十一选五

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唐士其 : 全球化时代的社会公正

时间: 2010-08-11 21:11:00 点击:

核心提示: 社会公正是国家社会职能的基本内容之一,同时也是衡量一个国家社会职能行使状况的重要指标。用美国著名政治哲学家罗尔斯的话说: “正义是社会结构的第一要义,如同真理对于思想体系一样。”因此,“正义所保障的各种权利,不受政治交易或社会利益的考虑所左右。”...

十一选五    yi、shehuigongzhengshirenheyizhongrenleiquntideneizaixuyao

十一选五    shehuigongzhengshiguojiashehuizhinengdejibenneirongzhiyi,tongshiyeshihengliangyigeguojiashehuizhinengxingshizhuangkuangdezhongyaozhibiao。yongmeiguozhumingzhengzhizhexuejialuoersidehuashuo: “zhengyishishehuijiegoudediyiyaoyi,rutongzhenliduiyusixiangtixiyiyang。”yinci,“zhengyisuobaozhangdegezhongquanli,bushouzhengzhijiaoyihuoshehuiliyidekaolvsuozuoyou。”[1](pp.3、4)

十一选五    raner,duiyushehuigongzhengdeneihan,butongdesixiangchuantongqueyouzhefeichangbutongdelijie。xinziyouzhuyizhirenke“qidiandegongzheng”,jijianchishehuigongzhengjinjinyiweizhebuyinweirenhewaizaideliyouboduorenheyiweishehuichengyuanderenheyizhongfalvquanli,bingqierenweizheishiweiyinenggou、tongshiyeshiweiyibixuyouguojiayuyibaozhengdeshehuigongzheng,chaochuzheiyixiandudeguojiaxingweifanerhuidaozhishehuidebugongzheng。yinci,duixinziyouzhuyizhelaishuo,shehuigongzhengdehanyizaishehuijingjicengmianjiuzhiyiweizhezaifalvshangbaozhangsuoyourenpingdengdijinrushichang,zhiyushichangjizhizuizhongsuodaozhideshehuijieguowulunruhedoushigongzhengde。huanyanzhi,xinziyouzhuyixiangxin,zhiyaoqidiangongzhengzejieguozirangongzheng。ruguoyangeanzhaozheiyangyizhonglijie,neimeguojiajibenshangjiumeiyoubiyao,yemeiyourenheluojiyijuxingshishehuiziyuandezaifenpeizhineng。

   lingwaideyixieziyouzhuyizhe,birushangmiantidaodeluoersizetichuleyizhongyuxinziyouzhuyixiangdangbutongdezhengyiyuanze。luoersiqiangdiao: “renherendouyoupingdengdequanlixiangyouyuqitarentongyangdezuiguangfandeziyou;duiyushehuiyujingjidebupingdengyinggaianruxiadefangshijiayianpai,shiqi(1),keyiqiwangduisuoyourenyouli;yiji(2),zhiyuduisuoyourengongkaidediweihezhiweixiangguan。”[1](p.53) luoersibingqieqiangdiao,dierxiangdiergexiaoxiangbixuyouxianyudiyigexiaoxiang。yuxinziyouzhuyideshehuigongzhengyuanzexiangfan,luoersiqiangdiaodeshijishangshijieguodegongzheng,yejiushishuo,panduanyizhongshehuizhengzhianpaishifougongzheng,bixugenjuqiduirenmenshijideshehuidiweijishehuizhuangkuangsuochanshengdeyingxiang。tongshi,yaobaozhengrenheyizhongbeiyunxucunzaideshehuichabiezuizhongdounengdaozhisuoyoushehuichengyuanliyidezengjin,guojiajianghuibeifuyujiweiguangfandeshehuizhineng,ershichangxingweiyehuizaizhuduofangmianshoudaoganyuhuozhexianzhi。

   dangran,lilunjiazhijiandezhenglunshiyihuishi,renmenzairichangshenghuozhongsuochiyoudeguanyushehuigongzhengdeguannianyoushiyihuishi。zai19shijimozhihouderenleishehuishenghuozhong,yizhongjibaozhengqidianpingdeng,tongshiyezaiyidingchengdushangbaozhengjieguopingdengdeshehuizhengyibiaozhunshijishangyijingdedaoshijiefanweineidaduoshurenderenke,keyishuoyijingchengweiyizhongshenrurenxindeshehuidaodeyuanze,bingqiegouchengleshehuijinbudeyixiangzhongyaobiaozhi。zaixifang,tashiba“wenmingdezibenzhuyi”yu“yemandezibenzhuyi”qubiekailaidejibentezheng。weihuhefazhanzheizhongshehuizhengzhiguannian,shishijieshangzhongduozhengzhililiangweizhifendoudejibenmubiao,tagenbenbukenengyinweimouxierendeliyihuozhemouzhongxueshuodegudongerbeishehuisuofangqi。neimezheizhongzhengyiyuanzedeluojiyijuhezaini?

   diyi,youyurenheyigeshehuizhongdegetidoushizaimouzhongjutideshehuiguanxizhongshengcunyuhuodongde,suoyizhitanlundanchundefalvyiyishangdepingdengbingmeiyourenheshijiyiyi。huanyanzhi,ruguobukaolvbutonggetizaishehuishenghuozhongdeshijidiweihetiaojian,wuchabiedifuyutamenfalvshangdepingdengdehua,neimezheizhongpingdengmashangjiuhuibeishijishenghuozhongdegezhongbupingdengsuodaiti。

   dier,conggenbenshangkan,suoyoudejingjixingweitongshidoushizhengzhixingwei。biru,xiandaishichangjingjitixizhongbukenengqueshaobaohusiyoucaichanquandefalv,erduishenmeyangdewuzhiduixiangnenggouchengweisiyoucaichanzheigewentidehuidaqueshiyigeshehuidehezhengzhideguocheng。zaizibenzhuyidezaoqijieduan,getiderenkeyibeidangzuolingyigerendesiyoucaichanjinulierdedaochanquanfadebaohu,suoyimeiguoyaotongguoyichangzhanzhenglaigaibianzheizhongzhengzhifalvzhidu。feizhouconglinzhongyudangdijuminyitongziranshengzhangdemouzhongshengwuziyuan,youyutamendejiyinbeimougefadaguojiadekexuejiasuojiedu,jieguogenjuxianyoudezhishichanquanbaohufalv,dangdijuminfanerbunengziyoudiliyongzheizhongziyuanweitamendeshenghuomouqufuli。zheizhongjinhuhuangtangdeluojizhiyouzaixiandaizibenzhuyidezhengzhifalvtixizhongcaihuicunzai。

十一选五    zhengshiyouyujingjiyuzhengzhiheshehuiguochengzhijianbukefengedelianxi,suoyirenheyizhongjingjixingweiyedouhuichanshengtedingdeshehuihezhengzhijieguo。rutongmeiguozhengzhijingjixuejiaoshouluodelikesuoshuo,“shijishang,yinweimaoyijihuzongshihuidailaitedingdezaifenpeixiaoying(zaibutongdebumen、butongdeshourujiecengzhijianyijibutongdegerenzhijian),suoyirenhehanweiziyoumaoyidezhuzhangdoubukenengbumianlindaozhizheileihouguodeshijiandegongzhengxingyuhefaxingwenti。tongyang,dangmaoyisuodaozhidebianhuachongjile(shenzhifushile)yuanyoudeguoneishehuizhixudeshihou,renmenyebubizhiwangtahuidedaoguangfandeminzhongzhichi。”[2](p.324)

十一选五    disan,xiandaishichangjingjitixishijiyuyizhongteshudejiazhifazehuozheshuo“xiaoyong”fazejianliqilaide。zheizhongfazegenjurenleixingweinenggoudailaide、keyiyihuobiweidanweijiayihengliangdeliyiweitamenfuyujiazhihuozhexiaoyong,ranhouzaigenjubiaomianshangdepingdengyuanzeshixianzheixiejiazhihuoxiaoyongzhijiandejiaohuan,shicaifujizhongdaomouxiexingweizheshouzhong,bingqieshitamennenggoujinyibuliyongzheixiecaifuchuangzaogengduodecaifu。henkenengzheizhongjiazhifazehuozhexiaoyongfazebijiaoyouliyurenleijingjishenghuodefazhan,dantamenbingbunengzhenzhengtixiangezhongxingweibenshendeshehuijiazhi。yiweinongminshengchanliangshiyanghuolelingyiweizhizaodiannaoxinpiandegongchengshi,hennanshuohouzhedexingweijuyoubiqianzhegenggaodeshehuijiazhi,dantamendeshichangjiazhiqueyouzhetianrangzhibie。

   yinci,jishiweileshehuijingjidezhengtifazhan,huozheshuozaixiandaishijiejingjitixizhongnenggouyousuofazhan,yigeshehuibudebuquanmianyinrushichangfaze,danruguokaolvdaojibendeshehuigongzheng,yejiushishuobujinshimeiyigerenxingweideshichangjiazhi,tongshiyeshiqishehuijiazhidedaoxiangyingchengrendehua,neimediercidefenpei,zegenjushehuiyuanzejinxingdefenpeijiuchengweirenheyigeshehuibixumianduidewenti。zhengrujiersisuoshuo: “wulunshishichanghaishizibendeluojidouconglaibuhuizidongdichuangzaochupingdengheshehuigongzheng。yaochuangzaoyigegongpingfanrongdeshehui,bidingxuyaorenleiyouyishideheyoumubiaode、yirendaodedaodeyiwuweijichudexingdong。caifuhefanrongshiyoushehuijuedingdechuangzaowu,tazhiyoutongguoduiziyuanheshehuichanpindegongpingfenpeicainenghuode。renleijinbudebiaozhunshiduishehuizhengyideshixianyuduipinkunheboxuedexiaochu,erfeibushouyueshudesirencaifudejileihuozhequanlidechiluoluodexingshi。”[3](p.10)

十一选五    jiucieryan,gongzhengshiyigeshehuideneizaiyaoqiu,yejiushishuo,zhiyaoyigerenzaishehuizhongshenghuo,yuqitashehuichengyuanchanshenglianxi,neimeshehuigongzhengjiubixuchengweitamenzhijianxianghuguanxideyixiangjibenyuanze。erqie,gongzhengyuanzeyebingfeichuzishijiliyidesuanji,renmenbingbushiyinweijupashehuichongtucaixuyaoshehuigongzheng。dangrancongjieguolaikan,yigeyanzhongweibeileshehuigongzhengyuanzedeshehuibidinghuidaozhidaliangdemaodunyuchongtu,congershisuoyourendouzaoshouliyidesunshi。

十一选五    er、jingjiquanqiuhuaduishehuigongzhengdechongji

   gongzhengshirenheyigerenleiquntideneizaiyaoqiu,yeshigaiquntinenggouchixucunzaiyufazhandejibentiaojian。raner,zaijingjiquanqiuhuadelangchaozhong,youyushoudaoxinziyouzhuyiyishixingtaideqianglieyingxiang,guojiaduoduoshaoshaozhengzaiconggezhongshehuizhinenglingyu(baokuoshehuigongzhenglingyu)houtui。bushaorenyincirenwei,zaiquanqiuhuaguochengzhong,“tongguozaifenpeishixianshehuigongzhengzheiyimubiaoyijingshoudaotiaozhan,bingqiezaigenbenshangbeiguojiajingjixingweideshichanghuaheshangpinhuasuomaizang”。[4](p.22) huozherumeiguozhengzhixuejiabotesuoshuo,zaiquanqiuhuajinchengzhong,renmentanlundezuiduodeyibuzaishijianshaopinkunyubupingdengdewenti,ershizaijiliedequanqiujingzhengguochengzhong,yigeguojiaruhecainengchengweigengqiangyoulidejingzhengzhe,ruhecainengbaohuhaotadehuobiyugupiaoshichangdewenti。[5](pp.354—372)

   guojiacongshehuizhinenglingyudechetuiyiweizheshichangguanxixiangshehuidequanmianshentou,erzheizhongshentouchanshengdeyanzhongdeshehuihouguozhiyi,jiushiquanqiufanweineipinfufenhuadejijukuoda。jutidikan,quanqiuhuadailailelianggecengmianshangdepinfufenhua: yishiqiongguoyufuguodefenhua,ershitongyigeguojianeibuqiongrenyufurenzhijiandefenhua。zheijiuyiweizhe,youxuduoguojia,erqiejihuzaimeiyigeguojianeibu,douyoubushaorenhuozhebushaodiquchengweijingjiquanqiuhuadeshouhaizhe。

十一选五    quanqiuhuazhisuoyijiajuleguojiazhijiandepinfufenhua,guranyouduofangmiandeyuanyin,danmaoyijiegoudebianhua、xinziyouzhuyideyingxiang,yijijinrongweijidechongjidengqueshiqizhuyaoyuanyin。

   shouxianshimaoyijiegoudebianhua。20shijimodequanqiuhualangchaoyouyigexianzhutedian,neijiushixingyeneimaoyiyuchanyejianmaoyixiangbi,qianzhedebizhongdadashangsheng。zheizhongmaoyijiegouduiyuzhuyaoyikaoyuancailiaohechujichanpinchukoudefazhanzhongguojiaeryanjuyouxiangdangbulideyingxiang,qizhijiehouguojiushichujichanpindeshijieshichangjiagebuduanxiajiang。genjulianheguomaoyihefazhanhuiyideyixiangtongji,shijieshang48gezuipinkundeguojiayinweichukoujianshaoheliangshijinkouzengjia,meinianyaosunshi3yizhi6yimeiyuan。[6](p.126)

   qicishixinziyouzhuyideyingxiang,zheizhongyingxiangbiaoxianzailianggecengmian。zaiguojicengmian,youyuxinziyouzhuyidemaoyizhengce,yijigezhongshentoulexinziyouzhuyiyuanzedemaoyixiedingyuguojijizhicongzongtishangshuoxianzhilefazhanzhongguojiademaoyiguanzhinengli,jianshaoletamenkenengdeshourulaiyuan;zaiguoneicengmian,youyuxifangguojiadeyali,fazhanzhongguojiabudebucaiquxuduojingjiziyouhuadezhengceyishixingsuoweide“jiegoudiaozheng”,danzheixiezhengceshishidejieguotongchangjinyibuehualezheixieguojiadejingjixingshi。

十一选五    zuihoushijinrongweijideyingxiang。20shijimodejingjiquanqiuhuadailaideliangcijiaodadejinrongweijiduifazhanzhongguojiachanshenglejudayingxiang。zhuyaofashengzailadingmeizhoudejinrongweijishizhenggelameidaludejingjifazhanshuipingdaotuileshijinianshenzhijishinian;erfashengzaidongyadejinrongweijizebujinshixiangguanguojiadejingjifazhandashoudaji,erqieqiyingxiangshenzhibojidaoeluosidengzhuduoguojiahediqu。jinrongweijideyigeeliejieguo,shishaoshuguojijinrongjutoujuanzoulefazhanzhongguojiadedabicaifu,yincikeguanshangdaozhilecaifucongqiongguoxiangfuguodezhuanyi。

   shijiefanweineipinfufenhuadexunsujiajuxianxiangkeyiyongchumujingxinsigezilaijiayixingrong。1996nianlianheguokaifajihuashude《renleifazhanbaogao》① cheng,jinguan30nianlai15geguojiaqudelejingjizengzhang,danzai100geguojiazhongyou16yirendeshenghuozhuangtaibi10nianqiangengweiehua。genju2005niande《renleifazhanbaogao》tongji,zaizhiqiande10nianjian,shijieshangzuipinkunguojia(50ge,quanbuzaifeizhou)jingjizhuangtairengranchengxianchujinyibuehuadequshi。birushuo,zai1990nian,meiguodepingjunshourushuipingshitanzanniyade38bei,dao2005nianyijingkuodadao61bei。[7] conglingyigejiaodukan,quanshijiedeguominshengchanzongzhi1993nianwei23wanyimeiyuan,qizhong18wanyishuyugongyehuaguojia,jin5wanyishuyufazhanzhongguojia,erhouzhezhanjuleshijiezongrenkoudejiangjin80%。[8] haiyouyigeqingkuangyezhideguanzhu,neijiushizai20shiji90niandai,xifangqiguojituanchengyuanguoshengchanlequanqiugaojishuchanpinde90.5%,[9](p.265) erzaifeizhou,zhijietouzizai1994—1995nianjianjiuxiajiangle27%,shijitouzizongejinwei21yimeiyuan,jishijietouzizongshude3%。[10](p.14) zheishuoming,jingjishangdepinfufenhuayijingzuizhongyingxiangdaolejingjiquanqiuhuazhongshibaideyifangweilaidejingjiheshehuifazhandekenengxing。zheishiyigegengyanzhongdewenti。

   quanqiuhuajinchengzhongpinfufenhuadelingyifangmianshizaijihusuoyouguojianeibuyedouchuxianlepinfuchajudekuoda,juecaifuyuelaiyuejujizaishaoshurenshouli,yuelaiyueduoderenzexianrulepinkundeshenyuan。1999nianlianheguokaifajihuashude《renleifazhanbaogao》zhichu,zai1998nianzhiqiande4nianzhong,shijieshang200mingzuifuyouderendecaifuzengjiale1beiduo,chaoguole1wanyimeiyuan,erqizhongqian3mingdezichanyijingchaoguolesuoyouqianfadaguojia6yirendeguominshengchanzongzhidezonghe。[11] youyisideshi,zaixifangfadaguojiazhong,pinfufenhuazuiyanzhongdeqiaqiashichangdaoxinziyouzhuyizuijijidemeiguo。jutongji,meiguo5%zuifuyurenkouhe5%zuipinkunrenkoudejiatingshouruchaju,zai1947—1973nianzhijianyijingyousuojianshao,danzai1973—1996nianzhijianqueyouzengjiale50%yishang。[12](p.3) zai1991nian,meiguorenkouzhongzuifuyude10%yijingyongyouquanguozongzichande83.2%。[13](p.21)

   yuxifangfadaguojiaxiangbi,fazhanzhongguojiaguominshouruchajudekuodashijishanggengweiyanzhong,baxikenengshiyigedianxingdelizi。genjulianheguokaifajihuashu1991niandetongji,zai20shiji90niandaichuqi,baxirenkouzhongzuifuyude5%hezuipinkunde5%deshouruxiangcha26bei。

十一选五    bulunzainayileiguojia,pinfufenhuadejiajubujinjinyiweizhepinkunzheshourudejianshao,tongshiyeyiweizhetamendeshenghuoshuiping、jiaoyushuiping、jiankangshuipingyijishehuichujingdequanmianxiajiang。zheibukebimiandidailaidaliangyanzhongdeshehuiwenti,congerzuizhongpohuaijingjizengzhangheshehuifazhandejichu。

   jingjiquanqiuhuajinchengzhonggeguoneibupinfuchajudekuodatongyangyeshiyouduofangmiandeyuanyinzaochengde。shouxianshichanyejiegouzaiguoneiyijiguojiazhijiandediaozheng,zheibiaoxianweiguominjingjitixizhongyixiechuantongchanyedeshuailuoyijizheixiechanyexiangdishourudiyuhuozheguojiadezhuanyi。zaiciguochengzhong,chuantongchanyedecongyezheziranmianlinbeitaotaidemingyun。

   lingwai,20shijimochuxiandexindeshengchanfangshiyetixianchuyigexianmingdetedian,neijiushiyuzibenhejishuxiangbi,laodongdexiangduijiazhizaibuduandijiangdi。dangran,zheizhongxianxianggengduodiyinggaibeilijieweiyizhongshehuizhengzhideerfeidanchundejingjijizhidejieguo,suirancongkeguanshangkanzheiyangyizhongziben、jishuhelaodongzhijiandeguanxikenenggengyouliyujingjizengzhang。

   raner,daozhipinfuchajukuodadegengzhongyaodeyuanyin,zeshixinziyouzhuyideshehuijingjizhengce,zheixiezhengcebaokuoxuejianshuishou、xuejianshehuifuliheshehuibaozhang、jianshaogonggongjiaoyuhegonggongweishengkaizhidengdeng,tamencongzongtishangdadaxueruoleguojiadezaifenpeizhineng,tongshiyedadajianshaolepinkunzhekenengyongyoudejihui。zaijingjiquanqiuhuaheziyouhuadeguochengzhong,geguoweilexiyinwaizi,wangwangduiwaiguotouzizhetigongbutongchengdudebuzhuhuozhezhengceyouhui。raner,zheileizhengcebenshenyejuyouyidingdezaifenpeixiaoying,tawangwangbacaizhengfudanzhuanjiadaoleguoneinashuiren,youqishimouxietedingdenashuiquntishenshang。

   yucitongshi,gezhonglaogongzuzhideliliangzaixinziyouzhuyiyingxiangxiashoudaolexueruo。laogongzuzhililiangdexiajiangshiguangdalaodongzhewufatongguoyouzuzhidefangshiyouxiaodiweizijizhengqugengweiyoulidejingjidiwei。lingwai,dangqianjingjiquanqiuhuadetedianjizibenyulaogongzhijiangaodudebupinghengxingyeshiqianzhechuyujueduideyoushi,yinwei“zibenshiquanqiuhuade,erlaodongyibanlaishuozeshidifangxingde”。zibenzaiquanqiufanweineiliudongzhenghebingqiexingchengletamentongyideliyiyuqiangliedejitirentong,erlaogongzeyuelaiyuebeifenhua,“zhengzaishiquqijitirentong,zaiqinengli、gongzuotiaojian、liyiyumubiaofangmianyuelaiyuegetihua。”[14](p.79)

十一选五    shijishang,xinziyouzhuyiduifadaguojiayufazhanzhongguojiadeyingxiangshibutongde。zaifadaguojia,youyushehuifulihebaozhangtixiyijingfeichangwanbei,minzhuhuachengduyebijiaogao,renmenyongyoujiaoduodezhengzhiqudaobiaodaduixinziyouzhuyizhengcededuikang,bingqiezaixiangdangdadechengdushanghainenggoudiyuqiyingxiang。[15](p.332) danshi,duijuedaduoshufazhanzhongguojialaishuo,youyuyuanyoudeshehuifuliyushehuibaozhangtixibenlaijiubugoufadashenzhixiangdangluohou,minzhuhuachengduyoubijiaodi,gonggongshehuiyebufada,putongminzhongjibenshangmeiyouzhiduhuadetujingbiaodazijideyizhi。suoyidangzhengfufangqiduitamendebaohushi,yizhongleisizibenyuanshijileishiqidechiluoluode“yangchiren”dexianxiangyouzaixianle。yourenshenzhirenwei,quanqiuhuadaozhidepinfuliangjifenhuashijishangyijingcongbupingdengxiangfeirenxinghuafazhan。[16](p.17)

十一选五    shijiefanweineilianggecengmianshangpinfuchajudejijukuodayijingshibushaorengaibianleduijingjiquanqiuhuadeleguanerjiandanhuadekanfa,tongshiyeshirenmenkaishihuaiyixinziyouzhuyideyigejibenxinnian,jijingjiziyouhuanenggoudailaijingjizengzhang,erjingjizengzhangnenggouzidongxiaochupinkun(zheijiushisuoweide“dishenxiaoying”)。cong20shiji90niandaikaishi,zaiguojihuobijijinzuzhiheshijieyinxingzhichijinxingdejiegoudiaozhengyilanzijihuazhong,yebudebubashehuianquanbaozhangtixilieweiyixiangjibenneirong,bingqiezai1999nianbacujinjiegoudiaozhengjijinhui(esaf)gengmingweijianshaopinkuncujinfazhanjijinhui(prgf)。1996nianyilai,shijieyinxingyetongguojiegoudiaozhengzhengcepingguxingdong,yu1000duogeminzhongzuzhiyiqitantaoxinziyouzhuyijingjijiegoudiaozhengyupinkunzhijiankenengcunzaidegezhonglianxi。

十一选五    pinfufenhuawentizhisuoyiyinqiquanshijiedepubianguanzhu,yigezhongyaodeyuanyinzaiyu,zaiyigeshangyehuadeshehui,pinkunzhetongshiyejiubeiboduoleqitayiqiedeshehuijiazhiyukenengxing,congerchengweibeipaichideyifang。zheizhongpaichishitamenbeidongdichuyuyizhongyuzhuliudeshehuijiazhixiangduilidediwei,shenzhichengweishehuidepannizhe。zuoweiqijieguo,zaiyigeguojianeibukenengbiaoxianweishehuimaodundejihuanaizhishehuichongtudefasheng,erzaiguojishangzebujinbiaoxianweiqiongguoyufuguodeduili,tongshiyekenenghuibiaoxianweigezhonggeyangdeguojikongbuhuodong。jiucieryan,pinfufenhuadewenti,bujinkaoyanzheyigeshehuidezhengyiguannian,yeguanxidaozheigeshehuidehexie。

十一选五    shijishang,yigepinfuchajujiqixuanshu、caifujujizaijishaoshurenshouzhongdeshehuiqizishenjingjifazhandeqianliyeshifeichangyouxiande。shouxian,pinfuxuanshudejiajuzuailedaduoshurenfazhandekenengxing,congeryingxiangdaoyigeshehuirenliziyuandekaifa。qici,youyuguangdaminzhongzhijuyoujididexiaofeinengli,congernanyixingchengyizhongnenggoubaozhengbenguojingjichixufazhandewendingerfanrongdeguoneishichang,ershichangdexiaotiaojiangzuizhongdaozhijingjifazhandetingzhi。

   san、shixianshehuigongzhengshigoujianhexieshehuidehexin

十一选五    zaishehuigongzhengdewentishang,zhongguodeqingkuangbingburongleguan。yinggaishuo,gaigekaifangduirenminshenghuodeyingxiangshiduozhongde。yifangmian,jin30nianlai,zhongguodeguominjingjihuodelejushizhumudezengzhang,renmindeshenghuoshuipingyouciyededaolejudadetigao;lingyifangmian,renmendeshouruchajuyezengdale。chuxianzheizhongxianxiang,yigehenzhongyaodeyuanyinshigejizhengfuzaizhiliyucujinjingjifazhandetongshi,hushilezishenzaishehuigongzhengfangmiandezhineng。yejiushishuo,zaijinkenengfahuishichangzaiziyuanpeizhihecaifufenpeizhongjijizuoyongdetongshi,yidingchengdushanghushileshehuizaifenpeidewenti。shijishang,zhongguochuxiandeqingkuangyuqitafazhanzhongguojiazaijingjiquanqiuhuajinchengzhongyudaodewentiduoshaoyouxieleisi,jiyifangmianzhengfutuichulezhuduoshehuizhinenglingyu,lingyifangmiantidaixingdeshehuishiyixuanwutixishiyixuanwuyoumeiyougenshang,yushizaihenduofangmianchuxianleshehuizhinengdemangdian。

十一选五    zaizhongguo,yigeburonghushideshijiqingkuangshizhengfuzhichuzhangdpdebizhongzai20shiji70niandaimozhihouchixuxiajiang,zhishizaizuijinjiniancaichuxianxiangfandequshi。zheishuoming,zaijingjizengzhangdetongshi,zhongguoshehuibaozhangtixideshiyixuanwuquedadazhihoule。liru,1979—1997nianquanguoyiyuanhebingchuangshuliangnianzengzhanglvwei2%he0.3%,erzai1953—1978nianjiandenianzengzhanglvzewei10%he12%。[17](p.673) zheizhongqingkuangdejieguoshijinguanzongtishouruzengjiale,minzhongdemanyiduheanquanganfaneryousuoxiajiang。genjulingwaiyixiangdiaocha,zhengfu、qiyehegerenzhongmeiyouyifangrenweizijicong20shiji80niandaizhongqikaishideshehuifuliheanquantixigaigezhongshouyi,yizhimuqianjiatingzuiguanxindeqiansangewentidouyushehuibaozhangtixiyouguan,tamenshiyiliao、shiyehejingjikunnan。[18]

   suirancong20shijimokaishi,zhongguozhengfuzaiquanguofanweineikaizhanlegezhongxingshide“fupin”gongcheng(zhuyaozainongcun)hezuidishenghuobaozhanggongcheng(zhuyaozaichengshi),bingqiequdelemingxianchengxiao,danshangweiconggenbenshangjiejuezhongguodepinfufenhuawenti。birushuo,1999nianzuidishenghuobaozhangzhiduzaichengzhenjianliqilaihou.shijishangzhiyou1/5—1/4fuhetiaojianderendedaolejiuzhu。zhuyaodeyuanyinshi,yixiepinkunxiandecaizhengshouruyouxian,wuliweishishizheigejihuatigongxiangyingdezijin。lingyigezhidezhuyidexianxiangshi,zai20shijimodejinian,zhongguobufendiquyouchuxianlesuoweide“fanpin”xianxiang。jubaodao,guangxisheng2000nianfanpinlvdadao15%,zaiyixiediqushenzhidadao30%。[19] juzhongguoshehuikexueyuan《2005nianshehuilanpishu》tongji,gainianchengshijuminshouruchajudekuodaqushibingmeiyoudedaoyouxiaoezhi,zuifuyoude10%dejiatingyuzuipinqiongde10%dejiatingrenjunkezhipeishouruchajujiangchaoguo8bei,yueyou60%dechengzhenjuminderenjunkezhipeishourudabudaopingjunshuiping。erqie,shouruchajudekuodazhunianleiji,shicaichanchajubuduankuoda。muqianzhongguoshouruzuigaode10%dejiatingcaichanzongezhanchengzhenjuminquanbucaichandebizhongjiejin50%,shouruzuidide10%dejiatingcaichanzongezhanchengzhenjuminquanbucaichandebizhongjinjinweichizai1%zuoyou,80%dezhongdengshourudejiatingyezhizhancaichanzongedeyiban。[20]

十一选五    zaishijizhijiao,zhongguohengliangpinfufenhuachengdudejinixishuchengzhuniankuodadequshi。1988—1990nian,quanguojinixishuyou0.341shangshengdao0.343,pingjunmeinianshangsheng0.001;1990—2000nianjinixishuyou0.343shangshengdao0.417,pingjunmeinianshangsheng0.007;2000—2003nianjinixishuyou0.417shangshengdao0.448,pingjunmeinianshangsheng0.010。[21](p.44) 2005nian,zhongguodejinixishuyouchuangxingao,yijingbijin0.47(shijieshouruzuibupingdengguojiabaxidejinixishuwei0.61),dadatupoleguojigongrendepinfufenhuadejingjiexianji0.4。[22]

   gaigekaifangyilai,zhongguobutongdiquzhijiandeshouruchajuyezaizengda。dongbuyanhaidiqujingjiyizhikuaiyuzhongxibudiqudefazhan。congrenjungdpkan,1980niandongbuyuzhong、xibuzhibiwei1.47∶1∶0.82(zhongbudiqushedingwei1),1990nianwei1.56∶1∶0.85,2000nianwei1.90∶1∶0.77,2002nianwei1.93∶1∶0.78。henmingxian,dongbuyuzhongxibujingjifazhanchajuzhubulada。1988—2003nian,anxianjiacesuan,dongbudiquchengzhenjuminrenjunshourupingjunmeinianzengzhang14.2%,zhongbudiquzengzhang13.9%,xibudiquzengzhang13.2%。1980—2003nian,anxianjiacesuan,dongbudiqunongcunjuminrenjunshourupingjunmeinianzengzhang12.7%,zhongbudiquzengzhang11.9%,xibudiquzengzhang11%。[21](p.44)

   shijishang,lianheguokaifajihuashu1999niande《renleifazhanbaogao》zaitijiquanqiuhuasuodaozhidepinfufenhuawentishi,jiuyijingbazhongguozuoweiyigetuchudelizi。deque,pinfufenhuadejiajuyijingchengweizhongguoshehuijingjijinyibufazhanburonghuibidezhongdawenti,tongshiyeshishixianshehuigongzhengbixujiejuedewenti。dangranzheibingbuyiweizhezhongguozhengfuzaishehuigongzhengjigejieceng、gediqudexiediaofazhanfangmianwusuozuowei。danshishouxiaobingbuxianzhu,yuanyinkenengzaiyuyixiajigefangmian。

十一选五    diyi,zhongguomeiyounenggoujishijianliqiyitaoyushichangjingjifazhanxiangshiying,bingqieyushichangjingjitizhidewanshantongbuwanshandeshehuibaozhangtixijiqizhichitixi,birushuoquefayouguanshuishou、laodongbaohu、zhigongquanyidexiangguanzhidu。zheiyangzaikeguanshangdadajiangdileyixiesiyingqiyehewaiziqiyedeshengchanhejingyingchengben,shitamenzhuanquledaliangdechaoelirun,tongshizaochenglezhigongdexiangduipinkun,erqiefushilezhengfudecaizhengjichu。

   dier,zhongguorengranquefaxiangyingdezhidukuangjia,yibaozhenggediqu、gejiecengxiangduipinghengdefazhan。zhongsuozhouzhi,zhongguodedongbufazhankuaiyuzhongxibu,chengshifazhankuaiyuxiangcun,zheizhuyaodeyiyugaigekaifangchuqiduiyanhaihechengshidiqudezhengceqingxie,danleisidezhengcezaizhongxibuyuguangdadexiangcundiququenanyishoudaoleisidechengxiao,qigenbenyuanyinzaiyutamenjuyoubutongdeziyuanbingfuhejingjijichu,yijibutongdejingjijiegou。yinci,ruheshigediqu、gebumenpinghengfazhanjiushejiyigezhiduchuangxindewenti。

   zaizheifangmian,zhongguode“sannong”wentijuyoudianxingdedaibiaoxing。zaishixinglianchanchengbaozerenzhizhihou,zhongguonongminjibenshangchuyugetijingyingzhuangtai。wentishizaixiandaishichangjingjitiaojianxia,ruguomeiyouteshudezhidubaozhang,getinongmingenbenbukenengyuxiandaihuadegezhonggongyeheshangyezuzhizhankaijingzheng,dabufennongmindepinkunhuayupochanjihushiyizhongbukebimiandejieju。mianduizheizhongxingshi,ruheweihuguangdanongmindeliyi、bangzhunongminfazhanjingjijiuchengweiyigejidaijiejuedezhongyaowenti。genjuqitaguojiachenggongdejingyan,youjigefangmianxuyaozhuyi: (1)jixutuidongnongcundefeinonghuajincheng,bayibufennongmincongnongcunjiefangchulai;(2)duijixucongshinongyeshengchandenongmintigongzhiduhezhengcezhichi;(3)liyongzhongguojingjifazhansuojileidejichu,congzhubutigaonongchanpinjiagerushouduinongminjinxingbutie。sanguanqixia,zuizhongjiejuechengxiangzhijiandepinfufenhuawentiyijiyibanyiyishangde“sannong”wenti。

   disan,genjuqitaguojiadejingyan,yaozhenzhengjiejueshehuifenhuawentibixujubeilianggefangmiandetiaojian。yifangmianshitupoduiruoshiquntide“jiuji”shidesiweifangshi,congjijidejiaodushitamenjinruxindejingjijiegou,bingqieshitamenzaiqizhongzhaodaoshidangdeweizhi。lingyifangmianyoubixukandao,renheyigeshidai、renheyigeguojianaizhidiqudoucunzai“chaoyangchanye”he“xiyangchanye”。danshi,xiyangchanyeduizhenggeguominjingjidepinghengfazhaneryankenengshibiyaode,erzaichuangzaojiuyefangmiankenenghaijuyoubijingjiyiyigengzhongyaodeshehuiyiyi。zheiyang,zhengfujiuyoubiyaotongguoshidangdezhengce,baozhengzheileichanyenenggouzhenzhengfahuijingjipinghengyushehuipinghengdezuoyong。birushuo,xiandaijuedaduoshuxifangfadaguojiadenongyedoujieshouzhengfudedaliangbutie,jishixiangmeiguoneiyangnongyeyijingshixiangaoduchanyehuadeguojiayebuliwai,zhiyuribenzhengfuduibenguonongyedebutiezegengshichengweizheigeguojiajingjijiegoudeyidatese。zheizhongbutiezhengceshizhengfudezaifenpeizhinengdedianxingtixianzhiyi,tashiqiangzhixingde,danyangelaishuobingbushijiuji,ershitongguozaifenpeiduidiyicifenpeizhongshilideyifangzuochudebuchang。zheifangmianzhongguozhengfusuiranyijingfuchulejudanuli,danhaiyoudaliangdegongzuoxuyaoquzuo。

   zongdelaishuo,shixianshehuigongzhengyijingchengweizhongguoshehuimianlindeyixiangkeburonghuanderenwu,xuyaoguojiaweicifuchujidadenuli,jixuyaozhidushangdechuangxin,zhengceshangdediaozheng,yexuyaobiyaodeqiangzhi——zaifenpeizhiduzuizhongshiyiduibufenshehuichengyuandeqiangzhiweijichude。dangdeshiliudabashiyixuanwushehuizhuyihexieshehuizuoweidangzaixinshiqideyixiangzhongdarenwu,yinggaishuoshijuyouzhanlveyuanjiande,ershixianshehuigongzheng,keyishuoshigoujianhexieshehuidehexin。

   zhushi:

十一选五    ① weileyinqishirenduiyuquanqiuhuadailaidejingjizengzhangguochengzhongbansuidegezhongfumianxiaoyingdeguanzhu,lianheguokaifajihuashuyu1991niankaishizhunianfabiao《renleifazhanbaogao》,yixuanchuanyizhongyirenweizhongxindefazhanguan,zhichudanchuncaifudezengjiabingbushirenleifazhandezuizhongmubiao。

【cankaowenxian】

十一选五    [1] john rawls, a theory of justice, revised edition, cambridge, mass.: belknap press of harvard university press, 1999.

   [2] david held and anthony mcgrew (eds.), the global transformations reader: an introduction to the globalization debate, cambridge: polity press, 2000.

   [3] barry k. gills, “introduction: globalization and the politics of resistance”, in barry k. gills (ed.), globalization and the politics of resistance, london: macmillan press ltd., 2000.

   [4] philip g. cerny, “structuring the political area—public goods, states, and governance in a globalizating world,”in ronen palan (ed.), global political economy-contemporary theories, london and new york: routledge, 2000.

   [5] alejandro portes, “neoliberalism and the sociology of development: emerging trends and unanticipated facts”, in david harvey, “capitalism: the factory of fragmentation”, in j. timmons roberts and amy hite (eds.), from modernization to globalization: perspectives on development and social change, massachusetts: blackwell publishers inc., 2000

   [6] robert went, the enigma of globalization: a journey to a new stage of capitalism, london: routledge, 2002.

   [7] undp human development report 2005, international cooperation at a crossroads: aid, trade and security in an unequal world [eb/oe]. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005/pdf/hdr05_complete.pdf.

十一选五    [8] undp, human development report 2000, human rights and human development [eb/oe]. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2000/en/.

   [9] manuel castells, “the global economy”, in david held and anthony mcgrew (eds.), the global transformations reader. an introduction to the globalization debate, cambridge: polity press, 2000.

   [10] bernard cassen, “to save society,” in frank j. lechner and john boli (eds.), the globalization reader, malden and oxford: blackwell publishers ltd., 2000.

   [11] undp human development report 1999, globalization with a human face [eb/oe]. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/1999/en/.

   [12] bosworth, barry p. and gary burtless (eds.), aging societies. the global dimensions. washington, dc: brookings institution press, 1998.

   [13] william, i. robinson, “globalization: nine theses of our epoch”, race and class. 1996, 38, 2 (october-december).

   [14] manuel castells, “the network society”, in david held and anthony mcgrew (eds.), the global transformations reader. an introduction to the globalization debate, cambridge: polity press, 2000.

   [15] elmar rieger and stephan leibfried, “welfare state limits to globalization,” in david held and anthony mcgrew(eds.), the global transformations reader. an introduction to the globalization debate, cambridge: polity press, 2000.

   [16] serge halimi, “when market journalism invades the world,” in frank j. lechner and john boli (eds.), the globalization reader, malden and oxford: blackwell publishers ltd., 2000.

   [17] guojiatongjiju.zhongguotongjinianjian1999[m].beijing: zhongguotongjichubanshe,2000.

   [18] songxiaowu.zhongguoshehuibaozhangtizhigaigeyufazhanbaogao[m].beijing: zhongguorenmindaxuechubanshe,2001.

十一选五    [19] xinhuashe2004nian10yue18ridian.zhongguonongcunpinkunrenkoujiangzhi2900wan[eb/oe]. http://finance.sina.com.cn/g/20041018/.shtm1,2004—10—18.

十一选五    [20] 2005nianshehuilanpishu: zinvjiaoyufeizhanjuminxiaofeishouwei[eb/oe]. http://www.people.com.cn/gb/shizheng/1026/3052736.html,2004—12—14.

   [21] songlinfei.jingjiquanqiuhuajizhongguodailaileshenme?——fanbianyuanhualilunyushijian[j].xuehai,2004,(5)

十一选五    [22] zhongguojinixishuyibijin0.47tongchougongpingyuxiaolv[eb/oe].http://politics. people. com. cn/gb/30178/3759688. html,2005—10—12.^




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