十一选五

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康宏逵: 吾师宪均

时间: 2018-06-29 19:50:42 点击:


编者按: 该文是康宏逵先生追忆王宪钧先生的文章。康宏逵先生治逻辑学,兼及哲学,曾任教于武汉大学等校,历经政治、学术坎坷,以学养深厚、见解纯正、观点犀利著称,深受后辈学人的尊重。其师王宪钧先生乃中国数理逻辑教育的开山之祖,早年曾负走德奥,后历任西南联大、清华大学、北京大学教授。中国几代逻辑学者,多出其门下。作者文风别具一格,平实中暗藏机锋,以洗练的笔墨勾勒出大时代背景下两代学人的生存状态。文中偶有艰深的专业术语和一般学人不够熟悉的人名,妄加注释恐伤文气并害读者的兴致,谨照原稿排印,分上、下篇。

十一选五wangxianjun、wangmaoyufufuyubenwenzuozhedefurenxuzengshou(zhong)heying,sheyu1991nian7yue


shang pian


漠视门第


十一选五   sheishuolishibuxunhuan?——xuetonglunzaiwengezhongxingguoyizhen,rujinshehuiyoufuguidazhongmendideshidai。nikan,xiehuiyiluzheyoujigedezuzongbushifuren、mingren、guiren?nenggouchengxianrenyuyinerpianbucheng,yijintiandemuguangkan,shishazi。

十一选五   keshi,yaobushiyougexueshengdangshiyixuanwumianwenxianjunshi,shiyixuanwukongpayongyuanmengzaiguli,buzhidaoxianjunshidezufujiushiwangyirong,qingguangxudidedishi,shibiejiaguwenjiazhidediyiren。taxiangshiyixuanwu“yinman”chushennianduonian,nanzhaohelijieshi。xiangbichushenmingmenwangzudedaofanershenzhineilimianzididuoweijiunangfandaiba。xianjunshichangxiaohuashiyixuanwuziyiweijianduoshiguang。shiyixuanwubeitawenqiguo: gaoguanzhizimeidaoyuezhongbianyinangkongruxi,feidabijieqianjiuqubulebadahutong,zuxiatingshuoguoma?shiyixuanwushuomeiyou,tashuo“shiyixuanwubujintingshuo,haiqinjian,shiqinghua[daxue]genshiyixuanwutongshideyigexuesheng!”


抱着三大卷《数学原理》发愁

   xianjunshi1933nianliuqinghuahouderizibudahaoshou,mingyishangsuanjinyuelindeluojiyanjiusheng,danjinlaobukendangtadedaoshi[1]。neijiniandegudanyukundun,tayanshiyixuanwutanguo,shuoshi“qibunan”;“meirenbang”;“wunaizhixia,zixueluosu”;“haoduodifangxuebudong,changchangyigerenbaozhesandajuan《shuxueyuanli》fachou”。jutashuo,zheiyang“caixiajuexinchuguo”,tashi“chuguocairumende”。

十一选五   xuanyaozijiduguo《shuxueyuanli》de,jiujingyoujigetongdu、xidu、shudu?daduoshu,shuobudingjuedaduoshu,kongpadoushimeiyouzenmedu,zhiliulanyixiachunluojibufen(yuezhanquanshu1/5,yebusuanshaole)bianzidatuitanggu。xianjunshitianshengqinjinshuxue,suoyijixuduxiaqu。tadeshuan《shuxueyuanli》zhongdeshuxueyuanli,shiyixuanwuzirenshiyizhiqingzhe。jideshi60niandaimounian,weilijiewanghaodeguaiyixitong∑dedongji,shiyixuanwucengxiangxianjunshiqingjiaoluosuruhejianlishishulilunzhongdezuixiaoshangjiedingli。tabaochusandajuan《shuxueyuanli》,genshiyixuanwuyiqichachuxuyaoqukandiⅱjuan*214“daidejinguanxi”hediⅲjuan*310“shishuxulie”。zuixiaoshangjiedinglizaigaishuzhongbiaoshuwei“shishuxulieshidaidejinde”,tadezhengmingyilaiyudingli*211.64,zhinengdeziluosudehaiyuangongli,qiahaoshiwanghaoxitong∑keyibimiande。

十一选五   zaizhongguo,luosudesanbenshujiaohualezhengzhengsandaiaihaoshuliluojidexiaoxiaorenqun[2]。zhijiuqinghuareneryan,jinlaozaixian,xianjunshizaihou,bujiuyouchuyigewanghao,doushiyiluosuweishide,zheijiushishiyixuanwuweishenmeshuoyingguorenluosucaishi“zhongguoshuliluojizhifu”。

   raner,dao30niandai,luosuzhuzuozaizhongguodeyingxiangyijingqiaoranshengbianle。dangchujinlaoxueluosu,xingfendianzaikonglei,zaizhiyanmingtidecunzaiyuyi,zaigezhongyunhangainian,zaimozhuangcixiaoqufadengdeng,yushuxuewushe。xianjunshini?chuquzheixie,taxuehuileguanxililunzaisuanshu、fenxi、jihelunzhongxingxingsesedeyingyong,zhangwoleleixinglunhehaiyuangonglizailuojizhuyijichufanganzhongweimiaodezuoyong。

十一选五   xianjunshishigeluosumi。

十一选五   taxinshangluosudejuligongfu。shiyixuanwuxiangxin,tajidezhuluosusanbenshulisuoyoudelizi。

十一选五   tachengzanluosushizhutanlunzhengdehaoshou。tacengjingwenshiyixuanwuzhuyiguomeiyou,luosumeijiyigehaodedingyi、haodezhengmingzhiqian,zongxihuanxiantaolunruoganbuhaodedingyihuozhengming,youshihaitanranzhaogongchunniantougaichuzitabenren。weishenmezheiyangzuo?xianjunshishuo“luosuzirentounaojiandan,bufanfuxianghuichucuo。shiyixuanwuyetounaojiandan,suoyishiyixuanwuxueta。”

   xianjunshibaozhe《shuxueyuanli》fachou,buxiqi。neibushurangrenfamengdedifanghenduohenduo。dagaifanshu“yanyikexuefangfalun”dewenti,luosujiumianbulefanhutu。youdetahuichengrenwuzhi,youdetayaomenghunqici,danbuzijue,haimenghundezhenzhenyouci。xianjunshineiyanghaoxueshensideqingnian,nengbujuedesishierfeime?


维纳的指点

   xianjunshichuguodangtoubenhefangshenshengdenanti,jiuyibujue。tuodao1935niancaihuodeyigeshizhiguojiandejie: toubengedeer,neigejushiguamuxiangkandeluojijiexinxing。

十一选五   neiyinianmeiguoshuxuejianuobote·weina[3]laiqinghuajiangxue,jinlaoyicinantiqiujiao。weinabujiasisuolijiangedeer,liyouhenjiandan: dangjinshuliluojidezuigaochengjiuwozaigedeershouli,tadexuewenmeiyourenzhendong,yincizhiyoudaoweiyenaquzhijiexianggedeerxue。jinlaobenmeiyouzhuyi,zhangshenfujiqitarenyoufenfenfuhe,henkuaijiuxingchengle“feigedeermoshu”deyizhiyijian。

十一选五   weinadehuahuoxuzhengshitazijidejingyanzhitan。1913nian“shentong”weinaconghafodaojianqiaoqugenluosuxue,zhengshiyidangshishuliluojidezuigaochengjiuwozailuosushouliweiliyoude。weinahaiyincizaozaobiandui《shuxueyuanli》degaijinzuochuyixianggongxian: bayouxuduihaiyuanweiwuxudui,congerbaguanxihaiyuanweilei、baguanxiyansuanhaiyuanweileiyansuan。

   shihoukan,weinadejianyiyouhendademangmuxing。tagaibianlexianjunshideshenghuodaolu。xianjunshishuo,zhiyaoqudeao,neime,zhiduoxuedaoouzhanbaofayejiubudebuhuiguo——tahaichaleyiju,“shiyixuanwukebushijixianlin。”——erzaimeiguokongpahuiquanranbutong。


“现在么,集合论”

   xianjunshi1936nianzaibolindaxue,suihouliangnianzaiweiyenadaxuehemingsitedaxue,qijianzaiweiyenadaxuezhucesangexueqi,ji1937nianchunji、xiajiyu1938nianchunji。rucilingluandeanpai,juxianjunshishuo,quanshiyinweishengpacuoguolegedeerdeke。xiangbudaogedeeryixiangpajiangke,jiashangneiliangsannianyiyuzhengpinfanfazuo,daotoulaixianjunshizhitingshangyimenke,jiushi1937nian5zhi6yuede“jihelundegonglitixi”。

   gedeeryaojiangjihelun,yiliaozhizhong。dangnian2yueweisimanyinxianjunshiqujiangedeerdeshihou,gedeeryijingmingbaidibiaoshi,tadebuwanquanxingdinglishiyibandeshuliluojigongzuobuzaiyougenbenyiyi,“xianzaime,jihelun[caishiyouguandajude]”。zaigedeerxinli,butebiezhongyaodeketijiubuzhideyanjiu。

十一选五   chuhuxianjunshiyiliaodeshi,gedeershuozheihuashiyiranchengzhuzaixiong。shishishang,haizai1935niangedeerjiufaxianlekegouchengji,jiuliyongkegouchengjizhengminglexuanzegonglidexiangduiyizhixing。zhongbingdanwutazhengliangnian,erjintajueyizai“jihelundegonglitixi”zheimenkeshanglaigongkaizheixiexinjieguo。anxianjunshidekanfa,rucibuwenduixiangdefanchang“kecheng”kulexiangtazijizheiyangzhunbeibuzudexuesheng,dangxiashouyizhehenkenengzhiyoujiangkezhebenren。xianjunshiliaozhongle。xianyichaming,gedeeryibengongzuobijideneifengmianshangyongsujixiezhe“1937nian6yue14rizhi15riyejianbenzhishangfaxianlianxutongjiashe[deyizhixingzhengming]”。zujiangedeeryongtadejihelunkechengzuoletayouyixiangweidafaxiandeqianzou。

   buguo,zaiketangshang,gedeercongweiyanjilianxutongjiashe,zhigujiangjiexuanzegonglideyizhixingzhengming。xianjunshicengjinggaosushiyixuanwu,zhenggezhengmingdesilubingbuqite,wufeishiyicengyicengyinjinkegouchengji(ziranshaobulequjixian),shizhongbuyuanyinxuanzegongliyoushizhongnengweichixuanzegongli,zhizhixingchengzuihoudemoxing。lingyifangmian,xuduoxijieshifenjiuchan。yuanyinzhiyizaiyugedeerneishihaihenyizhong《shuxueyuanli》,tasuowei“kegouchengji”shizhiluosudefenzhileixingpuxiyanshendaochaoqiongshikerongxudejihe,zheishikegouchengjideyixiexingzhiyuanbujihoulaijiangdeqingxi。xianjunshitixingshiyixuanwuzhuyi,gedeerlunbuwanquanxingyulunlianxutongjiasheliangxiangdagongzuodouzhezhongkaochale《shuxueyuanli》xitong,gaixitongzaiyuanshuxueyanjiuzhongzuoyongxiajiangshixiangdangwandeshi。

   xianjunshizhituichongxuezhegedeer,butuichongjiaoshigedeer。taxiangqizaiweiyenatingkedemouxiehuajiqingjing,zongrenbuzhuxiaohuagedeerjianzhishige“daxuedan”。shiyixuanwucaizheishiweiyenadediaopixueshengzengsonggedeerdeyahao,zhizheigehuojizhizhizuoxuewenyezhihuizuoxuewen。


绍尔茨及其柏拉图主义

   gedinggendaxue,xierboteganglingdedanshengdiyushiyanchang,yiduchongdangguoquanshijieshuliluojidezhongxin。nacuidangjuhaobuliuqingdicuihuilezheigezhongxin。zaineiyihou,“deguozhiyoumingsitedaxuehaizaizhengchangjinxingyuanluojiheyuanshuxueyanjiu”[4]。zheihuachuzixierbotedezhushougencenzhikou,xianjunshiyiweiyingdangshushi。mingsitedeluojijiashifenhuoyue,changyaobieguotongxingcanjiatamendexueshuhuodong,xianjunshizaineilijieshibushaoren,liruhelandee.w.beite。

十一选五   xianjunshiyongyuanhuaizheganjizhiqingtidaomingsitedelaojiaoshoushaoerci。tashuotazaibolin、weiyenadabufenshijianxueleshuxue,daomingsitecaitingshaoercijiangwanzhengdeshuliluojike。zaixianjunshikouli,shaoercijiushihaojiaoshidekaimo。shaoerciyuanxishenxuejia,chuyuaihaoerzhuangongluojiyushuxuejichu。xianjunshijuede,shaoercihenlijiefeishuxuejiaxueshuliluojidemafan,henkenengyinweitabenrenyeshibanluchujia。

   xuduorenzhizhishaoercishizhumingdeluojishijia,buzhitayeshixianhedeshuxuezhexuejia。taliuyoumingzhu《zuoweiyangekexuedexingershangxue》(1941)。tabazijidezhexuemingmingwei“r-xiuzhengdebolatuzhuyi”,“r”daibiaoluosu,“r-xiuzheng”shizhitayongluosudeleixinglunlaibaozhengbolatuzhuyishuxuedeyizhixing。shenzhizaijishuxingdeshuliluojizhuzuoli,tayehuibulinpianfulaitantaxinaidebentilunyurenshilun: wuqiongdekeguanshizaixing,paizhonglvdepubianyouxiaoxing,shuxueshijiedekezhixinghebukeqiongjinxing。shaoercishiluojishizhengzhuyidekepadediren,dagaihaishihuyushuliluojijiedikangweiyenaxieshuorenqindediyiren。xianjunshizaizhexueshangshibushishouguoshaoercideyingxiang?meitingtatanqi,buganfangzongzijidexiangxiangli。


也有人渣

   deaoliuxueshengyoushizaibolinjuhui,xianjunshiyinerduoleyixiexiangshizhe。tachangtiqihushihua、chenshengshendenglaoyou,quanzaixuejie。shiyixuanwuwentakeyoufeixuejiede,ruguanli。tadadao“zenmemeiyou?haiyouxuejingchadeli。liruyouweixingxu,zhangdezhengoushenqi,jushuorenpinjicha。”shiyixuanwudahu: “zheikeqiaole!shibushixu××,houlaidangguojingchajuzhangde?dequeshenqi,liuyipiexiaohuzi。shiyixuanwumeimeiderumubeitapiandaoshouyourengdiao,tagaozheijiahuogaolejinian,qiancaihaojinyegaobuxialai。”xianjunshichijingbuxiao,lianshengshuo“zhenqiao,zhenqiao。”


创业十年: 从再学习开始

   xianjunshicong“erli”dao“buhuo”deshinian,duitabenrenjizhongyao,danbujinjinduitabenren。neishitahetacongshideshuliluojijiaoyushiyeyibubudengshanggaofengdeshinian。

   1938niandi,xianjunshicongcongganwangkangrihoufangkunming,yumuxiaorenyuanhuihe。congcizhijiaoyuxinanliandajiqinghua,weiyiliwaishi1945nianquchengdoumoudaxuejiangke,jiangdejuranshitaconglaiweijiaoguode(luyishishide)motailuoji,yingduifangsuoqingye。taquebudagantui,yinweitayaodaochengdoujiantaxinxiangwangzhide——houlaizhongchengshiyixuanwudeshimude——wangmaoyunvshi,jihuinanxun。

   zailianda,tameishaojiaoputongluoji,jiaodejihao,liandazhexuexizhurentangyongtongxichengta“putongluojidawang”。tadezhuyaogongzuozeshiweizhexue、shuxueliangxidegaonianjibenkeshengheyanjiushengjiangxuanxiuke,baokuoshuliluojiyuposujihelun。

十一选五   xianjunshiyixiangleyuchengren,ziconghuiguojiuzaibuke,dushushenduo,shouxianshigedeerxiangtatuijiandejiben: xierboteheakemande《lilunluojijichu》、haosidaofude《jihelun》、aierbolangde《zhengminglunyanjiu》。aierbolangdexiaocezidangshiwuyingyi,weiyaoduta,xianjunshixuelefawen。ciwai,1940niangedeerfabiaozhuanlun《xuanzegongliheguangyilianxutongjiasheyujihelungonglideyizhixing》,xianjunshiyejiqirenzhendixueguo,shiyixuanwufaxian,zhidao1964niantahaijideqizhongdexijie。


添点花絮

十一选五   xinanliandadangrankeyijiaozuozhongguojiaoyushishangdeyigeqiji。guanyutadechuanshuo,shizaigouduole,kongpazaoyidadashizhen。shiyixuanwuzheilihaiyoujitiao,jingxianjunshihezhengguode。

十一选五   shiyixuanwucengoujianliandajinbuxueshengbiandexiaokanwu,jianglelianggegushi。yishuoyangwuzhijitaoyangongchandang,zongzaiketangshangma,shenzhihuanghejuekouyeshuoshigongdangsuowei。yishuoshenyoudingcongbuhaohaojiangke,youshisuixingzhisuozhi,suoxingjixueshengyanshikunquzhengqiangshizenmeyangde。xianjunshiyoupinglun: diyigegushimeitingshuoguo,diergegushijueduikenengzhen。

   chenxiuzhaixianshengtingshuoguoyigegushi: chenkangjiangxilazhexue,shenyoudingliujinquxitingbushuo,haizongtixienandadewenti。chenkangrenweishiguyidiaonan,youyihuirenbuzhule,zhizhejiaoshimenshuo: “qingnichuqu,shiyixuanwushihunfanchide。”xianjunshitinghouyoushuo“jueduikenengzhen”。tashuoshenxianshengzaitaketangshangyezongtiwenti,ta“wusuowei”,erhu[shihua]xianshengjiu“henfangan”。

十一选五   xianjunshibugongwei“guairen”,buzhiyicishuo: mingmingzhengchangjiudakebubizhuangqiangzuoshi,“guai”dengyu“xuewenda”ma?


三种讲义残部

   shiyixuanwuzaiwengezhongyishiyiyangbaobei,shixianjunshidangnianjiaoxuanxiukedesanzhongcancunjiangyi,shuliluojiliangzhong,jihelunyizhong,gongji20cezuoyou;zhizhielie,junxiyouyin,neizhongyizhonghaishixianjunshiqinshoukedegangban,yiwangerzhi。zheixiejiangyiwuliwaidiquanbushianzuiyibenzhengjingdeshuxuetilizhuanxiede,sihaomeiyouzhexuetaolun,jihumeiyoufeixingshishuoming,yehenshaojuli。shuliluojijiangyizhongyoujibenshiyixuanwukanbudong。jihelunjiangyizhongchuqujiangchaoqiongshude,henyoujiceshijiangjinrensuoweide“gudianmiaoshujihelun”,ruxiangbolankongjian、boruierji、susilinji(jiexiji)zhilei。shiyixuanwubumiannamen: zheiyangdejihelunke,yaoshijizhexuexixueshengjiang,tamenzenmechidexiao?


王浩下评断

十一选五   1994nianchu,weibangzhuwanghaoxie《gedeer》zhongyibenqianyan,shiyixuanwuxiangwanghaoxiangxizhuanshuguoyishiledejiangyicangaodezhuyaoneirong。tacainashiyixuanwudejianyi,zaiqianyanlixiechuzheimeyiduanhua: “xianjunshizaoniandeyixiangdagongjishibayejichengshudeshuliluojiyinjinlezhongguodedaxueketang。zheizhongluojidadachaoyuelehaiheluosude《shuxueyuanli》,zhengzhuanruxierbotexuepai、sikoulun、gedeerzaojiudexinguidao。”jushiyixuanwulijie,wanghaosuoshuo“yeyichengshudeshuliluoji”youjigetedianyuluosudeluojijiongranbutong:

   yi、shuxuegenluojifenlejia。shuxuezhizailuojizhishangerbuzailuojizhinei,keyiyoubuzailuojizhongdingyideshuxuegainian、buzailuojizhongzhengmingdeshuxueyuanli。“dashuxue”jihelunqudaile“daluoji”pm。

   er、yijieluojizilimenhu,bianchengjigegudianshuxuefenzhidezuidechongde“dibuluoji”,yinerbianchengluojixuejiaguanzhudezhongdian。gaojieluojizhidangpeijiao,yuanxianzaigaojieluojizhongbiaoshudeleiyansuanheguanxiyansuanchenglejihelundeyibufen。

十一选五   san、congluoji—shuxuexitongwaibulaishenshitamendeyuanshuxueyanjiuqudehefadiwei,qiticaiyekaishiduoyanghua,liruzhengminglunfangmiandeyizhixingwenti、diguilunfangmiandekepandingxingwenti、moxinglunfangmiandewanquanxingyujinzhixingwenti。

十一选五   si、xingshihuafangfadejuxianxingcongduofangmianbaolu,chanshengleluowenhan-sikoulundingli、tasijidezhenligainianbukedingyixingdingli、gedeerdediyihedierbuwanquanxingdingli、qiuqi·tulingdeyijieluojibukepandingxingdingli。


好桃李见端倪

   dangshiyixuanwushuoxianjunshikaideshuliluojikedengshanglegaofengdeshihou,shiyixuanwucaiyongguojitongyibiaozhun。jiushishuo,tadekebandaotongyishidaidebuguannayiguodedaxuedouyaosuanxianjinde。xianjunshicongbujieshou“weizhuangshudiyi”shidezhongguoteshebiaozhun[5]。sheinaneiyangyileimeiyanfengchengta,tahuirenweinishizaiwuruta。

   ruguodangnianjiangyihaibugou,neimetajiaochushenmeyangdexueshengshibushinengshuomingwenti?shiyixuanwucongbuyong“taolimantianxia”zanmeijiaoshi,youqigaoxiaojiaoshi,yinweilantaolanlimantianxiazhetaiduole。bixuyouxuanze,napayidingdezuiren。xianjunshicengjingyizanxudekouwenxiangshiyixuanwutiqiguodeshuxuexixueshengshiwanghao、wuguanglei、dingshisun。zaizheizhiwaidesihuyoutangzhisong。wanghaobubishuo,wu、ding、tangzaijiefangchuqiduanzandeshuliluojixuexirechaozhongqidehaozuoyong,shiyixuanwuyouerwen,zhijinweicongjiyizhongxiaoshi。zheibenkeyiyushiyigehaodeweilai。


下 篇


读怀旧信

   yinweixie《wanghaolaixinzhaichao》,shunbianfanlefanxianjunshijishiyixuanwudexin。tawannianmeixinbitanbing,huaijiudehuadaojihuconglaibushuo。danshi,zuoyefanchuyifeng,suiranyewenyishi,wen“zengshounenggaoshiyixuanwufou”,queshangganqilai: “‘duobinggurenshu’(menghaoranshiju),muqianyannanyuan62haomenkeluoque,yuxishilaoxiongpaitaerru,zongtanluoji,yinbaigan,shiyoutianyuanzhibie。”

十一选五   xinxieyu1991niandi,shuodeshiwuhuoshinianqiandeshi。shiyixuanwubujinxiang: neime,zaiwangqianni?yegan“paitaerru”bucheng?……shiyixuanwuchushixianjunshishizhi21sui,yidinghuiqingqingkoumen,jingjingdengtajiacaidamalaikaimen。

十一选五   zaishiyixuanwu,chufangtajiadeyinxiangshihenshende。taneitianshibaichenshan,xizhuangku,jiaoxiatayishuangheibuxie。tameichuchang,caidamaxianduanlaiyibeikafei,danshishuo“bushinide,xianshengyihuierjiudao。”“xiansheng”zuoxiahaoyihuiercaiwen: “nijiaokanghongkui?”

   jiyidexuanzexing,rengenrenzheiyangdebutong。ruogannianhou,fanshiyixuanwujidede,taquanwang,fanerzhijideshiyixuanwuneishimeiyoumianku,dongtianchuan7tiaodankukanghan。7tiaoli!taquanjiarenyikoutongsheng,zhenyoukounanbian。shiyixuanwumingmingjideshi6tiao。


陪十一选五啃洋书

   shiyixuanwuniandaxuedehouliangnianpengshang“buzhungeming”dedawenti。lveshengyuaq,shiyixuanwuzongsuanxiangmingbaileyaojuanqitaiduodedanaogongnengcaipeidang“gemingde”zhexuegongzuozhe,naixiangjijianglirendexizhurenjinyuelinshenqinggaixueluoji,lingxuanyitiaobaoxiaorenmindexiaojing。bujiu,biyelunwenxuantixiada。shiyixuanwukanzhong《lunfoudingzairenshizhongdezuoyong》,zhijuetixiaoeryouqu,bingbucengliaodaodaoshishishuliluojixuejiawangxianjun。

   anyueding,shiyixuanwumeizhouquxianjunshijiayici。tadezhidaofashibashiyixuanwurushidikanchengxiaoxuesheng,qinzipeishiyixuanwudumeiyibenshu。shuyoutazhiding,zhuyaoshi19shijihouqideluojimingzhu,ruxiangxigewatede《luoji》,baosangkuide《luojihuozhishixingtaixue》、bulaideleide《luojiyuanli》haiyouluosudezhangpianwenzhang《luojiyuanzizhuyizhexue》ji《lunmingti》。meiyouyizhonghaoken。

   xianjunshihenzunjingxuewendadechuantongluojixuezhe。tajianyishiyixuanwuquxigewatedeluojifoudingguandehelineihe,natazuolunwendezhongxin,qiewuhaogaowuyuan。buguo,chuantongluojizhongjiushichuantongluoji,tadezhimingquexianzhongyuposhishiyixuanwuyuanyuanpianliyuanjihua,fangfobuyirendeyizhiweizhuanyi。zuiyaomingdeshi,zairenhejiukuangjianeidouwufajifoudingzuoqiadangdeluojifenxi,zheizaidubaosangkuishiyijingbaoluwuyi。xigewatezheigerenhenyouyanguang,tajizhongshifoudingnengfoutigongbuchongdezhengmianxinxi。baosangkuiqueyouciyinshenchukongdongfouding(bare negation)quanwuyiyidejielun,renweifouding-kendingpanduanbixuyongtongyileixingde(yeshikendingde)fanduipanduan: danchengyongdancheng,quanchengyongquancheng,jiayanyongjiayan。shiyixuanwuxiangxiaochuzheizhongzhuzhangdehuangmiuchengfen,jieguofaxianbaosangkuide“foudingguize”chongqiliangshiyongyudanchengpanduan。

十一选五   weijishike,xianjunshibangshiyixuanwushoushicanju。zhanzaitajianeikuaixiaoheibangenqian,tajishiyixuanwujiangjieyijieluojidepanduanlilun,dianpolechuantongxueshuodetongbing。jinpingshaodekeliandeyidiandianxingongju,shiyixuanwuzheigexiaoxueshengjiuwuchugaizenyanggaizhengdaxuezhebaosangkuide“foudingguize”le。

十一选五   shuxuejieyeyoubaosangkuidetongzhi。bulaoweidexueshenggelisibugulaoshideyiyi,zhiyigaoyitao“wufoudingdeshuxue”。xianjunshijuedelejieyixiazhijuezhuyixuepaizheichangneizhengmeihuaichu,bufanduishiyixuanwufanfanhaidingcaichudexinzhu《zhijuezhuyidaoyin》。shiyixuanwuzhenqufanle,wanquankanbudong。yinweizijibuxing,shiyixuanwuduishuliluojidekewangfanergengnongliele。


抄他的讲义

十一选五   meiyoujitianjiuyaolikaibeida。shiyixuanwujielaixianjunshijiluojizhuanyeshangkeyongdeshuliluojijiangyi,ganchaoyifen。yutadexinanliandaxuanxiukejiangyibi,xinjiangyibuzhiqianduoshao,youdian“hanchen”,duishiyixuanwujinhouzixuedaohaishiyouyong。kandechulai,xianjunshiweipeihezhexuejiaoyudexuyaozuolexiejiaocaigaige。yougehaoli,zhijinbuwang。tajichulianggemingti:

   (1)youxieshiwushishiyixuanwuyongyuansuobunengrenshide,

十一选五   (2)yongyuanyouxieshiwushishiyixuanwusuobunengrenshide。

   tafenxijirenkan,(1)shibukezhilun,(2)budanbushi,erqiezhenghebianzhengfa。


局外人郑昕的苛评

十一选五   1961nian5yuezhonghuibeidabujitian,jiucongyiweishiyixuanwubuganxiaokandeqianbeikouzhongtingdaoduixianjunshibulidepingyu,jiaozuo“weimibuzhen”。shiyixuanwushilaigenxianjunshijinxiushuliluojide,queyouxingbeixizhurenzhengxinyuequchidunbianfan。zhengfurenfangshuxian——shiyixuanwujiqiqinjindeyiweiewenlaoshi——lingshiyixuanwudaojia,zaoyihedezuiyitaorandezhenggongbiankaishizangfourenwu。dayiruxia。qianyiduantanxuesheng: shiyixuanwubeibabaiqimeidaoli,lizehouzaorenbishiyeshiyuanwangde,zhurucilei,zenmeyouyidianchuxidejiuyaoshoudaji?houyiduantanxianjunshi: weishenmeshishibuqijing?liru,buguanxinquanguoxingluojitaolun,yipianwenzhangyebuxie。zhouguchengmenshuipingbugao,niwangxianjunjiugengyinggaixie。nishizhuanjiama!zhuanjiabujianghua,yaoniganshenmeya?niyoumeiaizheng,dajiadouhenzunzhongnima!

   linbie,zhenggongzhufushiyixuanwu: quanquanwangxiansheng。


和燧人氏以前的古人拼开饭店

十一选五   zhenggongchayi。tadekepingdeyinbiyusheshidangshizhongguoluojizonggejudehelixing(erfeihuangmiuxing),shishefagaishan(erfeidapo)zheizonggejudebiyaoxing。shishibirenqiang。jiefangchuqixianjunshidequeposhouzunzhong,yiduguiweixinzhongguoweiyideluojijiaoyanshidezhuren。kexi,tayenaihebudejisuxingchengdexinzhongguoluojixuezonggeju。zheizonggejudetedianshicongsulianbanlaideshuangzhongerzhongzhi: bianzhengluojiyuxingshiluojibingcun,zaixingshiluojineibuchuantongluojiyushuliluojibingcun。chuantongluojichanshengyuliangqianyunianqian,bianzheng“luoji”congheigeersuanqiyiyouyibaiduoniandelishi,shuliluojizeshi20shijidexinxingxueke。luxunxianshengshuodeweimiaoweixiao,zheixuduogegeburudedongxijizaiyichu,“zhengrushiyixuanwubeiyuelesuirenshiyiqiandeguren,pinkaifandianyiban,jishijielidiaohe,yezhinengzhugebanshu,huojimenjibuhuitongxin,shengyiyeziranbunengxingwang——dianpuzongyaodaobi”[6]。

十一选五   ziludashibeiqingxiashentanyilai,shiyixuanwuyezongaitiaotadeci。jiupinkaidezhongguoluojifandianlaishuo,tadebiyusuimiao,danyucedacuo。diyi,bendianyizhishengyixinglong,zhijinbudao。dier,bendianshengchanshengrou,huojimendoudegen“suirenshiyiqiandeguren”yiqizhizuoshengrou。zheijiukulexianjunshi。

   quanguoxingluojitaolun,shuobaile,jiushiyichangguanyuzhizuoshengroudechenfayaobuyaolaiyicigemingdedabianlun。xianjunshishi“putongluojidawang”,shenzhixinfazhizuochulaideyijiushishengde,yincibuxiangxiewenzhangtikongqianrenaodedabianlunzhuxing。

十一选五   shenzaidianpuzhonglidangbangganhuo,xianjunshiqingchu。zhengxinxianshengyinggaizhidao,tafabiaokepingdedangshi,beidaluojijiaoyanshidexinbianputongluojijiaocaizhengzaifuyin,《panduan》yizhangyouxianjunshizhibi[7]。raner,shushiyixuanwuzhiyan,wengeqianxianjunshiweiputongluojijiaoxuehuafeidaliangxinxueshiyizhonglangfei,baokuobianjiaocai,baokuoyulishifanzhenglunzhouyanxinggainian[8],baokuozhidaoshiyixuanwuxiebiyelunwen,baokuojijinlaozhubiandequanguoxingjiaocaidangshenmeguwen,……tongtongshilangfei。yijuhua,tajiugaizhigushuliluoji,yixinyiyidi。

   3+1 pinkaidezhongguoluojifandiandesanjiafendianzhizhong,chuantongluojiyijiaduda,zaimaozedong“xuedianluoji”deweidahaozhaoxia,zhouranpengzhangweibianbugedideliansuokuaicandian。shuliluojifendianxiaodekelian,bufangjushigengmingwei“3+1”tandian,yinweizonggongzhiyoubeidade3gehuoji(wangxianjun、yanchengshu、wuyunceng)jiashangzhexuesuode1ge(shenyouding)。

   shuliluojizaizhexuejienenggouhuodaojintian,haiduokuiyouzheimeyige“3+1”tandian。

十一选五   shuoshuoshiyixuanwuzijishoudeyi。1961nian5yuezhonghuibeida,couqiaoyanchengshuzaizhuchiyigeyonghushihuadejiangyizuoduwudeshuliluojitaolunban,shiyixuanwubianjiarujinqu,houlaiyingyuebaogaoguohengjindeyijieluojiwanquanxingzhengming。jidezhugeyintongyezaineigebanshang。

十一选五   shiyixuanwuxiangxianjunshitaojiaodediyigewentishirihoudezhixuefangxiang。dangshishiyixuanwuduikaernapudeguinaluojixingzhizhengnong,xianjunshichengrentawuzhi,danquanshiyixuanwushenzhong。tashuo,taxiangxin,shuliluojidizibuhoujuechengbuleqihou,wulunjianglaizhongdianfangzainali,zongyaoxianxuedajieguo,gedeerdejieguo、tasijidejieguo。shiyixuanwutingjinqule。1961nianxiaqiu,shiyixuanwuyiqixuegedeer。tayaoshiyixuanwujitajianggedeerwanquanxingdinglidehengjinzhengming,jianggedeerbuwanquanxingdinglidemosituofusijizhengming(butongxunchang,jiyuk-kedingyixinglilun),tahenmanyi。duiyufabianmademeiyigexijie,tadoukoudehenxi,gaodeshiyixuanwu“hunshenmaohan”deshishichangyoude[9]。

十一选五   chuqushiyixuanwu,xianjunshihaijiaoguojigeren,qizhongliangweitongxing,yimingchenhuowang,yimingchenbingquan。taliangdedaoxianjunshihaoping,dandouzhuanrenlejisuanjiyanjiu。

十一选五   nitudemimang xianjunshitiruoduobing。jinguanwengehouyouhuo17nian,youguamingdangguoduomingyanjiushengdedaoshi,qishiyijingjiaobudongle。

   luxunzai《weiyoutiancaizhiqian》lijiangguo“nitudeweida”。tashuo“zuotudegongxiao,biyaoqiutiancaihaiqiejin,fouze,zongyouchengqianchengbaidetiancai,yeyinweimeiyounitu,bunengfada,yaoxiangyidiezilvdouya。”xianjunshigandangnitu。tadaocongbushewangnongchutiancai,zhipanzhangchujiduohaohua。jieguoni,“yidiezilvdouya”!

十一选五   weishenmejiejuruciburuyi?xianjunshibenrenbibierengengxiangzhaodaan,meiyouzhaodao。


惜乎,淡泊而软弱

   zhongguoluojifandiandaodirongbuxiatadeyiminglaohuojile。1979nian8yue,quanguoluojitaolunhuizaijingzhaokai。zaiyiqiedouyaoxiandaihuadezongkouhaoguwuxia,xianjunshibaobingfuhuizuo《luojikechengyaoxiandaihua》debaogao,yiweiwanshitandeyuqijinyan: weizhuiganguojichaoliu,bendianshibushigaimaidianbanshushi,wangputongluojijiaocailihaodaitianyidianxiandailuojichengguole?

   shiyixuanwulaiyewan,cuoguolexianjunshibaogao,danganshangleciridetaolun,muduguozheigewenheyouwenhedebaogaojiqidexuanrandabo。lingtoudizhizhe,maozhuxijiejianguodewangfangmingye。tafayandezhongxin,wufeisanjuhua: shiyixuanwushitubaozi,budongshenme“xiandaihua”,niyoubashiyixuanwuzenmeyang?raner,peihezhongxindexianhuahenlanhenzhang,hen“bukeyishi”。shiyixuanwulvcixiangbota,junbeiyongshuangshouzhuaijinshiyixuanwudewuyuncengsuozu。wudishengjinggaoshiyixuanwushuo: wangfangmingkeshiyouxinzangbingde,qisilebuhaoshouchang。

   dangwanshiyixuanwuyaoquxianjunshijiayishi。xingqian,caobandahuiquanbushiwudezhouliquanqingshiyixuanwuqutafangjiantan,guanqimenlai,shenmixixide。yuanlai,tayaotuoshiyixuanwuchuankouxinjixianjunshi: zheilinaokaile,qingwangxianshengmingchenwubidaohuijiangxieanfurenxindehua,jinliangxiaochuwuhui,fouzekongpahennananshiyixuanwuyudingde[mingdan]xuanshangquanguoluojixuehuilishizhang。

   zhoudekouxin,shiyixuanwurushizhuandale。xianjunshijujuezaifuhuijianghua,zhifanfanfufushuo“budangjiubudang,benlaishitamenqingshiyixuanwudangde。”shiyixuanwuduixianjunshidejingyi,youranersheng。zhongguozhijinrengshiduixuewenjiayeyaoanguanxianlunshenjiadeguojia。suoyi,shiyixuanwuqingguorenjizhu,xianjunshiyeshigemeidangchengdelishizhang,haoguangrongde!

   “bijingshishusheng”yongzaixianjunshishenshangjueduibiyongzaizhouyiliangshenshangheshi,jinguanshihouyiweibazheijubianhucichangdeshifenxiangliang[10]。xianjunshixianrangengjieshenzihao,danshushengderuanruoxing——zhishuojiushidanxiao——zhongshengmeiyouqudiao。shiyixuanwuhenbaoqian,zaitagaoling73deneiyinian,haiyinweitazheigeruodiandafaganhuo。dangshitadanren《zhongguodabaikequanshu·zhexuejuan》luojibianxiezuzhubian,shiyixuanwurenchengyuan。benlaizhushianbujiuban,turanjiaohuanyaoqingchujingshenwuran,jinjiezhebianyourenyilunluojizuxianyouchengyuanmenbuhuixieshehuizhuyizhongguoluojidexintedian。yushi,mouyitian,zailuojizupengtouhuishang,jiuchuxianzheiyangdezhengzhi:


康: 新特点?莫非极端落后也算特点?

王(分明软了下来): 怎么不可以写十一选五的特点?例如,理论联系实际。

康(冲口而出): 十一选五最反对跟风。

王(大怒,站起来): 宏逵,你说谁?

康(也站起来): 王先生,别逼十一选五。你要是逼十一选五,那么十一选五说的就是王先生。[全场哑然]


   zheichangzhengzhidejieguoshishiyixuanwutuichuluojibianxiezu。

   henjiuyihou,hushihuaxianshengsixialishuoleyiju“tijihua”: “nishuowangxianshengfengpai,tashoubule。shiyixuanwuzheixierennagebushifengpai?”shiyixuanwueranle。renrenfengpai,sheizhiguoni?——buguo,shiyixuanwubingmeiyoushuoxianjunshishi“fengpai”。tabushi。


他是唯物主义者和超穷论者

十一选五   wengehouxianjunshipiqijianzhang,fangfobianleyigeren,weichangbuhao。shi1981nianba,tagen《ziranbianzhengfatongxun》zazhidemoujunzhijianyouyichangjiliedebianlun。yuanlaixianjunshixianggaikantouyilunshuxuezhexuezhongzhijuezhuyixuepaidewenzhang,buhekangaodemoujundekouwei。moujunbiandengmenkaidao,yaoxianjunshiantadeyisixiugai。jieguokexiang。shiyixuanwushineirenzouhouquxianjunshijia。xianjunshizhengfenfenran。jutashuo,neirenlianshuxuezhexuedejibenpaibiedoufenbuqing,koukoushengshengyonghu“jiegouzhuyi”suoyiyaoweibulaoweijiaohao,genbenbuzhigouzaozhuyizhezhengshifanjiegouzhuyizhe。youjuxianjunshishuo,neirenhenganxinkoucihuang,koukoushengshengfanduilieningde“wuzhidingyi”,genbenbuzhilieningbenrenfanfutixingwuzhigainianshibukedingyide。zongzhi,xianjunshirenwukeren,pailezhuozi,youshouzhongzhiguzhe。shihougaikanzhubianfandainianlaidianhuazhiqian,kenqiexiwangxianjunshibuyaochegao。xianjunshihaishichele。

   xianjunshiyoutazijidezhexuelichang。zaishiyixuanwuwei《shuliluojiyinlun》xiedeshupingli,shiyixuanwubazheizhonglichanggaikuowei“weiwuzhuyi+chaoqionglun”。taxingchengzheizhonglichangdeguocheng,shiyixuanwubuquanzhi,yebingfeiquanbuzhi。xianjunshizaonianshenshoujihelundeganran,youqinshougedeer、shaoercidexuntao,taxiangxinshuxuezhongchaoqiongduixiangyidingzaimouzhongyiyishangcunzai,shishuziranyouziran。danshi,tachengweiyigezijuedeweiwuzhuyizhe,kongpashizaijiefanghou。shiyixuanwupinfanchuruyannanyuan62haodezuichuneibannianduo,xianjunshichangdubolanrenshafude《makesizhuyizhenlilundeyixiewenti》dewenben。tabuhuiyan,tazaiyanjiufanyinglun。tajuede,lijiedetaicu,fanyinglunweimianhuangtang,danyongfanyinglunlaishuomingkexuerenshidenengdongguochengyouhenburongyi,yaoxiagongfu。tayuanyicongluojidejiaoduzuodiangongzuo。

   shiyuyuanwei。wengeqianxianjunshizhixieguoliangpianzhexuewenzhang,yitanzhenzhihanxiang,yipingweiyenaxuepaideyiyililun。liangpiandouyoujijulixinggongshidehenhua,danpipanzhishidoushishexiangtalilaizengyandeluojishizhengzhuyi,youqishitadeyuedingzhuyi。

十一选五   bufangshunbianyiti,wangfangmingsuozhuzhangde“xingshiluojidekeguanjichushirenleisiweideshehuizhiyuexing”,fanshaoyouluojizhexuechangshideren,juebuhuikanbuchutashiyizhongshifenfuqiandeyuedingzhuyi。xianjunshicongbugenshiyixuanwutanjiluojidataolunzhongde“sidamingdan”[11],dantingshuodataolundezhudaozheshangshiwangfangmingzhihou,yerenbuzhuxiaodao“taikexiaole。neihaibushiyuedinglundehua,haiyouyuedinglunma?”


《引论》了却宿愿

十一选五   《shuliluojiyinlun》(jiancheng《yinlun》)yu1981niandiwancheng,lequexianjunshihoubanshengdelianggesuyuan: bianyibuhaojiaokeshu,haishuliluojiyigeqingbai。

   taqinianxieshubuchiyu1963nian。zuichusihuyexingengda,genshiyixuanwutantaoguoyaobuyaozaishulijieshaoyidianjihelun(naizhidiguilun),houlaizijifoujuele。tadadingzhuyixiedebutaishenbutaiqian,bixinanliandaxuanxiukedejiangyiyaoqian,bibeidaluojizhuanyedejiangyiyaoshen。taweixieshuzuoguodaliangzhunbei,zhongwenguoyixiedewenshu,liruxierbote、beinaiside《shuxuejichu》shangjuan,guanyumingtiyansuanheguanyupandingwentidezhuanzhu,duoweishiyixuanwusuomoshengde。quanshuchugaowengeqianyijingcaocheng。

   wengecaijieshu,xianjunshijiugaibianyuanjihua,yaozaishuzhongzengjiayilishibufen,lequetadediersuyuan。zheibianshi《yinlun》dedisanpian“shuliluojifazhanjianshu”。mingmingshiyaohaishuliluojiyigeqingbai,tapianzhiqingmiaodanxiedishuo: shuliluoji“shichangbeiwujie”,“xiwangtongguolishishishi,nenggoudedao……chubudanzhengquedelijie”。

   shuliluoji“shichangbeiwujie”,genzizaisulian。sulianrenwuruqitudegenziyouzainalini?xiangbumingbai,zhijuedezheiyuwulixuezhongdeqingxingbujinxiangtong,danyeyoukebeidexiangsizhichu。19shijimoyilai,luojiyushuxuejichulingyuyigebiangejieyigebiange,qixinying、qishenkeshenzhishibiangedefaqizhezijiyebunengquanlijiede: kangtuoer、fuleige、luosu、xierbote、bulaowei、gedeerdoubuliwai。mianduizheixiebiange,lilaikaozuxunguorizidesulianzhexuejiefanergaoqile“wanwujiebeiyushiyixuanwu”deneiyitao,genbensangshilelijiexinshiwudeyuanwang。tamenbuxuexinluoji,zhiyiweizematamanshenshiweixinzhuyi、xingershangxuedewugou,ertamendeqingwufazeshiwangtashenshangpinmingpozangshui。xinletamen,nihuikanbuchushuliluojihaiyoushenmebu“fandong”debufen。

十一选五   youmugongdu,xianjunshidelishihaiyuanshixiangdangchenggongde。

   tajilibujirenliuxiacuojue,fangfoshuxuejichulingyubucunzaizhenzhengdekunnan,fangfo“sixiangchunzheng”dexuezhejiugaijixiwangyumouzhongwanlingyaofang。jiranruci,jirandaoluhaiyoudaitanxun,shiyixuanwubianjianyitasuoxingbachugaozhongouerchuxiande“anmakesizhuyiguandiankanlai”deziyangxishushandiao。tazhenzhuoyouzhenzhuo,zhongyutongyile。


“十一选五才不怕速朽”

   80niandaichumourishiyixuanwucongmoujunchudaolexianjunshijia,taguanxindiwenqimoujunjinlaizaiyanjiushenme。shiyixuanwudaqudao“zaiyanjiuzenyangcainengbuxiu。”xianjunshiyiliandebuxie,lengxiaodao: “shiyixuanwukantayidingsuxiu。”jiezheyoushuo“shiyixuanwuyeyiyang,shiyixuanwucaibupasuxiu。”shiyixuanwuyaranle。shiyixuanwuduixianjunshidejingyiyouyiciyouranersheng。

   zhuangzhiweichoudekutongshibushinengyongwujiezhidegongweilaidixiao?youyizhenzi,beidashixingjilaojiaoshoukaizhijiaozhounianjinianhui。xianjunshiyebeikaiguo。dantadepingyushi“rouma”,shi“exin”。jutagaosushiyixuanwu,tangyue“youdianezuoju”,zaijinianhuishangzhixiecishuotalijiedajiadekuzhong——buhaobushuoweixindehua。


难忘师恩

十一选五   1993nian11yue19rixianjunshiyinaizhuanyiqushi。maoyushimuxinshangshuo,“zhuyuanqiantajiao[tadexuesheng]xingtaotaozaishuzhuoshangxielexiangkanghongkuiheyiweibiaodizhiyi”。

   shiyixuanwushixianjunshidebuxiaosheng,tacengsancijiushiyixuanwuyushuihuo。

   1956nian,tamingmingzhidaoshiyixuanwuzaisufanyundongzhongbeizhiwei“fandangfenzi”,kaichutuanji,bujiuqiancaichexiaochufen,ranertabuxianshiyixuanwubuganjing,tongyidangshiyixuanwudebiyelunwendaoshi。shiyixuanwunenggouruluojizhimen,libukaita。

   1978nian,tamingmingzhidaoshiyixuanwuzaiwengezhongbeidingwei“xinshengzichanjiejiyoupaifenzi”,laogai9nian,rujinjueyiqulabancheduri,ranertakukuquanshiyixuanwuzhongcaojiuye,lashiyixuanwudaobeidadangtadebianshuzhushou。shiyixuanwunenggouxuluojizhilv,libukaita。

   1986nian—1987nian,shiyixuanwulunwei“wenhuagetihu”zhihou,tayaoshiyixuanwuqubeidajiangxue,yizaiyijiangxuedechoulaobushiyixuanwushouruzhibuzu。shiyixuanwunenggouzhijinrengzuoweihuodeluojixuezhecunzai,yelibukaita。


   [1]wangxianjun: 《yijinshi》。zaiyuliupeiyuzhubian: 《jinyuelindehuiyiyuhuiyijinyuelin》,sichuanjiaoyuchubanshe,1995nian。

   [2]zheisanbenshushiyingwenmingde《shuxueyuanli》,ladingwenmingde《shuxueyuanli》(yuhuaitehaihezhu),《shulizhexuedaolun》。

十一选五   [3]jiushihaocheng“kongzhilunzhifu”deneigemashengligongxueyuanjiaoshou。

   [4]gencen: 《shuxuejichuyanjiuxianzhuang》(1938),shourum.e.shabobian: 《gencenwenji》(1969)。

   [5]kanghongkui: 《youburenchenmo》。zaiyu《kexuewenhuapinglun》,2006niandi4qi。

   [6]yinzi《refeng》suiganluwushisi。

十一选五   [7]fabiaoshigaiming《panduanjiqizhonglei》,jian《zhexueyanjiu》1961niandi4qi。

十一选五   [8]cankan《panduanjiqizhonglei》disijie。

十一选五   [9]mouxuezheshuoshi“shidaozunyan”suozhi。cuole,shitianre。shiyixuanwudexuezheyetainengxinkoukaihele。

   [10]zhouyiliangxianshengshijiaoshiyixuanwu《zhongguoshi》dediyiweilaoshi,tadexueshihefengducengjinglingshiyixuanwuqingdao。

十一选五   [11]zhizhougucheng、mate、jiangtianji、wangfangming,dagaishibeijingdetongxingjiaochulaide。


   yuanzaiyu《kexuewenhuapinglun》2013niandi10juandi5qi




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