonicaizhexueyaojiejueyigeshengmingwenti,zaoqinicaidebiaoshushi: shengmingruciduanzanerbeiku,meiyigerendoushiyaoside,erqieshenghuozhongkuduoleshao,shiyixuanwuweishenmeyaohuoxiaqu?youxianertongkudeshengmingdeyiyizainali?zai《beijudedansheng》li,nicaiyongjiushendelaoshixilenidegushidaochuzheigewenti: renjianzuihaodeshishibuyaochusheng,cihaodeshishikuaikuaisidiao,zuicandeshishihuozhe。zheishi《beijudedansheng》yaojiejuedegenbenwenti。daohoulai,nicaidewentitifayoulebianhua,bianchengleyigeyouguan“zhongfu”dewenti: shiyixuanwumeitiandouzaizhongfuzijideshenghuo,youxieshiqingshiyixuanwuzuoleyiwanerwanbianle,weishenmeshiyixuanwuyuanyizhongfu?ruguonizuodeshitongyangdeshiqing,neimezuoyibianhezuoyiwanbianyouqubiema?shiyixuanwuweishenmeyuanyizhongfu?zhongfudeyiyizainali?zheigewentibujiejuenidexingdongjiuhuichuxianzhuangkuang。shenmezhuangkuangni?nicaishuo,nizaimeicixingdongzhiqiannidouyaoxiangxiangqingchu,xiacihaiyaoma?ruguoxiacibuyaole,nijiudezhiyizheicixingdongdeyiyi。dajiakeyikandaonicaishiduomeyansuhejiujie!buyaoxiayicidehua,zheiyicijiubugaizuo,zheishiduishengmingdezeren。houlaixiaoshuojiamilan·kundelazai《shengmingzhongbunengchengshouzhiqing》zhongjiucaiyonglenicaizheigemingti,zhurengongtuomasibuduandigenghuanxinghuoban,buduandijiuchanyigewenti: “yicixingdeshenghuoshibushizhideguo”。zheishiyinicaide“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”xueshuoweibeijingde。zheiyangxianglai,nicaizhexuejiandandeyitahutu,danduishiyixuanwumeigerendougouchengyizhongkaoyan。tadewentishijishangshiliangge: yishishenghuodeyiyi,ershizhongfudeyiyi。shengmingruciduanheku,weishenmeshiyixuanwuhaibuyuanyisi。guoquyibaiduonianjianrenleipingjunshoumingyanzhangleyibei,haikenengyanzhangyibei,meigerenzhiyaoxinzhizhengchang,doubuyuanyizaozaosidiao,douyuanyiduohuojinian。zheishiweishenmeni?zhongfudeyiyiwentizeshejishengmingdangxiadejueduanwenti,shiyixuanwushikedouhuipengdaozheiyangdexingdongdexuanzehejueduan。

十一选五hao,zheishinicaikaishitaolun“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”wenti。“yonghenglunhui”qianmianyougezhuyu,jiao“xiangtongzhe”(das gleiche),“xiangtongzhe”bushi“tongyizhe”(das selbehuodas identische)。zheigedajiayaogaoqingchu,bingbushi“tongyizhe”zaineililunhui,“xiangtongzhe”shiyouchayide“tong”。cishicikeshiyixuanwushishiyixuanwu,dandangshiyixuanwushuochuzheijuhuashiyijingbushishiyixuanwule,meigegetidoumeiyoujueduidetongyixing。suoyinicaishuodeshi“xiangtongzhe”erbushi“tongyizhe”。nicaiwei“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”zuoleyigezhengming,shiyixuanwurenweizheishinicaizhexuelizuizhongyaodesanjuhua,zai《chalatusitelarushishuo》zhongfangzaiyiqishuochulaide。nicaishuodediyijuhuashi: “suoyouzhixiandoushipianrende”。shuozheijuhuayaoxiaoxina,bunengluanshuode,“suoyouzhixiandoushipianrende”,zhenggejihexuejiushicong“liangdianzhijianzhixianzuiduan”zheiyangyigexingshiguidingkaishide,youcigouzaolezhenggejihexuetixi。nicaishuodedierjuhuashi: “suoyouzhenlidoushiwanqude”,zheihuashuodeduohaoa!shiyixuanwujintianyijingkeyilijiezheihuale,danzaidangshizheihuaqueshilingrenfeijiede。disanjuhuagengmiao: “shijianbenshenjiushiyigeyuanquan”。suoyouzhixiandoushipianren,shijianbushizhixian,meiyoushenmewuxianliushide“xianxingshijian”。(cankannicai: 《chalatusitelarushishuo》,zhongyiben,sunzhouxingyi,shangwuyinshuguan,2010nian,di248ye。)

十一选五youlezheiyangsanjuhua,nicaizai《chalatusitelarushishuo》lijiezhewen: shiyixuanwuzhanzaiyigemenkou,zheigemenkoujiao“shunjian”(augenblick),niwangdongbianzou,shiyixuanwuwangxibianzou,shiyixuanwulianggehuixiangyuma?huipengdaoyiqima?wangdongbianzoushi“guoqu”,wangxibianzoushi“jianglai”,“guoqu”yu“jianglai”huipengdaoyiqima?ruguoshijianshiyitiaozhixian,neimetamenshibuhuipengdaoyiqide。danshi,ruguosuoyouzhixiandoushipianrende,shishangmeiyouzhixian,neimetamenjiubidinghuipengzaiyiqide,duibudui?zheishinicaidui“yonghenglunhui”dezhengming。nicaizuoledaliangdezhengming,baokuodongyongwulixuedenengliangshouhengdinglv,baokuoqitakexuedetujing,danshiyixuanwurenweizuiyouxiaodezhengmingjiushizheige: suoyouzhixiandoushipianrende,shijianjiushiyigeyuanquan,xiangtongzhebifufan,bilunhui。suoyinifangxin,nishuoshiyixuanwucuoguoleshenmenanpengyounvpengyou,annicaizheigeluoji,ruguoshita/tashinide,zongguihuipengdaoyiqi,zongguihuihuilaide,nidakefangxin。guoquhejianglaipengzhuangzaiyiqi,zheige“pengzhuang”jiushishunjian。nicaiyong“pengzhuang”zheigecihenyouyisi,shiyixuanwumeishimeikedouzai“pengzhuang”,douzaichengshouzheizhong“pengzhuang”。nicishicike,nideshentihenidexinling,douzaijingshouguoquyujianglaide“pengzhuang”,guoquyujianglaichuyujinzhangdejiaozhiyundongzhong。renjiushihenqiguaidedongxi。youyihuishiyixuanwugenyiweigaorengongzhinengdezhuanjiashuo,nifangxin,jiqirentidaibulerenleide。tashuoweishenme?shiyixuanwushuoshiyixuanwuzaigenniliaotian,xinliquexiangzheguoqudehuoyuanfangdemourenmoushi,nizhidaoma?renshiqisimiaoxiangdedongwu,rendexiangxiangkeyiwuxiantiaoyue,dachidudetiaoyue。shiyixuanwubazheigejiaozuo“qiyixing”。zheizhong“qiyixing”shirenleitongguoyishuhezhexuedechuangzaolaiwanchenghezhanxiande。suoyirengongzhinengtuijindaozuihou,huipengdaoyigebianjie,neishiyishuyuzhexuedebianjie,huozheyibaneryanrenwenkexuedebianjie。

十一选五zheizhongshunjianyiyishangdeshijiangainian,baguoquhejianglailijieweidangxia“pengzhuang”deshunjian,zheiyangyizhongqiyideshijianxinglijieshicongnicaikaishide。zheige“shunjian”shishenme,shiyixuanwukelianxiangxilawendeyigeciyu,jiaokairos,dagaijiushishiyixuanwuzhongwende“qiji、shiji”。birushuoshiyixuanwuzheicilaichengdou,jintiangengeweizaiyiqi,niyiweishiyixuanwupengdaoyiqirongyima?burongyide。chengdoujigelaopengyouqianduanshijianduociyaoqingshiyixuanwu,shiyixuanwuzongshishuomeishijiana,shiyixuanwuqueshiyeshimeiyoushijian,danhuashuohuilai,shijianjijizongshiyoude。zheicigaijianminjiaoshoujileyigerenwu,shuonibixulaide。shiyixuanwuwufajujue,jiulaile,yushiyejiuyoulejintiandebaogao。zheijiushichengshidekairos,yaochengshi,shiyaoyougezhonggeyangdejiyuancouhe——pengzhuang——qilaide。kairosshishenme?shishiji,shiyixuanwumeigerendouhuiyouzheiyangdejingyan,jingchangzuoyijianshiqingzuobuqilai,momingqimiaodituranzuochengle,zheijiushishijidaole,shijimeidao,nizainulidoumeiyouyong。chukairoszhiwaihaiyouyizhongshijian,jiushiyalishiduodeshuode“yundongdejiliang”,zheigeshijianshichronos。suoyiguxilarenhencongming,tamenyonglianggebutongdeciyulaibiaoshishijian,shiyixuanwuyuanyibachronoschengwei“wudeshijian”,erbakairoschengwei“shideshijian”。duishiyixuanwurenleishenghuolaishuo,zuizhongyaodehaishi“shideshijian”,erbushi“wudeshijian”。zheiliangzhongshijianyoushenmequbieni?“wudeshijian”shijunyunde、tongzhide,yinershikeceliangde;dan“shideshijian”queburan,tabushijunyunhetongzhide,yebukenengbeiceliang。wentishi,houlai“wudeshijian”guanniantongguokexuehejishuzhanjulezhudaodiwei,chengweiziranshenghuoshijielizuizhongyaodechidu,er“shideshijian”guannianquebuduanshoupaiji,shenzhibeihushile,shenzhibeiwuhuale,bei“wudeshijian”guannianqudaile。

nicaide“yonghenglunhui”xueshuoyunhandeshi“shideshijian”lijie。zainicaineier,suowei“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”bushiyaotigongyigefojiaoyiyishangdelunhuiguan,bushiyaotigongyizhongjiaohui: niyaohaohaozuoren,xiabeizihaikeyilunhui,haikeyizuoren,ruguonibuhaohaozuoren,xiabeizijiuzhihaozuozhule。nicaideyonghenglunhuishuobushizheiyang,tashixianggaosushiyixuanwu: shiyixuanwuchengshoudemeigeshunjiandoushiyigechuangzaoxingdeshiji,shiyixuanwuzhiyoutongguochuangzaocainengkefuzhongfuhewuliao,cainengshishiyixuanwudeshenghuobiandeyouyiyi。meiyigeshunjiandoushiyigelunhui,doushiyigechuangzaoxingdefuguidian,bixubameiyicizhongfudoulijieweichuangzao。ruguonilijielezheiyidian,nibuhuijuedezijidezhongfuxingweishiwuliaode,shiwuyiyide。qishibushizhongfu,ershiyizhongxindechuangzao。suoyinicaide“yonghenglunhui”xueshuoshiyaosikaohouzongjiaoshidaideshenghuodeyiyi,zheyandianshiyizhongfeixianxingdeshijianguannian。

十一选五neime,weishenmeshiyixuanwuyaoshuo“yuanxingshijian”ni?“yuanxingshijian”zheigeshuofahaoxianghaimeiyourenshiyongguo,buyaojin,shiyixuanwuyaozuoyigejieshi。guoqu(beirenweiyijingxiaoshidexianzai)yujianglai(shangweidaolaidexianzai)zainicaikanlaizongshizai“shunjian”pengzhuangdaoyiqi,zheigejiujiao“yuanxingshijian”。shiyixuanwudexiangfashishenmeni?“yuanxingshijian”he“xianxingshijian”xiangduizhao,yiyuanyixian,gengzhiguan。lingyifangmian,suowei“yuanxing”gengjuyoukongjianxing,gengnengtixianshijiandekongjianhua。houlaihaidegeerhenjizhidikandaolezheiyidian。haidegeerrenwei,bashijianhekongjianfenkailaishihoulaikexueshidaideshiqing,yuanbenshijian-kongjianshibufende,shifenbukailaide。shiyixuanwuxianzaibatinghekan,batingjueheshijue,bashijianhekongjiandouqufenkailai。dandajiaxiangyixiang,shiyixuanwukanzhenimentongshiyezongshizaitingnimen,shiyixuanwudekanhuiyingxiangdaoshiyixuanwudeting,fanguolaiyeyiyang,shiyixuanwutingzhenimen,ruguonimenzhongjianturanyourenfachudaxiaosheng,huozhefashengbiedeqiguaizhuangkuang,shiyixuanwuduinimendekanlikejiubianle。kanhetingshitongdea,tinghuiyingxiangkan,kanhuiyingxiangting,zheiyiweizheshenmeni?yiweizheshijian-kongjianshixiangtongde,liangzhefenlishikexueshidaideshi。shiyixuanwusuowei“yuanxingshijian”genbenshangjiushiyizhongkongjianhuadeshijian,haidegeerdeshuofashi“shi-kong”(zeit-raum),zaishijianyukongjianzhijianjialeyiheng,yishiliangzhejiaohebufendezhuangtai。zheishi1930niandaihaidegeerdesixiang,shiyixuanwudengxiazaijiang。zongeryanzhi,nicaishiyi“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”xueshuolaifanduichuantongde“xianxingshijianguan”,jieshichuyizhong“yuanxingshijian”,dangtayongguoquyujianglaidejinzhangpengzhuangji“shunjian”laimiaoshuzheizhong“yuanxingshijian”shi,genbenshangshiyaoqidongyizhongshikongyitidejingyan。suowei“shunjian”shi“shizhijian”yeshi“kongzhijian”,gengshi“shi-kongzhijian”。

shiyixuanwusuowei“yuanxingshijian”shishengmingbentideshijian,shishikongyitideshengmingjingyandechidu。tadangranshisuizheshengmingyundongerbiandongde。nicaiyougeshuofatebiejingcai: “shiyixuanwuzaibuduanshengzhang,shiyixuanwudeshijiangan、kongjiangandengdengyezaibuduanfazhan。”(nicai: keliban《nicaizhuzuoquanji》di11juan,34[124],dewenban,bolin/niuyue,1999nian,di462ye。)

hao,shiyixuanwuxianzaikeyilaijianghaidegeerle。dajiazhidaoshiyixuanwushiconghaidegeerzouxiangnicaide。shiyixuanwuxianzaiyougeshuofashi,nicaidudeyueduo,yuejuedehaidegeermeiduoshaoxinxiandedongxi,tadedabufensixiangkeyizainicaineilizhaodao,dangranhaidegeerxiangdegengximiyixie。haidegeerqianqifazhanlenicaide“yuanxingshijian”guan,dantazuoleyigebianhua,nicaiguanzhudeshi“shunjian”,dangxiashunjianwubizhongyao,erhaidegeerxingchengleyizhongyi“jianglai”weizhixiangdecizaishijianxingxunhuanjiegou。shiyixuanwukeyikandaohaidegeerde《shijiangainian》desilu: “xiaoshi”——“xianxing”——“xiangsiersheng”——jianglaishijian。yiqiedouzai“xiaoshi”(vorbei),danshenmejiao“xiaoshi”?nishibushikeyiba“xiaoshi”lijieweiyizhong“xianxing”ni?zheikeyishuoshizhexueshangde“naojinjizhuanwan”。“xianxingshijian”guanrenweishiyixuanwusuoyoudedongxidouzaixiaoshi,bukezudang。danzheige“xiaoshi”yiweizheshenme?shibushikeyilijiewei“xianxing”?haidegeercongzheilikaishi,yinweirenshiyizhongxiangzhejianglaishenghuodedongwu,“xianxing”daojianglaiqu,shenzhixianxingdaosiwangzhongqu,daojiduandekenengxingzhongqu——renshiyizhongkenengxingdedongwu。suoyi“jianglai”zheigeweidutuxianchulaile,zaizheiyidianshanghaidegeershibijiaogaomingde,binicaiyaogaomingxie,nicaizhizhidaodangxiashunjian,shituba“shunjian”gainianyonghenghua。haidegeerzeburan。haidegeershuo,shenmeshishijian?shijianshitongguoduijianglaide“dingxiang”heduijianglaibuduandi“xianxing”erfadongqilaidezheiyangyizhongsanweijiegou,yeshi“yuanxingshijian”。qizhongyouzheiyangyizhongluoji: shiyixuanwuzenyanglaimiandui“xiaoshi”,mianduishiyixuanwudebuduan“xiaoshi”he“liushi”?haidegeershuo“xianxing”,shiyixuanwu“xianxing”daoshengmingdekenengxingzhongqu,xianxingdaozuijiduandekenengxingjisiwangzhongqu,zhiyouzheiyang,shengmingzhengtideyiyicaishixian,caihuixianshijishiyixuanwu。haidegeerzheizhongshijianxinglijie,shiyixuanwubatajiaozuo“jianglaishijian”。dajiayaozhuyi,jianglaizhiweidekaiqitaizhongyaole,yigerenruguoduikenengxing、duijianglaishiquzhanwangdenengli,neijiuyiweizhezouxiangzibizheng。zibizhengjiushirenmenbunengduiweilaikaifangle,duizijidejianglaishiqulexinxin。shiyixuanwupengdaoguoyigezibizhenghuanzhe,taduishenmedoumeixingqule,duiweilaishiqulexinxin,yushijiukuangchi,zaiyixueqilizhongle60jin。weishenmezibizhengyaokuangchini?shijishangtabushiweilechi,tashitongguochilaianweiziji。

zaishijianwentishang,nicaihehaidegeerdesikaoyoutongyouyi。nicaizheyanyu“dangxia/shunjian”,erhaidegeerzheyanyu“jianglai”。nicaizhuanxiangleyishuhechuangzaoxinghuodong,erhaidegeerzaiqianqizhexuezhonggengjiazhongshicizaishicunjingyan。danliangzhedoukendingshijianshiyuande,shijianbushizhixiande。houqihaidegeerjiugengyouyisile,tajinyibutichuyigexindegainian,jiaozuoaugenblicksstätte。shiyixuanwurenweitazheigegainiankendingshicongnicaide“shunjian”(augenblick)fazhanlaide。haidegeerzai《cunzaiyushijian》(1927nian)shiqijihubutinicai,dantakendingdulebushaonicai,kenengshiguyibushuoba。dao《zhexuelungao》(1936-1938nian),haidegeeryijingkaishizaifulaibaodaxuejiangnicai,nicaideyingxiangyijingshifenxianhele。zaihaidegeer《zhexuelungao》lideaugenblicksstätte,shiyixuanwuxianzaihaibuzhidaozenmeyi,yingwenyichengsite of the moment,shiyixuanwushizhebatayicheng“shunjianshijizhisuo”。zheishiyigehenyouyisidegainian,yizheigegainian,haidegeershiyaocongnicaichufasikaoyizhongxindeshikongguan,tamingzhiwei“shi-kong”(zeit-raum)。haidegeerzai《zhexuelungao》zhongshuo: “shijianyukongjianbenshennaiyuanzishi-kong——biqishijianyukongjianbenshenjiqijisuanxingdibeibiaoxiangdelianxilai,shi—kongshigengweiyuanshide。” (haidegeer: 《zhexuelungao》,zhongyiben,sunzhouxingyi,shangwuyinshuguan,2014nian,di444ye。)zheihuadeyisibunanlejie,yisishishuo,shi-kongyuanbenbufen,houlaibeikexuefengekailaideshijianhekongjiangainian,shicongneigeyuanchudeshikongbufendezhuangtaiyanhuachulaide。xianzaishiyixuanwudoucainalekexuede、wulideshijianhekongjiangainian,shiyixuanwubeikexuehuale,shiyixuanwuduobanzhizhidaosanweikongjianheyiweishijian,kongjianshizhang、kuan、gaosanwei,shijianshixianxingdeyiwei。tamendoushikeceliangde、kejisuande。shiyixuanwubufanduikejiliangdeshijianhekongjiangainian,shiyixuanwuderichangsiweibeizheigeshijianhekongjiangainiansuozhanlingle,danzheishigenbendema?haiyoubiedekenengxingma?youfeikexuedeshijianhekongjianjingyanma?ruguomeiyouleqitadekenengxing,neimeshiyixuanwushijishangdouhuibianchengjiqiren,duibudui?yongbuzhezaizaoshenmerengongzhinengjiqiren,shiyixuanwuzijijiushijiqiren,zhishengxialecelianghejisuan。yishurenwenxuekejiudoubuyaole,zhijiezailixueyuanlisheyigejiaoyanshihuozheshiyanshijiuxingle。

十一选五shiyixuanwudangranbuhuizheiyangxiang,shiyixuanwuyebunengrenqitunsheng,shiyixuanwushiyaodikangde。nicaihehaidegeerdezhexuedougouchengleyizhongdikangdeshili。haidegeerzheigeshihoushuo“shi-kong”,shuo“shi-kong”shiyizhongshenmide“kailie”,jiushinicaineilishuode“pengzhuang”。shiyixuanwurenweitamenguyiyongzheizhongciyude。xiandaizhexuehexiandaiyishuyidingyaolijiezheiyidian,yaobaituogudianhexie、lixingheguizedesiweixiguan。nicaide《beijudedansheng》weishenmerucizhongyao?shiyinweitashouxiangaosushiyixuanwu,yishudebenzhibuzaiyuhexie、lixingheguize,erzaiyujinzhang、chongtuhedouzheng。zheijiushixiandaixingmeixue。jintianshiyixuanwuruguohaichenjinzaichuantonghexiemeixueli,shiyixuanwujiunanyilijiexiandaiyishuhedangdaiyishu。shiyixuanwuxiandairendeshenghuoshijiefenmingyijingbianle,xiandairendejingshenjiegouhejingshenzhuangtaiyijingbianle,weishenmeshiyixuanwudeshenmeijingyanhaitingliuzaichuantongdehuogudiandehexiemeixuezhongni?yuanyinzaiyuzheizhongmeixueguan、zheizhongshenmeixiguanshizuiziranbuguode,shizuibuxuyaoliqide。wagenadangnianshizenmeshuode?tadangshishuo: ziranbenshenjiubuhexie,weishenmeshiyixuanwuyaochuangzaohexiedeyinle?wagenadeshuofashiduide。yiqianhexie、guizedeshenmeibiaozhunyijingbuzaishishiyixuanwuzhudaoxingdeshenmeijingyanle,buzaishiheshiyixuanwuyijingbianhuadejingyanfangshile。nicaishuo“pengzhuang”,“pengzhuang”henzhongyao,yaoshishengmingzhongmeiyou“pengzhuang”dezhangli,neihaiyoushenmeliliang?haiyouhaidegeershuode“kailie”,wa,liekaile,erbushimihele。daodishenmedongxiliekaile?shishenmide“shi-kong”liekaile。

十一选五haidegeerweishenmeyaoshuo“shi—kong”?shiyixuanwuxianlaikanshijianyukongjiandefenlichuantong。chuantongdeshijianhekongjiangainiandoushihenzirande,doujiyuziranshenghuoshijiedewujingyan。zheigetaiziranle,wudeyundonghuozhewudexingtai,tadezhangkuangaodejiegou,zheixiedoushiziranerrande。jindaiwulixuebazheizhongzirandeshijianjingyanhekongjianjingyanchouxianghua,bashijianxianxinghua、weiduhua,youbakongjiansanweihua,chengle“jueduikongjian”。kongjianchenglex、y、zsanwei,ershijianchengleyiweit。zheizhongkexuedeshijianhekongjianguanyijingchengleshiyixuanwudexiguansiwei。yizhidaonicai,dagaizai19shiji80niandaidezhongqi,takaishifanduizheigechuantong,shuosuoyouzhixiandoushipianrende,shijianbenshenshiyigeyuanquan。zheishihouhaimeiyouaiyinsitandexiangduilun,nicaiyaobiaiyinsitanzaojishinian。aiyinsitanrenwei,shiyixuanwubunengbashijian、kongjian、wuzhi、yundongfenkailai,meiyoujueduishijian,yemeiyoujueduikongjian,shijianhekongjianshixiangduide。aiyinsitansuoweibunengbashijian、kongjian、wuzhisanzhefenkai,shouxianshifanniudunwulixuede。niudunrenwei,jueduishijian、jueduikongjiangenwuzhimeiyouguanxi,tahaoxiangshigouchengyigerongqi,shiyixuanwukeyiwanglimianfangwuti,erqieshikejiliangde。aiyinsitanshuo,zheijiubuduile,zenmekeyibashijianhekongjianyuwuzhi、yundongqufenkailaini?shiyixuanwurenweinicaiconglingwaidejiaoduyijingdadaolezheizhongsikao。zheigeshijianhekongjianshibenyuanyitide,fenkaishihoumiandeshi。nicaisuoweide“shunjian”jishi“shizhijian”youshi“kongzhijian”。

neime,zenmelailijiezheiyangyizhongshi-kongbufen,zheizhongbufende“shi-kong”、benyuanxingde“shi—kong”ni?xiamianshishiyixuanwudelijie,buyidingdui。haidegeershizai《zhexuelungao》zhongtichuzheigesixiangde。zheibenshushishiyixuanwuzijifanyide。shenmejiao《zhexuelungao》?jiushiyibenshuxiehaoyihoubuzhidaoqushenmemingzi,jiujiaolezheigeshuming。xiangshiyixuanwuzheiyangde“biaotidang”shijianjuebuhuiqizheizhongshumingde,shumingyeshimanzhongyaode。nikan20shijilianggezuizhongyaodezhexuejiadezhuzuo,chabuduoqiletongyigeshuming,zaiweitegensitanneilijiao《zhexueyanjiu》,zaihaidegeerneilijiao《zhexuelungao》,douhaowuliao。tamenzhisuoyiliangeshumingdouqubuchulaile,shiyinweijiuzhexueqishuyijin,tamenzuodeshilingwaiyizhongxinzhexue,yongchuantongzhexuedefangshiyijingwufamingmingle。erqienikan,zheiliangbenshudoubushitixihuade,doushi300gezuoyoudepianduanhebiji,youyiduanyiduanwenzizuchengde。zheigeshiyixuanwubuzhankaishuo。

shiyixuanwurenwei,haidegeerde《zhexuelungao》shi20shijizuishenmideyibenshu,tebiebuhaodong,shiyixuanwuzuoweiyizheshiyixuanwuyemeiwanquangaodong。shiyixuanwushizhelailijiesuoweide“shi—kong”。zheigeshi-kongbufende“shi”he“kong”yiweizheshenmeni?“shi”jiushishiyixuanwucishicikezhengzaichengshoudezheizhong“liushi”,zheizhong“liushi”shiwangwaituiyide,shiyizhongyouneierwaide“yili”(entrückung),yongqianqihaidegeerdeshuofa,yekeyishuoshiyizhongyouneierwaide“zhanchu”(ekstase)。shiyixuanwucishicikejiuzaichengshouzheizhong“liushi”,shiyixuanwukandechulai,jintiantongxuemenduishiyixuanwuhenyouhao,muguangshiwenroude,ruguoshiyixuanwujiangdebuhao,jiangdehaowuliao,dajiajiuhuixionghendikanzheshiyixuanwu,neimezheige“shi”de“waitui”jiubudayiyangle,zheige“liushi”jiubudayiyangle。ruguoshuo“shi”shiyizhong“waitui”,yizhongyoujinjiyuandechuli,neime,“kong”jiushiyizhong“neitui”,shiyizhongyouwaierneide“neihua”。gangcaishiyixuanwujiangle,cikezaizuogeweiyouhaodikanzheshiyixuanwu,haowudiyi,zheige“kong”detuiyijiubijiaohao,shiyizhongxiyin,xianghudexiyin;danruguodajiayongyizhongjinzhangde、huangluande、kongjudemuguangkanzheshiyixuanwu,neimezheizhongtuiyijiubijiaomafan,duishiyixuanwugouchengyizhongjudadeyali,zaizheigeyalixiashiyixuanwushihuisuoxiaode。suoyi,zheiliyouyige“shi—kong”bufende“shi”he“kong”,zheige“shi”shiyizhongwangwaizoude“liushi”,er“kong”zeshiyizhongyouneierwaidexiyinheyali。zheishihaidegeerxiangjiangde“shi-kong”,shizaiyigejutideyujinglimianzhenshidefasheng。shiyixuanwusihuyebunengshuo,zheige“shi”shizhuguande,zheige“kong”shikeguande,zaicishicikefashengdehaimeiyouzhukezhifen,shiyixuanwuchengshouzhe“shi”yiyishangdeliushihuowaitui,yiji“kong”yiyishangdeyinheyahuozhewaitui,zheicaishizuiyuanchuyiyishangdeshi-kong。zheishiyouyiside,shiyixuanwuhaimeiyouxiangdetebieqingchu,haidejinyibushenrusikao。

renzai“shi—kong”zhi“shunjian”zhongchengshouzheizhongnei—waiyuwai—neidetuiyi——waituiheneitui。zheizhongxiangwaiyuxiangneidetuiyishiyizhongzaicishicikeyibingfashengde,yekeyishuo,waihua—neihua,chu—jin,liushi—jiena,zheiyangyixie“zhijian”guanxishizaicishicikeyibingfashengde,zheiyangde“zhijian”jiushishiyixuanwushijichengshoude“shi—kong”。haidegeerzai“shikong”zhongjianjiayihenglaibiaomingzheizhong“zhijian”guanxi。shiyixuanwudagaikeyishuo,chuantongyiyishangdeshijianhekongjianshibeichouxiangdexianxingweidu,er“shi—kong”shiyaochengshou(tragen)de,shiyaoshiyixuanwu“kang”zhede。shiyixuanwumeishimeikedouzaichengshouzheizhong“shi—kong”,tashijutide,“shi—kong”yiyishangde“shi”deliushihewaitui,yiji“shi—kong”yiyishangde“kong”dexiyinheyali。tamenshishiyixuanwudangxia“kang”zhede,huozheshuo“shou”zhede。zheizhongyuanchudeshikongjingyanshiwuyiyanbiaode,shibuwushenmide。shiyixuanwugangcainulijiejiebabadishuolexuduo,yeweibijiushuodaodianzishangle。

十一选五zongzhi,haidegeerdedazhixiangfashi,chuantongbeiweiduhuade“xianxingshijian”he“chouxiangkongjian”bushiyuanshengde,ershiyanshengde,shicongtasuowei“shi-kong”jishenghuoshijiezhongzhenshifashengdejutide、zhengtideshi-kongjingyanzhongpaishengchulaide。

san、yuanxingshijianguandeyiyi

xianzairangshiyixuanwulaizuogezongjie,laijiangjiang“yuanxingshijianguan”deyiyi。shiyixuanwushangmianjiangle,nicaide“xiangtongzhedeyonghenglunhui”xueshuojishiyixuanwutigongleyizhongxinxingde、feixianxingdeshijianlijie,yizhongzhuanzhuyudangxiashijihuashengchengde“yuanxingshijian”guan。“shunjian”shichuangzaoxingde“shunjian-shiji”。“yuanxingshijian”bushikexuejisuandeshijian,ershiyishuchuangzaoxingde“shiji”——buyinggaishuoyishuchuangzao,erwuningshizai“renrendoushiyishujia”yiyishanglaishuode,shiyixuanwumeigerendoushichuangzaoxingdegeti,meigerendouyouzheizhongchuangzaoxingshiji。zhiyao“shiji”hecheng,getishengmingshikeyitongguoqiyihuahechayihuadechuangzaoxinghuodonghuodeyiyide。yishudexingershangxuexingyoucihuodezhongxinqueren。jiezhedaolehaidegeer,tasuoweide“shunjianshijichangsuo”shiyizhongyuanshideshunjian—shiji(kairos)yuweizhi—kongjian(topos)yitiguantongde“shijian-kongjian”(“shi-kong”)。zheilishiyixuanwuyonglelianggexilawen,yigejiaokairos,yigejiaotopos,ji“shunjian—shiji”(kairos)yu“weizhi—kongjian”(topos)。zheizhong“shi-kong”bushiwulixuedechouxiangdejueduikongjian,ershi“weizhikongjian”,yigewutifangzaineierjiuyouyigeweizhi,yigeweizhijiushitadekongjian,suoyikongjianshiduoyangde,meigewutidouyoutadekongjian,douyouzijidetopos。“shunjian-shiji”yu“weizhikongjian”lianzaiyiqi,jiujiao“shijian—kongjian”,yige“shi—kong”xiangtongdejingyu,yizhongbenyuanxingdeweifenhuade“shi—kong”。yonghaidegeerdehualaishuo,zheijiushicunzaizhizhenlifashengdeyuanshijingyu;shiyixuanwurenweizheiyeshirenzaishenghuoshijielideshijichushenchengshou。shiyixuanwumeigerendouzaichengshou,douzaidanzhekangzhe,shiyixuanwudanzhekangzhe,shiyixuanwucainenghuoxialai,ranhoushiyixuanwucaikenengjinxingshijianhekongjianchouxiang,cainengcelianghejisuanshijianhekongjian。shiyixuanwushouxianyaochengshouzhe,yaoshishiyixuanwuchengshoubulele,kangbuxiaqule,haobicishicike,zaizuogeweitaixiongmengle,rangshiyixuanwushoubulele,zheishinihaiqujiliangma?jilianghaiyouyiyima?zheiyidianshiyixuanwuyidingyaonongqingchu,daodinageshigengweiyuanbende?zheishijishangyouhuidaoleqianmianjiangguodekangdehehamanzhizheng,daodishiyishugengyuanbenhaishikexuegengyuanben?zheijiushiwentisuozai,shiyixuanwushuodeshimeigerenzaishenghuoshijielishijidechushenhechengshou。

shijianweishenmeshiyuande?zhexuehekexueyijingzuochulezhengming,danshijishanggengzhongyaodeshishiyixuanwumeigegetiduizijishengmingdejingyan,duizijishenghuoshijiedelijie,zheicaishizuizhongyaode。shiyixuanwudeyisishishuo,shiyixuanwumeigerenyaozijiqujingyanhezhengming,zheigejingyanhezhengmingdeguochengyejiushimeigerenshengmingdezhankaihewancheng,zheicaishiguanjiandiansuozai。shiyixuanwumeigerendeshengmingjingyanheshijiejingyanshigetihuade、chayihuade,shiyixuanwugenbenjiubukenengyiyang。weishenmeshiyixuanwujintianhaixuyaozhexueheyishu?yuanyinzhiyishixiandaijishugongyezhengzaibashiyixuanwubiandeyimoyiyang,biandehaowuchabie。ruguoshiyixuanwujintianzheilizaizuode150gerendemiankongdoushiyiyangde,shiyixuanwujinlaikandaonimen,shiyixuanwuhuibengkuidea。weishenmejintianjingshenbingyuelaiyueduo?zhishaoyouyigeyuanyinshishiyixuanwudeganshouhejingyanchulewenti。nimianduideshiwudoushiyiyangdedongxi,nidejingyanbianwufaqueren,suoyinifahuangle,buzhidaozenmeban!nibuzhidaozenmebalianggebeiziqufenkailai,zheijiuyiweizhenidejingyanxuankongle,shilingle。zheigeshijieyijingtongyihuale,shiyixuanwuyijinglikaileshougongshijie,shiyixuanwujintianmianduideshiyigewanquantongyihua、tongzhihuadejixieshijie。suoyoudewutidoushibeijixiezaochulaide。zheishihoushiyixuanwudejingyanjiupiaoqilaile,wufaluodi,wufabaahebqufenkailai。suoyixianzairenqunzhongdejingshenbinghuanzhezhunianshangsheng,jushuoyijingdao17.5%le(dangranqizhongzhiyouyibanxuyaozhiliao)。zheiyangxiaquzenmeban?ruguojingshenbinghuanzhedebilishangshengdao51%le,shiyixuanwujiudezhongxindingyishenmeshizhengchangrenle。shiyixuanwuzuozhexuedeyinggaigaoqingchu,weishenmejintianjingshenbinghuiyuelaiyueduo?haiyou,shiyixuanwuzuozhexuedebunengzijihuanlejingshenbing,shiyixuanwubenlaijiushigaojingshenzheijianshide,ruguoshiyixuanwulianzijidejingshendouandunbuhao,haizenmequandunbierendejingshenni?nihuishuozhexuejianicaibushidejingshenbinglema?bushifenglema?zaizheijianshishang,shiyixuanwugengyuanyicainafuluoyidedeyigeshuofa: nicaishiyinweihuanlenaomeiducaifafengde。cishiqiebutan。nicaizhexueweishenmeyouliliang,shiyixuanwurenweitashizhongshiyaogaosushiyixuanwu,shijishangmeigerendeshenghuodoushimeigerenzijide,bixuzijiqu“kang”qilai,jiushigangcaishiyixuanwushuode“chengshou”,shiyixuanwuyaoqu“chengshou”,“chengshou”shidiyiweide,houmiancaiyouqitadejingyan,kexuedejingyan、wulidejingyandeng。

十一选五xiamianzheigewentishishiyixuanwuxiangzijitichulaide: yuanxingshijianshijishushenghuoshijiedeshikongjingyanma?zheishishiyixuanwuzuijinyiduanshijianzaisikaodewenti,danshiyixuanwuhaimeixiangqingchu。zheigewentiyoulianggeqianti,qiyi,shiyixuanwuzheigeshidaiyijinghuozheshuohaizaifashengyigebianhuan,jiziranshenghuoshijiexiangjishushenghuoshijiedezhuanhuan。chuantongdezongjiao、zhexue、yishudoushiziranrenleidejingshenbiaodafangshi。niqianwanbuyaoyiweinihaishigeziranren,shiyixuanwujintianbuguanzaijingshenhaishizairoutishangdoubeifeiziranhuale。shenmejiaofeiziranhuani?birushuojintianfadaguojiayijingyouchao20%dechengniannanrenmeiyouziranshengyudenenglile。zheishiyugongyehuadehouguoyouguan,renleidetiyehuanjingyijingbeiquanmianehuale,shiyixuanwudeshentiyijingbeichedigaizaole,nikanzhezijihaixianggeren,danyijingbushi100nian、200nianqiandeziranrenle。jingshenfangmianyeshizheiyang,shiyixuanwudejingshenyijingbeiguihua、beijisuan、beishujuhuahewangluohuale。shiyixuanwuhailidekaishoujima?shiyixuanwuxiangyijingbukenenglikaile,shoujibudanbirenhegongjugengzhongyao,bishubengengzhongyao,shenzhichengleshiyixuanwushentideyibufen。jiarushiyixuanwuzheigeshuofashichenglide,jirenleiwenmingyijingkaishicongziranrenleiwenmingxiangjishurenleiwenmingguodu,neimeshiyixuanwujiuyaotichuyigewenti: shiyixuanwujintianxuyaoshenmeyangdeshijianhekongjianjingyan?yinweishijianhekongjianjingyanshirenleishenghuoshijiejingyanzhongzuijibendeyaosu,qitajingyandoushiyishijianhekongjianjingyanweijichude。erqieshiyixuanwuyijingshuoguo,xianxingshijianguanshiziranrenleideshijianhekongjianjingyan,chabuduoshirichuerzuoriluoerxideshijianhekongjianjingyan,neime,shiyixuanwuyaokaolvyixiashiyixuanwujintiandezhutile: hezhongshijianhekongjianjingyanjianggouchengshiyixuanwuxinshidaide、xinrenleide、xinwenmingdeshikongjingyan?shishiyixuanwucongnicaineiyinfachulaide“yuanxingshijian”yijiconghaidegeerneilichanfachulaide“shi-kong”ma?

十一选五zuijinshiyixuanwuzongshihuitouqudunicai,faxiantadexuduodongxixuyaozhongxinlijie。dajiazhidaonicaiyouge“chaoren”gainian,jingchangbeishiyixuanwuwujie,shiyixuanwushuo“chaoren”zhishaoshigesunwukonghuozheaotemanzhilei,shenzhiyourenshuo“chaoren”shixitelezhileidezhengzhiqiangren。zheixiedoubudui。nicaishizenmeshuodeni?zai《chalatusitelarushishuo》xuyanzhong,nicaiyikaishijiangleyigegushi: chalatusitela30suideshihouxiashanle,xiashanyihouzaishanlinlimianpengdaoleyigejidujiaodelaoshengtu,wenta,shangdisidiaole,nizhidaoma?laoshengtushuo,shiyixuanwubuzhidaoya。chalatusiteladaganjingya,zheimedadeshiqingfashengle,nijuranbuzhidao。tajiezhejixuxiashan,laidaoyigezhenshang,zaizhenshangdajiadouzaikanzougangsidebiaoyan,zheixiejiushishiyixuanwuxiandairenle,shiyixuanwudouaikanbiaoyan,naliyoubiaoyanshiyixuanwujiuyongdaonaliqu。chalatusitelakaishigendajiashuo: shangdisile,shiyixuanwulaijiaonimenchaoren。chaorenshishenmeni?“chaoren”deyiyishi“zhongshiyudadi”,dengdeng。xianchangmeiyourenlita,juedetashijingshenbing。neishi1884nianqianhou,ouzhouhaishijidujiaodeouzhou,nicaijurangenrenmenshuo“shangdisile”,meibeirendasiyijingbucuole。

nicaizijiyehenqingchu,tashuoshiyixuanwudeduzhezai100nianhou,shiyixuanwudeshengyinyaozai100nianhouzhongxinxiangqi。“chaoren”deyiyizaiyuzhongshiyudadi,nicaitongshitichuyigegainianjiao“moren”,jiushi“zuihouderen”。zheilianggegainianhenyouyisi,shiyixuanwudoushi“moren”,jizuihouderen,shizuihoudeziranren;shiyixuanwubushi“chaoren”,neimesheishizhongshiyudadide“chaoren”?“chaoren”yu“moren”shishenmeguanxi?zheixiedouhaishiweijiedewenti。xianlaishuo“moren”。nicaishuo“moren”jiangbuduanbeiguihuahebeijisuanhua,shuodetaihaole,shixiangzainicaineigeniandaiouzhoudejishugongyecaikaishibujiu,haizhishidajiqishengchanshidai,nicaidoumeijianguofeijia,gengbuxiaoshuodianshihewangluole——feijishi20shijishangbanyewenshide,dianshiyaodao20shijizhongqicaichuxian,wangluozeshi20shijihouqicaiyoude。jintianshiyixuanwuzuofeijidaochuluancuan,jintianshiyixuanwudoubeiwangluokongzhile。nicainalizhidaozheixiea,dantaqueshuo: “moren”zhengzaibeijishuhua(guihuahejisuan)。zheinandaobuzhengshijintianziranrenleidezhuangtaima?shiyixuanwusuoyoude“moren”,shiyixuanwuzheixiezuihoudeziranren,doujinrubeiguihuahejisuandejinchengzhizhong,erhouhuoxuhui“beiyongsheng”——ziranshengmingtongguojishuerbuduanbeiyanzhang。zaizuodegeweinianqingpengyou,nimendeshenghuoshiyaozhongxinguihuade,bunengzongshixiangzhe60suituixiu,tuixiujinduoshao,zheiyangxiangjiuhenbugoule,nideyougengyuandadelixiang,deshexiang80sui、100suituixiu,shenzhihaigengjiudegongzuoshengya。ruguoshiyixuanwudeshoumingzaiyanzhangyibei,neimerenleishenghuodegegefangmianhegegeyaosudouxuyaozhongxinjihuale,zhuruzhiye、hunyin、jiating、daijiguanxizhilei,doumianlinzhongyaoguihuaheguiding。zheishi“moren”defangxiang,jiushitongguojishuerbeifeiziranhua。

“chaoren”zeburan,nicaishuo“chaoren”yaozhongshiyudadi,jiushiyaozhonghuoziranxing。neimesheishi“chaoren”ni?jiran“moren”shibeijishuhuadezuihoudeziranren,neime“chaoren”zhishiyizhonglixiang,zheizhonglixiangshishuoxuyaoyizhonglilianglaijiezhijintiandejishuhuajincheng,huifushiyixuanwudeziranxing。zheizhongliliangshishenmeni?zainicaineilijiushiyishuhezhexue,shitasuoweide“yishujia-zhexuejia”leixing。“yishujia-zhexuejia”zuoweiroutiyezaibuduandibeiguihua、beijisuan、beijishuhua,danzheigelixiangdeleixingchuandalerenleideyizhongdikang,yaodikangbuduanjiasudejishuhua,bunengjiuzheiyangfangrenxiaqu,ruguofangrenziranrenleidefeiziranhuajincheng,ruguojishugongyebameigerendoubianchengyimoyiyang,beitongyihuahetongzhihua,neishiyixuanwudeshenghuohaiyouyiyima?suoyishiyixuanwushuoguo,baoweigetiziyoushiyishuyuzhexuegongtongdeweilaishiming!getiziyoudeqiantishigetidechayixingheshuyixing。suoyi,duiyingyubuduanbeijishuhuadeziranshenghuoshijieyuxuyaoziranhuadejishushenghuoshijie,nicaitichu“moren”yu“chaoren”zheilianggexingxiang,eryounicaiqifachulai、youhaidegeerjinyibuzhankaidebenyuanxingde“shi—kong”jingyan,lidangbeilijiewei“chaoren”zhonghuoziranxingdedongliyaosu。zheishishiyixuanwudelijie。shiyixuanwubixuyaoyouzheizhongbenyuanxingde“shi—kong”jingyan,rangshiyixuanwuyi“chaoren”defangshiquchengshouzheigebeijishuhuadeshenghuoshijie。

十一选五haole,shiyixuanwudebaogaoyijingtaizhangle,zuihoushiyixuanwulaijiangjijudahuajiuyaojieshule。yishuhezhexuedeshimingshishenme?xianzaihuiguotoulaikan,xiandaizhexuezhizaipochu“xianxing-jisuanshijianguan”,kaiqileyizhong“yuanxingshijianguan”;dangdaiyishuzhizaichupo“jihe—chouxiangkongjianguan”,kaiqiyizhong“jushenkongjianguan”。shijianhekongjianzaizheigeyiyishangshiyitide,xiandangdaiyishuhezhexueshijishangyijingshizhexuehuadeyishuyuyishuhuadezhexue。shiyixuanwuyekeyishuo,zhuyaoyouxiandaisixiangkaiqidexin“shi—kong”guanshijuyougemingxingyiyide,tazaizhexueshangkaiqileyizhongguanyushijianhekongjianyijishiyixuanwudeshenghuoshijiedegengyuanchu、gengbenzhendejingyan,zheizhongjingyangengduodizaizhanhoudedangdaiyishuzhonghuodelehuixiang。




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