十一选五

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背离与共建: 现代性视阈下乡村文化的危机与重建

时间: 2015-03-10 14:36:08 点击:

核心提示: 在现代性的冲击下,“离土”性使乡村社会的“历史感”与“当地感”被剥离,破坏了乡村旧有之意,也带来了传统乡村文化的坍塌。当十一选五用“他者”的视角、以现代性模式来改造农村时,却在实践中发现农村现代性转变既缺乏产业基础,也缺乏精神基础。双重缺失使中国农村现代性无法确立,也使得乡村文化的重构未能完成。多元现...

beiliyugongjian: xiandaixingshiyuxiaxiangcunwenhuadeweijiyuzhongjian

yanhuihui, haoshucui

(shandongdaxue(weihai)  makesizhuyijiaoxuebu, shandong weihai 264209)

[zhai   yao] zaixiandaixingdechongjixia,“litu”xingshixiangcunshehuide“lishigan”yu“dangdigan”beiboli,pohuailexiangcunjiuyouzhiyi,yedailailechuantongxiangcunwenhuadetanta。dangshiyixuanwuyong“tazhe”deshijiao、yixiandaixingmoshilaigaizaonongcunshi,quezaishijianzhongfaxiannongcunxiandaixingzhuanbianjiquefachanyejichu,yequefajingshenjichu。shuangzhongqueshishizhongguonongcunxiandaixingwufaqueli,yeshidexiangcunwenhuadezhonggouweinengwancheng。duoyuanxiandaixinglilunweizhongguonongcunxiandaixingshixiantigongxindelujingdetongshi,yeweichuantongxiangcunwenhuadezhongjiantigonglekeneng。xiandaixingmoshidequeliyuxiangcunwenhuadezhongjian,shiyigeneishengyuzhongguonongcundetonggouguocheng。muqian,guanzhuduofangboyizhonggezhongliliangdejunheng,jiyunongmingengduode“huayuquan”shixiandaixingyuxiangcunwenhuagongjiandeguanjian。

[guanjianci] xiandaixing; xiangcunwenhua; wenhuaweiji; wenhuazhongjian

[zhongtufenleihao] c913 [wenxianbiaozhima] a [wenzhangbianhao] 1001-4799(2016)01-0152-07

dangquanqiuhuaguoxiezhexiandaixingdeyinzixijuanerlaishi,yiyuxifangwenmingdegeguowenhuazaiqianglichongjixiajiwulizhuizhidi。zaixifangxiandaixingbiaozhunhengliangxia,qitawenmingdoumianlinzhejiegouyuzhongjiandemingyun。erqizhong,zhongguoxiangcunyouyutongshishouchengshihuayugongyehuadechongji,xiangcunwenhuasihuchenglejiegou“zhongzaiqu”。muqian,xuejieduiyuxiangcunwenhuazaixiandaixingchongjixiademingyun,youliangzhongduilideguandian,yishixiangcunwenhuaweijilun,wangxiaoming、hexuefengdengshehuixuexuezhebingchizheiyiguandian;lingyizhongshixiangcunwenhuacunxulun,huangyinggui、zhaoxudongdengrenleixuexuezhebingchizheiyiguandian。xiangcunwenhuajianghequhecong?xiangcunwenhuayihezhongzitaiwanchengyuxiandaixingdegongchu,xiandaixinghuiduixiangcunwenhuachanshenghezhongyingxiang,ruhewanchengtadezhonggou?jiuchengleweilaixiangcunwenhuagoujianzhongxuliqingdezhongyaoyiti。

一、成为问题的乡村文化

十一选五xiangtuxingshifeixiaotongduizhongguoshehuitediandepanduan,tazhichuxiangcunzhongshenghuoderenmenshi“shengyusi、siyusi”。xiangtushehuizhong,renmenshenghuodehexinshi“tudi”,zaitudishangdegengzuoyijirenyurenzhijiandejiaowangyanshengchulexiangyingdeshehuizhidujiwenhuaxingtai。xiangcunshenghuodeyiyijiuyouweirao“xiangtuxing”erdailaide“dangdigan”he“lishigan”goucheng。cunminmenwangwangzaimouyicunluozhangqishenghuo,jishipoyuwaijieyuanyinqianxizhiqitadifang,zhiyaoshiyingledangdideshenghuo,jiuhuizuzubeibeizhagenzaineili,meiyouzhanluanhuoqitateshuyuanyinbuhuilikai,yigejiazuhuishaozeshubainian,duozeshangqianniandizaimouyicunluoshenghuo。zhangqizaiyigegudingdifangdeshenghuoyifangmianhuixingchengduigaididezhanyouheyilaiyishi,dilihuanjingshirenmen“dangdigan”xingchengdekongjianzaiti。lingyifangmian,zaimouyigudingdiyudezhangqishenghuo,jizizubeiyidaidailiucunxialaidejiyi,jiuxingchengle“lishigan”,zheixiejiyichenglerenmenqingganshangdeyituo[1]。tudishiyigeyouxiaodezhanheji,yi“dangdigan”yu“lishigan”weiyituo,zaizheierweikongjianzhongjiangoulexiangcunyiyi。zheiyiguochengzai20shijishangbanyefashenglebianhua,gongyehuashixiangcunyuanyoudeshenghuo、shengchanfangshidouwuyiyanxu①。gushoufengbi、fazhanhuanmandezhongguoxiangcunziranjingjiyiwufayanxu,renmenweilehuodegengduodeshouyi,xunzhaoxindechulu,chengshixiyinledaliangdepochannongmin。gaigekaifanghou,zheiyiguochengbingweixiaoshi,rengranyanxubingjiaju。zaishichangjingjiqueliguochengzhong,chengxiangjiandechabie,shinongcunshouyidiyuchengshi,nongminfenfenzouruchengshi。20shijiyilainongminshenghuo、shengchanfangshidebiandongyingxiangleshehuidejibengoucheng,zhenggeshehuidegouchengjichuyou“xiangtu”xiang“litu”zhuanbian。

suizhenongcunqingnianyouguilvdeqianxi,dalianglaodonglilikailezuzubeibeishenghuodetudi,kaishilehouniaoshideshenghuo。zheijiuzaochengzhongguoxiangtushehuimuqiandetedianshi“litu”,liushouertong、liushoufunvchengweixiangcunshehuidezhuti。“litu”shehuidui“lishigan”he“dangdigan”chanshengpohuai,cunminlikaigutu,geduanlejianlizaitudijichushangdegongtongjiyi,zaochengjitijiyidequeshi。yucitongshi,chengshiyounanyixinashuyidenongmin,huojiyuqiyuchengshirentongdengdeshenfenyushouru,nongminbeiguanyi“nongmingong”dechengwei。weinengyouxiaoduijiedexinjiushenghuopohuaileyuanyoudeshengcunhuanjingyujiudezhixu,yedongyaolenongminshenghuodekongjianyushijiantixi,queweinengjianlixindefanshi。jianlizaitudijichushangdeshengchanyushenghuofangshibeipohuai,yiciweijichudewenhuabeifouding。yitudiweijichudexiangcunxingdongluojiyuxingdongdaoxiangbeiwajie,chaxugejujichushangdelisuzhixuxujinxingzhonggou。yuanyoudeyixilieqingdianhuodong,ruchunjie、zhongqiudengminsu,benshiyunonggengshehuixiadeshengchanyushenghuoxiangduiyingde,zheixiehuodongtongshiyeshixiangtuwenhuadezaiti,rujin,suizhenongminjinruchengshi,gelieleyutudijiandelianxi,yutudixianglianjiedeminsuhuodongsuizhishiwei。jishicunzai,yeshiquleyuanyoudeyiyi。youxuezhezhichu,nongcundenianzhangzhezaichuantongyuxiandaiyouli,zhishigengxinman,beirenweibuheshiyi。qingnianyidaibuzaijuxianyutongguotudilaizengjiashouyi,duixiangcunzhixudegoujianchengweiquexizhe,yuanyoudeminsuyishiyishiquletadewenhuagongneng,minsuyishibiancheng“yishiticao”,zhuyaomudeshitongguozheiyiyishituidonglvyouye,zengjiashouyi。hexuefengcengjingzongjiedao,xiandaixingbujinshiqiwucengmiande,gengyingshiguanniancengmiande。gaigekaifanghou,zhongguonongcunbeijuanruxiandaixingdexuanwozhong,yuejuanyueshen,congwuzhishengchandaoxingdongzhunzezaidaojiazhiguangoujianshangxitongdigaizaolezhongguonongcun,zhenggeguochengbingfeifuguanglveyingbanhuaguozhongguoxiangcun,quexiangbiziyiyang,xixidishuli、gaizaochuantong,shenzhishichedidixiaomiechuantong[2] 56。

malingnuosiji①yuningshanhengfu②fenbiejiangwenhuafenchenglianggecengciyusangecengci,dantamendourenweijiuwenhuabianqiandeneizaijinchengeryan,wangwangshiyuwuzhiwenhua,suihoujinruzhiduyujingshenwenhua。zheiyibianhuaguochengzhong,wuzhiwenhuawangwangzuixianbianhua,zuirongyibeirenmenjieshou。erjingshenwenhuayouyuxujingguorenmenzhangqideshenghuo、shengchandebianqian、rentong、jienazheiyiguochengfangnengxingcheng,yincibianhuazuiweikunnan,danyingxiangyezuiweishenyuan。dangshiyixuanwuyijiji、zhudongdezitai,yixiandaixingweizuobiaoqutuidongshehuifazhanshi,quefaxianjiajielaidexiandaixing,suiranchedigaibianlenongcundeshengchan、shenghuofangshi,quebunengjiajiexifangwenhua。erqie,xifangmoshideshengchanfangshi,yeweinengruyuqishexiangzaizhongguoxiangcunchangxingwuzu。youci,xiandaixingchongshuaxiadezhongguoxiangcunshehuiyuxiangcunwenhuamianlindejingkuangshi,yifangmianyuanyoujuzhuhuanjing、shenghuofangshi、jiazhiquxiang、renjijiaowangfanweishenzhiyuyandoubuduandibianhuazhe,nongminduitudideyilaijianshaole,yuanlaideguishugan、jiayuanganzhujiansangshi;lingyifangmian,“shuitubufu”dexifangshixiandaixingweinengbangzhushiyixuanwujianliqixiandaidenongyeshengchantixi,jianlixindexiandaixingwenhua,fazhanzhihexiadexiangcunxiandaixingdailailexiangcunwenhuadelingluan。xiandaixingduixiangcunshehuiyuxiangcunwenhuajiujingyiweizheshenme?

二、乡村文化现代性转变的基础缺失

xiangcunwenhuadegenbenshuxingjinongyedeshengchanxingjinongmindeshenghuoxing,yijinongminshengchanyushenghuodebianhuadailaiwenhuadebianqian。“jingjiweirenshengjibenzhishi,sheiyimonengwai,zezaiquanbuwenhuazhongqiyingxiangshilizhida,zibunanxiangjian。suizheshehuijingjidebianqian,erjiatingzhidubudebubian,guyirensuogongjianzhishishi”[3] 36。chuwuzhicengmianwai,jingshencengmiandejichuyeyingxiangdaozhongguoxiangcunwenhuashifounenggoushunliwanchengxiandaixingzhuanbian。youyuxiandaixingshi“bolaipin”,tayunxingdemoshilaiziyuxianxingdexifangshehui,bukebimiandaiyouxifangdeshijiao。danshi,houfaguojiabentuhuaguochengshidetadekuozhangsuiranjuyouqiangshixingdetezheng,quebumianyaoshoudaoqianxiandaihuaguojiajieshouyizhishideshijianjianyanyuwenhuaduijie。

(一)乡村文化现代产业基础的缺失

xifangxiandaixingzhuiqiudeshiziyuandebuduankaifahecaifudechixuzengzhang,qiangdiaobuduandejinhua。erzhongguonongyefazhandetedianshi“neijuanshi”de[4] 156,zheiyitediandailaideshishengchandedixiaoxing。xishuangbannadexiangjiaozhongzhiyejizaizheiyishengchantedianxiariqushuaibai③。qingtiandaoyugongshengxitongyishiruci,taxingchengdepinghengjizhishixianlekechixuxingdenongyefazhan,danzhiyueleshengchanlidefazhan,yingxiangledangdinongminshenghuoshuipingdetigao。weiletigaoxiaolv,huoqugengduoshouyi,dangdinongminbadaotianyangyudenizhitiangengbianchengleshuinitiangeng。jiranzhongguochuantongnongyefazhanmoshibeirenweishiluohoude,neimeyuzhipeitaodexiangcunwenhuajibeishiweiluohoude、jijiangxiaowangdewenhua。liushiding、qiuzeqirenwei,renheshituliucunyubaohuxiangcunwenhuadezuofajiu“xiangshizaiyufengchezhandou”detangjikedeshidenuli。danshi,dangshiyixuanwuanzhaoxifangxiandaihuamoshijinxingshehuishiyixuanwushi,quechuxianle“shuitubufu”xianxiang。

十一选五zhongguochuantongnongyedemubiaoshimanzushengchanzhezijizizudexiaofei。zheiyimubiaoshichuantongnongyegaigedonglikuifa。suiranliangshixuqiujinongyerenkoudejiuyenenggouhuodejibenjiejue,keziyuanpeizhishidixiaode,taduishehuijingjidegongxianshijiaodide。xianjinjishufazhanyudaliangzibentourudexiandaihuanongye,keyidadajiangdiduixiangcunlaodonglidexuqiu。zheiyiqushiquezaoyuzhongguodishaorenduo,yijinongcunshengyulaodonglichixuzengjiadekunjing。wentiejunzhenduizhongguobenshijichusuochuxiandewentizhichu,zhongguowentidejiejuejianlizaiyigerenjinjiezhidejibenqiantizhishang,jizhongguoshiziyuanduanqueerrenkouguoshengdenongminguojia。yaoxiangshixiangongyehua,douraobukaisannongwenti,renheneishenghuowailaidelixiangdoubudebujieshouzheiyihuanjingdekaoyan[5]。jiunongyelaodonglizhanzonglaodonglidebilieryan,fadaguojiazai6%yixia,zhongguoquechaoguo50%。nongyerenkounengfouhelizhuanhua,zhijieyingxiangdaochuantongnongyeyaosushifouhuibeixiandainongyeyaosusuotidai,bingjineryingxiangdaogongyehuadejincheng,erqiejixiehuanongchangduinengyuandedalianghaofeizaizhongguoyebujubeikexingxing。weilejiakuainongyefazhansudu,fazhanzhongguojiawangwangzhijieyizhifadaguojiadexianjinjishu。danshi,zheixiejishutongchangxuyaozijintouru。duiyulaodonglifengfuerzijinkuifadefazhanzhongguojialaishuo,wuyiyuyongxiqueziyuanqudailianjiaziyuan,jibuheliyebujuyoukechixuxing①。

十一选五zhongguonongyeshengchanguimoyewufadadaoxifangbiaozhun。jinnianlai,guanyuzhongguonongcunjiatingnongchangmoshilvlvbeitiji。qizhongjiasutudideliuzhuan、tuijinjiatingnongchangguimohuadezhuzhangyingxianchumeiguonongyemoshideyingxiang。danshi,meiguonongyedetedianshididuorenshao,zhongguozeshirenduodishao,hushiguoqing,zhaobanzheiyimoshishifoukexing?2012nian7yue,duishanghaishisongjiangqudiaochajieguofaxian,chengbao、zhuanru200mudetudichengbaozhe,qizhuyaoshouyizhuyaolaiziyuzhengfubutie,erfeidaguimogengzuodejingyingmoshi。chenyiyuandeyanjiuyejieshijiatingnongchangzheiyiguimohuajingyingfangshiduizhongguonongcunlaishuobingfeishiziyuanzuijiapeizhi,jinjinshi“tongguozhengfuxingweiniuqulejingjiluojideziyuanpeizhi”[6]。hexuefengzaianhuipingzhendediaochayezhengshilexiangtongdejielun,bingtichu“zhongnong”xiaoguimojiatingnongchang,yijiatingweidanweidelaodonglishiyong,zuinenggougaoxiaoshiyongtudi、weinongyecongyezhetigongchongfenjiuyehexiaokangshouru[7]。zheixiediaochajieguoyiduimeiguodaercujingyingmoshidekeshiyongxingzuochulejieda②。

dangshiyixuanwuanzhaoxifangmoshijinxingnongyexiandaihuatuijinshi,quefaxianduanqiyouxiao,erhoujifali。zheizhongxianxiangbudanchunchuxianzaizhongguo,qitafazhanzhongguojiayeduomianlinzheiyimingyun。moxigeshirenbasirenwei,“mingdingdexiandaihua”bushimoxigedefuyin。danshi,moxigeyousihunanyibimianxiandaihuademingyun。mianduiquanrenleisumingdexiandaihua,qiantumiaomang,huiguiwulu,daodigaihequhecongni?qishi,xiandaihuabeilundaozhipohuaixingdadedadoushihoufaxiandaihuaguojia。dangtamenshituyixifangxiandaixingmoshituidongbenguofazhanshi,shouxianzaiwuzhishengchanguochengzhongjichuxianlekunjing,zaoyufazhanpingjing,qiewulitupo。

(二)乡村文化现代精神基础的缺失

xiandaixingshishenme,fukezhichutashi“yizhongtaidu”,jituidongxiandaihuashixianzhijingshen。yangchunshizhichu,xiandaixingshizhengtijiegou,erbushidanzhimouyicengmian[8]。tabaokuoganxing、lixingyufansi—chaoyuesangecengmian,zhongxixiandaixingzhankaishi,juyoubutongdeshehuibeijingyutedian。zhongshijideouzhoushibeishenxuetongzhideshidai,renmendeganxingyulixingdoubeishenxuesuoyazhi。wenyifuxingyundongshishenshengyupuluodazhongfenxiang,chongpolezongjiaoshufu,shiganxingyulixingzhujianduli,bingwanchengleduiqizishendefansiyuchaoyue,jiweibosuotide“qumei”guocheng。shouxian,zaiganxingcengmianshang,renmendeyuwangbeijiejin,makesitichu,wuzhiyuwangshirenleifazhanyulishijinchengdedongli,tazaiyuanshishehuibeiyazhi,erzaizibenzhuyishehuidedaokendingyuciji,nenggoucijiwuzhichanpindapiliangshengchanyuzengjiadezibenzhuyijingjixingtaisuizhichuxian[9] 75。qici,zailixingcengmianshang,rendeyuwangzhujianhuodekending。tongguominzhujingshen,jiangouhelideshehuijiegou,zhidingheyidezhidu,jinyibutuidongkexuejinbu,cujinshengchanlifazhan,tuidongzhexifangshehuizouxiangxiandaihua,lixingquanweitidaishangdiquanwei。danshi,yucitongshiyechanshenglerendeyihua。wuzhishengchandetuichongdailaishengcunhuanjingdeehuajirendejingshenkongxu。renmenfaxian,wulunzhuiqiukexueyihuominzhu,dadouyaoxishengziyou。renbeifuhaohua、beipingjunhua,zhujianchengweijishudenuli。yushijuyouxiandaitediandechaoyue(linian)cengmianbianyingyunersheng,tabaokuoshenmei、yishuhezhexuexiandaixing。shenmeiheyishuxiandaixinghuifulerendeshenxing,chaoyueleshisuhua。erxiandaixingzhexuezeduiwuzhiyurendeyihuajinxinglepipan,qiangdiaohuifurendezishiyixuanwuyishi。zhongguodexiandaixingbutong,bushineishengyubentu,ershiyinjinyuxifang。qichanshengdejingshenjichuyuxifangjiyougongtongzhichu,youyouteshuzhichu。ruguoshuo“tuoshenrusu”zheiyitupozongjiaodefangshishixifangxiandaixingxingchengdetedian,neime“tuoshengrusu”jiushizhongguoxiandaixingdexingchengfangshi。zhongguochuantongderujiawenhuaqiangdiaotianrenheyidexingzhi,weifenhuachaoyandexingshangyujingyandexingxia,tabatiandao、tianlizhuanweirendao、renlun,tongshijubeimeixue、zongjiaoyuyishixingtaidengyiyi,bingxingchengle“neizaidechaoyue”。yinci,zhongguochuantongwenhuajijianlilerenmenzaixianshishijiedexingweizhunze,youbangzhurenmenzhaodaozhongjijiazhi,jubeileshuangzhongzhenghegongneng。zhongguoyuxifangshehuizhichayi,zhijieyingxiangqiduixifangxiandaixingdejieshou。qiyi,zaiwuzhicengmianshang,zhongguochuantongwenhuasuirantichule“zhongyilizhibian”,danyucitongshiyeqiangdiaozhongyongzhidao,chengren“shise,xingye”,bingmeiyouwanquanjingurenmenduiwuzhidezhuiqiu,weiwuzhizhuiqiuliuxiayidingkongjian。danshi,chuantongzhongguonongye“neijuanshi”deshengchanfangshi,shi“xiaofujian”desixianggenshendigu。zheiyeshidexiandaixingmoshiqueliguochengzhong,duiwuzhizhuiqiudecijixingburuxifangqianglie。qier,zaizhiducengmianshang,chuantongwenhuadetedian,daozhikexuejingshenweidedaochongfenfazhan,biangedonglibuzu。erjiuqiangdiaorenrenpingdengdeminzhueryan,zhongguode“chaxugeju”yeshideshiyixuanwuduidaizhouweiderencunzaiqinshuchayi。jishimofangxifanggoujianzhidu,danwangwangyouyu“renqing”yu“mianzi”,shidezhidunanyituixing。xifangdeminzhudazhikefenweiliangzhongleixing,yizhongshilusuode“jiyupingdeng”deminzhu,yizhongshimengdesijiude“jiyuziyou”deminzhu。zheiliangzhongminzhulinian,fenbiedaozhilefaguogemingmoshi、renminminzhuzhiduyuyingguogemingmoshi、ziyouminzhuzhidu。zhongguoyouyudilihuanjingyinsu,tudiwufawuxiandudekuozhang。nongzuowugengzuodetedian,shishengchanchanliangwufadafudutigao,zhenggeshehuideshouyishixiangduigudingde,renmenzhinengzaixianyoudeshehuiwuzhizhongzhengqugengduodefenpeifene。yinci,renmengengjiaguanzhufenpeidegongzhengyufou。zheizhongduiminzhuyibiandaodeqingxiang,zuijiduanhuadebiaoxianjiushi“wenge”debaofa。zaici,zaichaoyuecengmianshang,tuoshengrusuderujiawenhuabeidadao,liangshumingrenweijuyouzongjiaogongnengde“lunli”zhixubeipohuai,queweinengjieshouxifangdezongjiao、zhexue、meixuedengxingshangwenhua,shenzhibeipipanweimixin。xifangdeyishu、zhexueyuzongjiaobeiheigeerrendingwei“jueduijingshenzishiyixuanwufuguidesanzhongxingshi”,jirendejingshendefansiyuchaoyue。danzaizhongguo,zheixiebeiguiweiyiyixingtai,daozhizhongguodexiandaixingquefafansi、zishiyixuanwupipandezhutixingyishiyunengli。

三、现代性模式与中国乡村文化的共建

jianshouchuantongnongye,jingjizhihou;fazhanxifangxiandaixing,queyoubiduanhengsheng。sihuzhongguoxiangcunxiandaihuazhidaolu,wulunshifouzouxifangxiandaihuadaolu,douwufabimiancandanqianjing。zhongguoxiangcunwenhuazaizheiyijinchengzhongdangruhezichu?

(一)多元现代性与中国乡村文化

qishi,xiandaixingzidanshengzhijin,duiqigoubingjiucongweitingzhiguo。xiandaihuajinchengtongshijubeipohuaixingyinsuyujijixingyinsu。renmenchongjingxiandaihuadejijixingzuoyong,rukejijinbu、wuzhishenghuoshuipingtigao,danwangwanghushiqipohuaizuoyong,zheiyixianxiangyizhububeirenmensuoguanzhu。alifu·delikezaiqizhuzuo《quanqiuxiandaixing》zhongzhichuzhongguojiangou“tazhongxiandaixing”(altemative modemitv)dekeneng。yuxifangmoshijiongyiguojiadefazhan,biaoxianchuleduozhongmoshidekenengxingyubutongdeyoushi,yetuozhanleduoyuanxiandaixingdexianshimoban。duoyuanxiandaixingdetichuzhe,yiseliexuezheaisensitateyerenwei,youyuwaijieziranhuanjing、chuantong、wenhuadengdechayi,xifanghuabushirenmenduixiandaixingdeweiyilixiangyugoujiantujing,tayinggaijubeibutongdexingshiyufazhanlicheng,juyouduoyuanxing。qiarujierbote·luozimansuorenweide,xiandaixingwulunduiyuxianlaizhehaishihoulaizhe,douyinggaishineizaidezhuanbian。erzhongguo“xifangxiandaihua”zhiluyezaiyinzheng,“zhirushi”debeipozhuanxingdaoluzaizhongguoxingbutong,zhongguodexiandaihuaguochengyinggaishigenzhiyuchuantongshehuide“neizaihua”zizhuzhuanxing①。

十一选五fuhezhongguofazhanxuyaodexiandaixingmoshiyinggaishishenme,rengxushiyixuanwujinyibumosuo。erzheiyiguochengyoubunengtuolichuantong,jizaixiandaixingdeguochengzhong,ruheyouxiaodiyunyongyuzhenghechuantongwenhuaziyuan,chuantongxiangcunwenhuanengfouwanchengchuantongyuxiandaidejiaojieyuronghe。qishi,chuantongyuxiandaibenshenbingfeijingweifenming,zheiliangzhebushiduili,eryingshichuancheng。xiandaihuaxuzhagenyuxianshiturang,tabushijianlizaiyipianxuwuzhishang。zhongguodexiandaihuashouxianyinggaiwanchengchuantongdezishiyixuanwugengxin,shizaibaoshoujichushangdexinchendaixie,shichixubuduandechuangzao。zhengshijiyuduoyuandeziranhuanjingyuwenhuachuantong,xiandaixingmoshiyeyingshiduoyangde,“duoyuanxiandaixing”mengshengyuchuantongshehuideturangzhizhong,xiandaixingmoshidegoujianxucongchuantongwenhuazhongjiquyingyang。tebieshidangshiyixuanwukandaoxifangxiandaixingmoshizhongdebiduan,kandaoxifangxiandaixingxiarendeshengcunkunjing,lixingyujiazhidebeili、shengcunyiyidezhebi、wuzhiyuwangdeguodupengzhangdailaidejingshenkongxudeng,renmenhuizhuanerxiangchuantongwenhuazhongxunqiu“jiejiu”delingyao。

十一选五dangzhongguonongyefazhanmianlinhuanjingwuran、ziyuankujiedengzhuduowentishi,renmenshituzaichuantongwenhuatixizhongxunqiujiejuefangan。yiyunnanxishuangbannadiqudedaozuowenhuatixiweili①,qidutedejiegouyugongnengzaiyu,renmenwufazaishengchanguochengzhongzhijieshedingmubiaoweibaohushengwuduoyangxing,dankeyigoujianxiangyingdewenhua。tongguozheiyiwenhua,baokuojinengyuzhishi,bangzhuduoyangxingwenhuayushehuideguanliyuweichi,bingjinerdailaishengtaiduoyangxing。zheishizaikuaxueke、zhengtilundekuangjiaxiawanchengde。daozuowenhuatixiyibiaomingchuantongwenhuajuyouzheiyangdegongneng,yinci,dangxiandaihuafazhanzhongmianlinyixiliehuanjing、shengtaiwentijijiazhiguanmimangshi,shehuiwenhuajiazhichengweinongyeshengchanbaohuyuhuifudezhongyaoweidu,renmenjiangmuguangzhuanxianglechuantongwenhua,kandaoqijiazhisuozai。

tanxunzhongguoxiandaixingmoshideguocheng,qishishichuantongwenhuayuxiandaixinghuxiangshitan、huxiangmosuo、gongtongjiangoudeguocheng。xiandaixingtuidonglechuantongnongcunshehui、chuantongxiangcunwenhuadebiange,erchuantongxiangcunwenhuabingfeibeidonghuiyingshehuidebianqian,wangwangyizhudongdezitaiweixiandaixingmoshidequelitigongjingshendaoxiang。zhengrumaxieer·salinsisuoshuo: “wenhuazaitanxunruhequlijietashisuizhixiaoshi,jiezheyouhuiyicongweixiangxiangguodefangshizhongxinchulai”[9]。zai《huiyinggemingyugaige: wanbeilicundeshehuibianqianyuyanxu》zhong,ribenrenleixuezhehanminjixuleqingmo、minguo、jianguochuqijigaigekaifanghou,zhangda60niandeshijianzhongwanbeilicundeshehuizhuangkuang。zaiwenzhong,zuozhezhichujinglilecongwanqingdaogaigekaifangchuqi,suiranshehuixingtai、shengchanlishuipingyouledadebianhua,danzhongguonongcundejibenshehuijiegourengshiyixueyuanhehunyinweigenjide,guanxiwangluoyuguannianrengranjuyouchixuxing[10]。nongcunxiandaixingyuchuantongxiangcunwenhuashizaitedingdedilihuanjing、shengchanfangshidengyinsudejiaohuzuoyongchanshengde,zaitedingde“ziranhuanjing、jingjihuanjing、shehuizuzhihuanjing”zhongyunyuchuzishendewenhuabingjiayichuanbode。“yindizhiyi”shixiandaixingmoshijianliyuchuantongxiangcunwenhuafazhande“yaofang”。chuantongwenhuayezaixiandaixingmoshimosuoguochengzhong,qianyimohuadimengfalexindetedian。huangyingguizhichutaiwannongcunshehuixinjindefazhan,junlizuyuyuanlaidifangshehui——juluozhiteshuziranjirenwentiaojianerlai,zai9.21zhenzaihou,shouxiandaixingyingxiangyueda,danrengrantixianleyuanyouwenhuadetese②。zaizhongjianguochengzhong,jiangzongjiao、xinyang、wenhuayukuaguozibenzhuyixiangjiehe,xingchenglejiehejingjiyuzongjiaoerchanshengde“shenmijingji”,xindejingjiyuwenhuaxingshibeichuangzaochulai[11]。dalunongcundexiandaihuafazhanyishiruci,jixingchenglezijideshengchanfangshi,yechanshenglexindewenhuatedian。dang“xiaoerjing”dejiatingnongchangdailaidejingjishouyigenggaoshi,xiangcunwenhuayechuxianleyuzhixiangshiyingdebianqian。tantongxuezhichu,zhongguozigaigekaifanghou,xiangcunshehuijiegoujubian,qijichujifeichuantongde“zongshijiazu”,yebingfeixifangsuochongshangzhi“geren”。gaigekaifangchuyi“zhuganjiating”weizhu,jifuqiliangrenzaijiayihunzinv。suizhexiandaixingdejinyibushenru,fuqijiweihunhaizigouchengde“hexinjiating”zhujianzhanjuzhuyaodiwei,bingyichengweidangdaizhongguoxiangcunshehuijiegoudewenhuatezheng。xiangcunzhonglunchangdejichujifeixifangde“geren”,yefeichuantongde“jiazu”,shizhongguonongcunzaixiandaixingmoshimosuozhong,xiangcunwenhuazhongjianguochengzhongwanchengde[12]。

(二)多方博弈中现代性与乡村文化的共建

xiandaixingmoshidexuanzeyuxiangcunwenhuazhongjianchuyuduofangliliangboyizhixia,weilezheiyijinchengdeshunliwancheng,xuyaochengqingguannianbingjunhengboyigefangdeliliang。

1.xiaochuchuantongyuxiandaideeryuanduiliguannian。zhongguozhishifenziziyapianzhanzhengyilai,jishituweizhongguoxiangcunwenhuakaichuyaofang,yiqizuodaoyaodaobingchu。kexianshizhonglvlvpengbi,zhengmingdoushiyaobuduizheng。chuxianzheizhongqingkuangdegenbenyuanyin,zaiyuzhongguozhishifenzishiyi“tazhe”deshenfenduidaizhongguoxiangcunwenhua,jiyongxifangxiandaihuadebiaozhunlaijinxingzhenduan。rufeixiaotongpipingyanyangchuyichuanjiaojingshenzhengjiunongcun,xianjiadinglezijishijinbude,shiyong“xianjin”jiaoyu“luohou”。tazhichu,xifangchuanjiaodemudeshi“yizhengkexie”,zheiyichufadianshouxianshedinglebeichuanjiaodeduixiangshiyou“yuanzui”de,chongmanxiee,zhiyouzaiguiyizongjiaohou,cainenghuodekuanshu,zuizhonggaixieguizheng。eryanyangchuchuanjiaodezitai,jiushixianshedinglenongcundiqu“yumei”,xuyaocaiyong“jiaoyu”defangshijiaodaonongmin,“yizhishiquyu,yishengchanqupin,yiweishengquruo,yizuzhiqusi”[13] 505。zheiyigongyeyunongye、xiandaiyuchuantongeryuanduilidexintai,daozhixiangcunchuantongwenhuarentongsangshidetongshi,yeweinengjianliqixifangbiaozhundexiandaihua。zhongguonongcunweilaidefazhan,xubimianluoruxifangmoshide“kejiu”,fouzeshiyixuanwuzishenchizaoyouhuizuoweiyizhong“yiwenhua”erxianruxifangweishiyixuanwushedinghaodetazhewenhuamoshizhong。suoyi,shouxianzaiyishishang,shiyixuanwuyaojingxing,bimianzheiyixianxiangdefasheng。duoyuanxiandaixingdezhuzhangyizhengminglechuantongyuxiandaishikeyiwancheng“duijie”de,shiyixuanwukeyikaoliangzijiwenhuadegexing,jianshaoduiwailaisixiangde“paiyifanying”,shixiangcunwenhuaxiangshehuiyoujitiyiyang,xingchengqidutedetezheng。

zaichuantongyuxiandaiduijiezhong,yaochulihaolianggexianghuguanliandeneirong: yishixiangcunwenhuachuancheng。wenhuabenshenyanzhechuantongdeguanxingxiangqianhuadong,bukenengyewufayuguoquchediduanlie。wulunwaibuhuanjingyouduodadenengliang,chanshengduodadeyingxiangli,wenhuadebianqianzongwufagelieyuguoqudewenhuadechengjie。danshi,zheigewenhuadechuanchengbingfeijiandanfuyuanxiangcunwenhua,ershilejieqizhongyunhandejiazhiyulinian。qishi,wenhuadefazhan、leijibingfeidanchunweiwuzhishengchantigongjichu,gengweishencengdeshiduirenxindefuwei,manzurenmenneixinshenchudeyuanwangyuqipan,wanchengzuizhongxinyangdegoujian。yinci,“shiyixuanwuguigenjiedibaohudebushizheiyikuaiertitian,bushizheiyikuaierdaoyugongshengxitong,ershitongguozheixiekandaoshiyixuanwuzuxianzaibianhuaduoduandezirantiaojianxia,zenmeyangduidaidaziran,zenmeyangcongdaziranneiershequjinghua,zenmeyangquxunzhaozhenggerenleidegongtongliyi,erbushiyijiayihudewenbao”[14]。ershixiangcunwenhuayanzhan。xiangcunshehuiyijingbukenenghuidaoguoqu,qiebulunnongtiangengzuofangshidebianhua,xinxigeming、wangluojishuyeshidenongmindeshenghuofashenglejudabianhua。zaicijichushang,wenhuadeyanzhanshijianlizaixiangcunshiyixuanwucongruheshixianxifangxiandaihuaxiangruhechaoyuexifangxiandaihuashiyixuanwuzheiyizhutizhishang,jiyouduiwenhuaketidepipanxishou,yeyaowanchengwenhuazhutidezhongxinjiangou。

2.duofangboyililiangdejunhengpeiyang。zaixiandaixingmoshixuanzeyuxiangcunwenhuafazhandeyingxiangliliangzhong,yousanzhejizhongfahuizuoyong,fenbieshinongmin、shichangyuzhengfu,erqizhongzhengfuyushichangdeliliangyuandayucunmin。butongshiqi,zhengfuyushichangjieqiguojudazuoyong。minguoshiqi,yikaozhengfudeqiangzhili,guominzhengfuyibaojiazhidaitishishentongzhi,shituxueruoxueyuanzongfadejichuxingzuoyong,danjieguoshideqifan,jiwufaxiyinxiangcunjingying,yequefazugoudecaizhengzhichi,zuizhong,rengbudebucaiyongyuanyoudexiangcuntizhi。jianguohou,rengranyikaozhengfudeqiangzhili,xiangcunshehuidechuantongzuzhiyushishenquanweituichuzhengzhiwutai,xiangcunganbuzuoweigemingquanweichengweitidaixingdeliliang。xiandaixingmoshiyuchuantongwenhuadoushizaiwailiqiangpoxiajinxingbianhua,shiyige“shiran”erfei“yingran”deguocheng。erzaigaigekaifanghou,shichangdeliliangtuxianchulai。renmensuozuodeyiqieshiqingdouxufuheshichangfazhandexuyao,manzurenmenliyidezuidahuoqu。suirancushileshengchanlidekuaisufazhan,quechuxianledaodeshuaibaiyulunliweiji。zijindaiyilai,nongminzainongcunxiandaixingyuxiangcunwenhuadebianqianguochengzhong,shizhongchuyu“shiyu”zhuangtai。shiyixuanwuguanzhuyucaiqudefangshishiyouguojiazishangerxiafangshi,erfeizixiaershangdefangshi,nongmindezizhuxingbeirenmenhulvediao。xiandaixingyuxiangcunwenhuadequeliyuzhongjianbushinongminzijizaizuo,ershiguojiazheigedailirenbangzhutamenwancheng,shichangzheigewailiqiangpotamenwancheng,weidumeiyounongminzizhudejijixingyingdui。rufeibian(johannes fabian)suoshuo,dangdirenchuyu“shiyu”zhuangtai,duishiguanzijidezhongyaoshiwuwangwangquexi[15] 77。qishi,nongcunshiyixuanwudezhutishinongmin,erqieyezhinengshinongmin。nongminyouyuanwangyeyounengligenjuhuanjingdebianqianjinxingshenghuoyushengchandediaoshi,chuanchengyuchuangxinxiangcunwenhua,jiangyuanyouwenhuayuwailaiwenhuajinxingronghe,fazhanchufuhezijishenghuotediandexinwenhua,zuodaozhenzhengdetugunaxin。erqie,yezhiyouyilaiyunongminzishendeliliang,cainengzaixiandaixingyuwenhuachuangxinfazhanzhongtongshijubeiguangduyushendu。nongminduichuantong,duizishenwenhuadetaidu,zhijieyingxiangdaonengfouquelixiandaixingmoshiyunengfoujixufazhanxiangcunwenhua。qizizhuyuanwangyueqianglie,xiandaixingmoshidequeliyuwenhuachuancheng、chuangxinjiuyuerongyi。zheiqizhong,yingjiaqiangfahuixiangcunjingyingdezuoyong。muqian,xiangcunjingyingzhuyaojizhongyujingjilingyu,daozhiwenhuadechuanchengshiqulechuandaorenheguyoudefazhankongjian。bufencunmindexiaotuantihuodongshoujingjidengduozhongyinsudeyingxiangnanyifazhan。wenhuadezhonggouxianruwuxuzhuangtai,gezhongfeizhengshidezongjiaohuodongxiyinyuelaiyueduodecunmin。cunmin、shichangyuzhengfu,suiranshilaizibutongfangxiang,yougezideliyisuqiu,youbutongdeyunxingguijiyuzhunze,danzaixiandaixingmoshiqueliyuxiangcunwenhuafazhanzhong,quekexianghuyingxiang,xianghucujin。xiandaixingyuxiangcunwenhuabenshenjiubingfeigudingbudong,ershiyigeliudongdeguocheng,gefangliliangdecixiaobizhang,juedinglexiandaixingyuxiangcunwenhuadezouxiang。

四、结论

zongtieryan,jindaiyilaidezhongguoxiangcunwenhuashizhongmianlinruhe“shoubenkaixin”dewenti。ruwanjunrensuoshuo,jiyao“chishoubinggengxuzhongguowenhuachuantongzhiyuan,zheishishiyixuanwudewenhuamingmai”,yeyao“zaixinshidai、xinshijie、xinrenleidexiandaiyujingzhongkaizhanshiyixuanwuzhonghuajingshenzhiliu,shiqibuduanqiangjianzishen、wanchengqixiandaizhuanxingbinghuanranshenghuaweijinrizhizhongguohejinrizhizhonghuaminzuanshenlimingdejingshenzhicheng”[16]。zheiyiguochengyebansuizhezhongguoxiandaihuadezhubushenru。zixiandaixingchuxianyilai,renmencongshehuizuzhicengmian,zhutixingcengmian,xiandaixingyulixingdeguanxidengduogejiaoduduiqijinxingfenxi,xiandaixingyezairenmendechanshi、zhenglunyuzhiyizhongjinglileqimengshiqi、tansuoshiqijituozhanshiqi。zaizheiyiguochengzhong,xiandaixingyunyuchuqijibenneihe——ziyou、pingdeng、lixingdeng。danshiruhelijie、shijianqineihe,xifangshehuijinxingleqiantiyushe,jixiandaixingdejiedu、shijianyumoshishidanyide,oumeishidexiandaixingshirenleiweiyikeyixuanzeyumofangde。zheiyangdaozhidejieguoshi,renleifazhandeduoyangxingyuchayixingzhinengzhongjieyuxifangxiandaixingdepushixing。danyouyuxifangxiandaixingzaifazhanzhongguojiashijianzhongdecuobai,renmenzaixiandaixingdeshijianmosuozhong,zhujianfazhanchuxiandaixingdepubianxingyudifangxingtongyi,zaibutongdiqukaishijiechufengcaigeyideguoshi。

dangchuantongxiangcunwenhuayuxiandaixingjinchengxiangyushi,wenhuade“shoubenkaixin”yuxiandaixingmoshidexuanzebianshizhongjiaozhizaiyiqi。wenhuabingfeilishiqiwudecunliu,yefeijisiyishidefuzhi,shihuoshengshengderenmenzhengzaijinxingzhedeshenghuofangshi,shizaizishiyixuanwushijianjiyutazhedetuoxiezhonganzhaozishiyixuanwudeluojibuduanjinxingzhedezhonggou,ruleimeng·weiliansirenweide“zuoweiyizhongteshushenghuofangshi”shiwenhuajiangoudegenben。erzheizhongteshudeshenghuofangshidebianqianyuqueliqiaqiashixiandaixinggoujianguocheng。xiandaixingshiyuxiaxiangcunwenhuadezhongjian,yejiubuzaishidanchundewenhuawenti,tashejidaojingji、shehui、wenhuadegongtongfazhan。ruonongcundeshenghuo、shengchanfangshiyifashengdianfuxingbianhua,xiangcunwenhuarengjiugushouchuantong,qifazhanzuizhonghuichengwei“wubenzhimu,wuyuanzhishui”,jinchuyuqingganxuyaobaoliuxialai,zhihuichengweiwenhuade“huohuashi”。tongshi,youwailaishiliqiangxingzhirudeshenghuofangshi,nanyixingcheng“jitijiyi”binghuodeguishugan,yewufajuyouyanxuxing。xiangcunwenhuanengfourutongshehuiyoujiti,xianhuodecunliuyufazhan,jiequjueyuxiandaixingmoshidexuanze。paokaizheigejichutanxiangcunwenhua,bianbukebimiandizai“chaichu”yu“jianli”zheilianggejiduangainianjianbutingdiyaobaile。

十一选五xiangcunwenhuayuxiandaixingzhijianshiliangxinghudonghaishijieranduili,qujueyurenleishijianbenshen。zuoweishenghuofangshidewenhua,xuhuodewenhuazhutiderenke。zaiqianxiandaishehui,renmendewenhuarentongshidanyide。erzaixiandaishehui,zejuyouduoyangxingyukexuanzexing。jiwenhuazaixiandaishehuiyiwufatongguoxingzhengminglingqiangzhituixing,eryingtongguopeiyangnongmindezijueyishi、fahuiqinengdongxing,shinongminzaizishiyixuanwushenghuofangshidexuanzezhongzijuedicanyujinshehuibianqian,xingchengnongmin、shichangyuzhengfujiandeheli,tansuoshihezhongguodexiandaixingmoshi,yiyizhonggenghaodefangshibaochirenyuziran、renyuren、chuantongyuxiandaidepingheng。

[fuzhu] benwenshou2015niandushandongdaxue(weihai)“weihaiqingnianxuezheweilaijihua”xiangmuzizhu,teciganxie。

[can kao wen xian]

十一选五[1] yanghua.chuantongcunluoshenghuodeluoji——nongmin“lishigan”yu“dangdigan”deshijiao[d].wuhan: huazhongshifandaxue,2007.

十一选五[2] hexuefeng.xiangcunshehuiguanjianci[m].jinan: shandongrenminchubanshe,2010.

十一选五[3] liangshuming.zhongguowenhuayaoyi[m].shanghai: shanghairenminchubanshe,2011.

十一选五[4] huangzongzhi.mingqingyilaidexiangcunshehuijingjibianqian: lishi、lilunyuxianshi[m].beijing: falvchubanshe,2014.

十一选五[5] wentiejun.sannongwenti: shijimodefansi[j].dushu,1999,(12).

[6] chenyiyuan.zibenzhuyishijiatingnongchangdexingqiyunongyejingyingzhutifenhuadezaisikao——yishuidaoshengchanweili[j].kaifangshidai,2013,(4).

[7] hexuefeng.tudiliuzhuanhezibenxiaxiangbibingcongsheng[n].guangzhouribao,2012-10-31.

[8] yangchunshi.xiandaixingyuzhongguoxiandaixingdezongtigoucheng[j].qiushixuekan,2003,(1).

[9] salinsi.tianmidebeiai[m].beijing: shenghuo·dushu·xinzhisanlianshudian,2000.

十一选五[10] hanmin.huiyinggemingyugaige: wanbeilicundeshehuibianqianyuyanxu[m].nanjing: jiangsurenminchubanshe,2007.

十一选五[11] huangyinggui.nongcunshehuidebengjie?dangdaitaiwannongcunxinfazhandeqishi[j].zhongguonongyedaxuexuebao: shehuikexueban,2007,(2).

十一选五[12] tantongxue.conglunlibenweimaixianghexinjiatingbenwei——lundangdaizhongguoxiangcunshehuijiegoudewenhuatezheng[j].sixiangzhanxian,2013,(1).

十一选五[13] feixiaotong.feixiaotongwenji: di5juan[m].beijing: qunyanchubanshe,1999.

[14] wubingan,sunqingzhong.nongyewenhuayanjiuyunongyewenhuayichanbaohuwubinganjiaoshoufangtanlu[j].zhongguonongyedaxuexuebao: shehuikexueban,2012,(3).

[15] johannes fabian.anthropology with an attitude. stanford[m].california: stanford university press,2001.

十一选五[16] wanjunren.wenhuadegenbenwentizaiyuruheshoubenkaixin[eb/ol].http://www.news.xinhuanet.com/zgjx/2013-03/26/c_132262590.htm.




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