十一选五

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孙周兴 : 在何种意义上讲哲学是西方的?

时间: 2014-09-17 14:52:08 点击:

核心提示: “存在学”或“形而上学”乃是一套建立在特定的(即希腊的或印欧的)语言系统基础之上的范畴系统,其中的核心范畴就是“存在” (On)。所以“存在学”或“哲学”是“希腊的”,从而也就是“西方-欧洲的”。...

十一选五zaideguosixiangjiamading?haidegeershengqianchubandezhuzuozhong,yousanbenshuyi“daolu”(weg)li ming: 1950niande《linzhonglu》(holzwege)、1967niande《lubiao》(wegmarken)yiji1959niande《zaitongxiangyuyandetuzhong》 (unterwegs zur sprache),xianzaifenbiebeijiwei《haidegeerquanji》dediwu、jiu、shierjuan。xuejiegongrenzheisan“lu”douhenzhongyao。bizhehualezuijinliu、qinianshijianlaifanyizheisan“lu”,suiranjian ku,danganjuehaishizhidede。《linzhonglu》he《zaitongxiangyuyandetuzhong》liangshudezhongyibenyijingzaiqianliangnianjianxiangjichuban,[2]erjin《lubiao》dezhongyibenjikejianshu,shiyixuanwuxiangzaizheilishuojijuyi zhedehua,yishijiandandijieshaoyixia《lubiao》shu,ershijiuhaidegeerbishengsuotantaode“cunzaiwenti”laitantan“zhexue”dewenti。

xiantan《lubiao》shu。《lubiao》shihaidegeerwannianzibiandeyibenwenji,huijilehaishizi1919nianzhi1961nianjinbangeshijijiansuozuodeyixiezhongyaowenzhang,jiyoushisipian,anxiezuoshijianshun xubianpaiercheng。zai《lubiao》yishuzhong,shiyixuanwukeyibijiaoquanmiandilejiedaohaidegeerbenrende“cunzaisixiang”zhijincheng,yijitaduiyuouzhou-xifang“cunzailishi”deduteqingli、pipan。benshushu mingyiyixiangshiyixuanwumingshi,tabaohanzhehaidegeerzaidui“cunzaiwenti”debuxiezhuiwendaolushangdegegebiaoji——“lubiao ”。

十一选五zai《lubiao》shuzhongkeyijiandaohaidegeerbutongshiqidezhuduomingpian。anzhaotongchangdefenqifangfa,qizhongqianwupianshuyuqianqihaidegeer(sanshiniandaiqian)dezuopin,ru“xianxiangxueyushenxue”、“xinger shangxueshishenme?”、“lungenjudebenzhi”dengwen,shiqianqihaidegeerzhexuedemingpian。houjiupianzeguiyuhouqihaidegeer,ru“lunzhenlidebenzhi”(1930nian)yiwen,biaozhizhehaidegeersi xiang“zhuanxiang”(kehre)dekaiduan;“guanyurendaozhuyideshuxin”yipian,zuimingquedichuandachuhouqihaidegeerduiyuqiqianqizhexuedezishiyixuanwufansihezishiyixuanwupipan,yijitayuyisateerweidaibiao dexiandai“shicunzhuyi”(youyi“cunzaizhuyi”)zhexuesichaodezijuehuajie,yebeixuejieshiweihaidegeersixiang“zhuanxiang”dadaowanchengdeyigebiaozhi;erzuoyu1955niande“mianxiangcunzaiwenti” yiwen,duiershishijihoubanyede“houxiandaizhuyi”sichaochanshenglexianzhudeyingxiang,youqishihaidegeerzaiqizhongshouchuangde“tuhuafa”(jizai“cunzai”yicishangdachashanchu,eryouyicibaoliu“hen ji”),houweifaguojijinsixiangjiayage?delidasuojichenghefayang,duihouzhede“xiaojielun”sixiangqidaolezhijiedeqifazuoyong。

十一选五zaishangliehaidegeersan“lu”zhong,yiyanxiazheiben《lubiao》zuiju“xueshuxing”,yinweibijiaoeryan,《lubiao》shuzhongdewenzhangzaixingshishang(wenfeng、luntideng)gengjinyuxifangchuantongxueshudetaolunfeng ge。congwenfengshangkan,《lubiao》zhongdewenzhanghaishizhexuezhuanyede,erqitaliang“lu”,tebieshi《zaitongxiangyuyandetuzhong》,jiuchabuduochengleshiyishizudewenxuezuopinle。congluntishangkan,《lu biao》shutaolundejihuwanquanshizhexueshizhuanyedetimu。shiyixuanwucongzhongkeyikandaohaidegeerduixifangzhexueshishangzhuduozhexuejujiangdetaolun,huozhuanti,huojianji,congguxilazhexuedajiabolatuheyalishi duode,daodeguojindaizhexuejialaibunici、kangdeheheigeer,jizhiyuhaishitongshidaideouzhouxiandaizhexuejia,ruyasibeiersihesate,dengdeng。xianran,haidegeerbazheishisipianbutongshiqidewenzhang huijizaiyiqi,shiyouyigezhuantishejideyitude。

haidegeerzai“qianyan”zhongyiyimingyan,《lubiao》yishuyizairangduzhetichadaoyitiao“tongxiangduisixiangzhishishideguidingdedaolu”。suowei“sixiangzhishishi”zaihaishineilijiushi“cunzai” (sein)。zai《linzhonglu》zhong,haidegeeryebataqianqizhexuededianjizhizuo《cunzaiyushijian》chengwei“lubiao”,shijiyinweihaishizai《cunzaiyushijian》zhongzhongxintichuhezhuiwenle“cunzaiwen ti”,queliletabishengsixiangdezheigeweiyizhuti。

十一选五zuoweiyigelilunketi,zheige“cunzai”wentiduishiyixuanwudongfangrenlaishuobijingyouxiewuji,jianzhilingrenwucongtanqi。dantaqueshixifang-ouzhouzhexuewenhuadeyigegenbenwenti。tajuebushihaidegeerhuozhe wulunnagexifangzhexuejiarenyifamingchulaide,ershiyigezhigenyuxifangsixiangheyuyanzhongde、yuxifangrendelishixingdewenhuaheshengcunxiuqixiangguandewenti。haidegeershenzhibaxifangdelishichengwei“cun zailishi”(seinsgeschichte),shiwei“cunzaizhifashengshi”,yikejianhaidegeersuolijiede“cunzai”shouxianhaibuzhishiyigelilunketieryi。buguo,zaihaidegeerkan lai,zixilabolatushidaiyijiangdexifangxingershangxuezhexuedui “cunzai”dechuncuililundetantao,benshenjiushiyizhongdui“cunzai”zhifashengyunzuode“zhebi”。yihaidegeerdeshuofa,xingershangxuedelishijiushi“cunzaizhibeiyiwangzhuangtaidelishi”。danbixukan dao,jibianzheiyangyigeduanyanyebingbushichunranfoudingxingde,bingbujiuyiweizhehaidegeerduixifangxingershangxuechuantongdequanpanfouding。haidegeerdaoshizai“cunzai”de“mingyun”(geschick) huo“tianmingfasong”(schickung)deyiyishanglailijie“lishi”(geschichte),baokuoxingershangxueshide。yejiushishuo,xingershangxueshuyuxifangdelishixingmingyun。

十一选五zhongsuozhouzhi,zaixifangxueshuchuantongzhong,guanyu“cunzai”(xilawendeon,ladingwendeesse,dewendesein,yingwendebeing)dexuewen,shisuowei“cunzaixue” (ontologia)。zaizhongwenfanyishang,shiyixuanwuxianzaizhishaoyou“wanyoulun”、“bentilun”、“cunzailun”、“shilun”dengyifa。shiyixuanwugerenqingxiangyubazheigeontologiayiwei “cunzaixue”。zaishiyixuanwukanlai,guangweiliuxingde“bentilun”yiyibijiaonanheontologiazhibenyi,suiranshiyixuanwukeyitongguojieshiba“benti”yu“cunzai”qianlianqilai。yiwei“cunzailun” benwudaai,yinweiontologiabenlaijiushi“cunzaixueshuo”(seinslehre),danzheigeyimingzaijutiyujingliyechangchangyouyixiexiaoxiaodebuchangkuai。liru,haidegeerxihuan baonto-logieyutheo-logiebingyong,shiliangzheweixifangxingershangxuedejibenyaosu,youshishenzhigancuijiubaliangzhehexieweionto-theo-logie(“cun zai-shen-luojixue”),yinci,ruruoshiyixuanwubaliangzhefenbieyiwei“cunzaizhilun”(“cunzailun”)yu“shenzhixue”(“shenxue”),ganjuezongshibutaihao——mingmingdoushi“xue” (-logie)ma!

ciwaihaiyou“shilun”yiyi。shiyixuanwuxiang,chiciyimingdexuezhemendagaishiyaotuchuqiangdiaoontologiazhongdeonyuxici“shi”(einai)dexingshilianxi,yejibeing yuto bedexingshilianxi,congerqiangdiaoontologiadeteyixing。zheizhongyongxinguranshihenkechengdaode。danwentiqiaqiajiuzaiyu,jibianzaixiwenzhong,zuoweimingcideonhuozhebeing(“cun zai”)yuxicieinaihuozheto be(“shi”)yebingmeiyoucimianshangdetongyixing,weishenmeshiyixuanwuzhongwenzhongfeidebaliangzhetongyiqilaini?yishiyixuanwukan,ruruoshiyixuanwubamingcionhexicieinaiyigaiyiwei“shi”,duobanhuizengjia hunluan,duiyulejieyiliweibihuiyouduoshaocujin。

zhidetebiezhichudeshi,zaixiandaihanyuxueshudejibenyimingzhong,shiyixuanwuzheiliyiwei“cunzaixue”dexiwenmingciontologia,dagaisuandeshangzuiweihunluan、zuiyouzhengyi、zuinanyutongyideyige yimingle。shiyixuanwuganshuo,haimeiyouqitarenheyigexiwen“xuekezhuanming”xiang“cunzaixue”zheiyang,zaihanyuxuejieshoudaorucichijiudetaolun、zhengyihejieshi,tongshishoudaoruciwangudequjiehewujie。zheizhong qingkuangshihenzhideshiyixuanwushensiyifande。tabenshenjiuyijingbiaoming,“cunzaixue”zheimen“xue”tixianlexifang-ouzhouzhexuewenhuadegenbenneihe,yigeyushiyixuanwuzhongguochuantongsixianghebiaodagegeburude“ying he”。

“ cunzaixue”keyibeikanzuo“xingershangxue”dehexinbufen,yexuhouzhedeneihangengweiguangdayixie,danzaihaidegeerneilizewangwangbeidengtongqilaishiyong。haidegeershenzhiyezai“cunzaixue”deyiyishangshi yong“zhexue”yici,congeryeba“zhexue”yu“xingershangxue”dengtongqilaile。haidegeerdeliyousihuxiangdangjiandan: “zhexue”shixilade,er“zhexue”(“diyizhexue”)yanjiudeshi“cunzai zhiweicunzai”,yinerjiukeyiyu“cunzaixue”、“xingershangxue”huayi。

zaiwushiniandaixiede“zheishishenme——zhexue?”[3]yiwenzhong,haidegeerzhibaidizhichu: wulunshi“zhexue”(philosophie)zheigezhuti,haishi“zheishishenme?” (was ist das?)zheiyangyizhongzhuiwenfangshi,liangzhedouqiyuanyuxila,yejiushishuo,“zhexue”、“cunzaixue”huo“xingershangxue”shi“xilade”,erqiezhishi“xilade”,shi“xila”suozhuanyoude。 haidegeerdezheigezhuzhangxuyaoshiyixuanwurenzhenduidai。ruozhankaiyanzhi,zheiyejiudengyushuo: “zhexue”、“cunzaixue”huo“xingershangxue”shixifang-ouzhousuoteyoude,erqitafeiouzhoudeminzuwenhuashimei you“zhexue” de,shimeiyou“cunzaixue”huo“xingershangxue”de。

zheiyangshuolai,wentijiutebieyanzhongle。

十一选五shiyixuanwuyaowen: haidegeerzheigelundiandelunjujiujinghezai?zaihezhongyiyishangkeyishuo“zhexue”shi“ouzhoude”huo“xifangde”ni?zhengjuzhuyaolaiziyuyan,zhuyaoxianshiyuyuyan。haidegeerrenwei, xiladezhexuejiamenfazhanchuyizhongdutedewentifangshi: ji“zheishishenme?”dewentifangshi,congyuyanshangkan,zheizhongwenfaqishijiubiaozhizhexilayuyanzhong——kuodajiang,jiyinouyuyanzhong——xicixi tongyijicunzaipanduanjudegaodufada。youciyiketuichu,zaixicihecunzaipanduanjubufadahuozhewanchengdeyuyanwenhuachuantong(ruhanyuwenhua)zhong,shimeiyou、yebukenengyou“cunzaixue”huozhe“zhe xue” de。

“cunzaixue”yanjiudeshi“cunzai”(on,sein,being),erzaixilawenzhong,mingcionshicongxicieinaiyanhuaerlaide,shijingguobudingshidexingshichouxiang、jinyibudongming cihuaerxingchengde。zheiyebiaoming,“cunzai”(on)fanchoudechuxianshiyiyufashangquyuchengshudexilayuyanweijichude。zaihaidegeerkanlai,“cunzai”fanchoushizaiqiansugeladidezaoqixila“si xiang”xiangxilatixihuade“zhexue”(bolatu-yalishiduodedezhexue)dezhuanbianzhongxingchengde。juhaishiyanjiu,qiansugeladidezaoqisixiangjiamen,lirubamennide,haishiyongeinaidegezhong butongdexingshilaibiaoshi“cunzai”de,haimeiyouzaitadesixiangyuyanzhongshiyongzuoweifanchoudemingcion;erbolatuheyalishiduodejiukaishiyongmingcixingdeonlaitongyiqiansugeladisixiangjiamenbiaoshi “cunzai”debutongciyuxingshile,youcaicixingchengleyizhongyiyigegudingbubiande、jueduide“cunzai”(huozhesuoweide“xianxiangshijie”beihoude“zhenshishijie”,yejinicaisuopipande“lingyigeshi jie”)weidingxiangdezhexuedezhuiwenchuantong,jixingershangxuede“bolatuzhuyi”chuantong。

十一选五zongzhi,haidegeerrenwei,“cunzaixue”huo“xingershangxue”naishiyitaojianlizaitedingde(jixiladehuoyinoude)yuyanxitongjichuzhishangdefanchouxitong,qizhongdehexinfanchoujiushi“cunzai” (on)。suoyi“cunzaixue”huo“zhexue”shi“xilade”,congeryejiushi“xifang-ouzhoude”。zuoweiyigefanchouxitong,“cunzaixue”huo“zhexue”dejibenfangfashi“xingshihua” (formalisierung),zheiyidianzaojiuweihusaiersuojieshi,houyouweihaidegeersuoqiangdiao。[4]zheilishiyixuanwubixutebiezhuyideshi“cunzaixue”huo“zhexue”de“xingshi”te xing。tongchangbaxingchengyuxiladejihexueheluojixueshiweidianxingde“xingshikexue”,qishirenmenwangwangwangjilelingyimengenbenxingde“xingshikexue”,neijiushi“cunzaixue”,huozheshuo,shi“cunzaixue” yiyishangde“zhexue”。

十一选五keyikanchu,haidegeershicongtade“cunzailishiguan”he“cunzai-yuyan”sixiangchufalaililunde。erzaiershishiji,yeyouyixiexifangyuyanxuejiahezhexuejia,conggezidejiaodusijizheige“cunzai -yuyan”deweidu,congerweihaidegeerdeshangshuguandiantigongleyoulidezhichi。zheifangmiandeqingkuangshiyixuanwuzaibiechuyijingyousuotaolun,danzaizheilihaixiangzuoyigegaikuoxinglunshu。[5]

十一选五ershishijifaguozhumingdeyuyanxuejiabangwennisite(benveniste)zhichu: guxiladeyalishiduodezhexuezhongde“shifanchou”naishi“yizhongtedingdeyuyanzhuangtaideguannianfanying”。zheiye jiushishuo,yalishiduodedezhexuefanchoushijianlizaixilayuyandejichushangde。faguozhumingdehanxuejiaxiehenai(j. gernet)yirending,xilayuyanyouyixialianggejibendetedian: yishitixianzaiyuyanshiyongzhongde“fanchou”;ershi“cunzai”guanniandegenbenxingyiyi。[6]youcizujian“cunzaiwenti”he “cunzaixue”duiyuxifangouzhouwenmingdedutexingle。

xiehenaibingqiejinyibucongdong-xifangwenhuabijiaodejiaodu,fenxilezhongguohanyusixianghewenmingdeteshuxing。xieshizhichu,suiranyindusixiangdedaolubutongyuxiladedaolu,dantayeshijianlizaiyizhengtaoyu yanxuedefanchouzhishangde(fanyuyeshiyizhongshuyuyinouyuxideyuyan),shitebiezhongshi“cunzai”guanniande;weiyideliwaijiushizhongguowenmingle,zhongguowenmingshijianlizaiyizhongyuyinouyuyanxitongwanquanbu tongde“yuyanmoshi”zhishangde。hanyubutongyuyinouyuyan,tajimeiyou“yufa”fanchou,yemeiyoubiaoshi“cunzai”dexidongci,yinerzaihanyusixiangzhongmeiyouxingchengchaoyuede“cunzai”guannian。

shiyixuanwuyezhidao,hanyuzhongdexici“shi”shiwanchude,dayuechuxianzaidonghanmonian,erzheijiushishuo,zaihanyusixiangwenhuadechengxingshiqi(jixianqinshidai)genbenhaimeiyouzheige“shi”;erqie,hanyuzhong zheigewanchude“shi”youshicongzhishidaici(“zhei”)zhuanhuaerlaide,wanquanbutongyuyinouyuyanzhongjingguobudingshidechouxiangerxingchengdexici“shi”。zheizaiyuyanxueyanjiushangyijingyoulexiangdangmingquededing lun。zaizheili,zuigenbenzhidiankongpahaizaiyu: jishizaijingguo“yufahua”——zaiyidingyiyishangkeyishuo“xifanghua”——zhihoudexiandaihanyuzhong,xici“shi”dezuoyongyebingmeiyouxiangyinouyuyanzhong dexicineimezhongyao,huozheshuo,tayemeiyouhuodeyinouyuyanzhongdexicisuojuyoudequanbuyufaxingshigongneng,dangranyehaishibunengtixianyumingcixingde“cunzai”fanchoudexingshilianxide。——yuyandeben yuanxingshinanyiliqide。

十一选五haiyouyiweixiandaiyuyanxuejiayuehannasi?luoman(j. lohmann),yuanweideguofulaibaodaxuedejiaoshou,gengmingquedicong“cunzaixue”jiaoduduihanyuyuyinouyuyanxitongzuoleshenrubijiao,bingqiedechuyigejielun: zhongguo(hanyu)chuantongsixiangwenhua zhongmeiyou“cunzaixuechayi”(ontologische differenz),bukenengxingcheng“cunzaixue”。luomanrenwei,zaiyinouyuxideyuyanzhong,“cunzaixuechayi”shimingqueditixianzaiyuyanjiegouheyufaxingshizhongde,erzaihanyuzhongzeburan。 zaigudaiyinouyuyanzhong,mingcihedongcishiyoucigenyuciweizuchengde,cigenbiaodagainianneirong,ciweibiaodagainianyushiwudeguanxi,suoyi,zaimingcihedongcixingshizhongjiubiaodachucunzaiyucunzaizhedeguan xi,fanyinglesuoweide“cunzaixuechayi”,jicunzaiyucunzaizhede“luoji-cunzaixueshangdechayi”。erzaihanyuzhong,tebieshizaiguhanyuzhong,cileidejiexianshibuqingchude,gainianyuketizhijiandequ fenshimohubuqingde,yemeiyouxingchengyinouyuyanzhongneizhong“zhu-wei”chenshujiegou(yejixicidebufada)。yinci,luomanrenwei,hanyuzhongmeiyouxingchengxifang-ouzhoushide“cunzaixuechayi”。 [7]

shangmianliejudejiweiouzhouyuyanxuejia、hanxuejiadousuanbushangyangedezhexuejia,genbenyebunengshuoshihaidegeerdexintu。[8]danxianran,tamenshiyousixiangdeyuyanxuejia,yuzuoweisixiangjiadehaidege erchuyuyizhong“jinlinguanxi”zhong。tamendouyuhaidegeeryiyang,shenrudaoxifangzhexuehewenhuadezuigenbendewentizhongqule。zaizhenzhengyiyishangjiang,zhiyouxifang-ouzhoudewenhuacaishiyizhong“zhexuewen hua”。danzheiyangyigeduanyanbingbushizai“zhongzuzhongxinzhuyi”(“ouzhouzhongxinzhuyi”)demuguanglixiade,erwuningshuoshiyige“fanzhongzuzhongxinzhuyi”deduanyan。yinweitebieshizaihaidegeerneili, zheigeduanyanshizhongshiyu“zhexuepipan”jinjinzaiyiqide。

youbiyaozhichu,shuozhongguo(hanyu)chuantongwenhuazhongmeiyou“zhexue”huo“cunzaixue”,bingmeiyoubiandizhongguochuantongwenhuadeyisi,gengbushishuogulaodehanyuwenhuameiyouzijide“sixiang”。“zhexue”yu “ sixiang”shilianghuishi。kuangqie,zaishiyixuanwujintianzheigeduowenhuajiaowangdeshijiehuashidaili,“cunzai”wentiyeyijingchengxianweixiandaihanyusixiangdeyigeketile,xifangde“zhexue”yeyijingchengweizhongguoxiandai xueshuzhongdeyimenjibende“xue”le。

yuyanlunsiludekaituoshiershishijixifangxueshusixiangdeyidachengguo。zheizaixuejieyishubuzhengshishi。jinyixienianlai,shiyixuanwuguoxuezheduisuoweide“yuyanlunzhuanxiang”yijinjinledao,duoyouxuanyang。buguo,zhei tiaojuyoushidaitezhengdeyuyanlunsiludeshijiexingyiyirengyoudaishiyixuanwujinyibuqutiren、jieshiheshixian。zaishiyixuanwukanlai,tazaiwenhuaxueshangdezhongyaoyiyijiuzaiyu: tongguoduoyuanyuyanwenhuashiyedekaiqi,yi zhong “feizhongzuzhongxinzhuyi”dewenhuaguandeyizhubuqueli,zhubuchengweishiyixuanwushidaidezhuliuxueshuhuayuqingxiang。suiranyushijiefanweineidezhengzhijingjicengmiandexianshiquanyichongtuxiangduizhao,zheizhongwenhuaguanrengweimian lixianghua,weimiancuiruo,dantabijingyijingyouleyigezhixiangweilaidekaiduan。

zuihou,zuoweihaidegeerzhuzuodezhongyizhe,shiyixuanwuxiangqiouzhouzuojiamilan?kundelazuijinjichudeyigetixing: “qingzhuyi,quanshijiedeyizhezai‘zai’he‘you’zheixiezimianqiangandaodekongju!tamenwei leyongyigetamenrenweishaoyixiepingyongdezilaidaititamen,huishenmedougandechulai!”[9]shiyixuanwuxiang,duiyukundelazheilisuoshuode“kongju”,yingyishiyixuanwuhanyudeyizhemenzuiyoutihuile。yiguoyixie haidegeerwenzideshiyixuanwuduiyukundeladezheiyifantixingyouweijingkong。huochuyu“youmeideyuwen”dekaolv,huochuyuzichucongmingdemainong,yehuochuyuyuyanjiandenanyiyuyuedehonggou,shiyixuanwuzaiyiwenzhongjiujing ganlexieshenmegoudangni?

十一选五[1] benwenxizuozhewei《lubiao》zhongyiben(taibei1996nian)zuodeyizhexu,yuanzai《dushu》,beijing1996niandi8qi,shumingbaibo。shourubenshushizuolezengbu。

[2] bizhezuobenwenshi,liangshuzhiyoutaiwanfantizibanyinxing: 《linzhonglu》,taibei1994nian;《zaitongxiangyuyandetuzhong》,taibei1993nian。liangshujiantizibanzhi1997nianfenbieyoudalushanghaiyiwenchubansheheshangwuyinshuguanchuban。er《lubiao》zhongyibenxianzaiyeyiyoulejiantiziban(beijing2000nian)。

[3] huozhiyiwei: “shenmeshizhexue?”。zhongyiwenkecankan《haidegeerxuanji》shangjuan,sunzhouxingbianxuan,shanghai1996nian,di588yeyixia。

[4] tebiekecankanhusaier: 《luojiyanjiu》diyijuan,haiya1984nian;yijihaidegeer: 《zongjiaoshenghuoxianxiangxue》,《quanji》diliushijuan,disizhang,meiyinfalankefu1995nian。

[5] cankansunzhouxing: 《shuobukeshuozhishenmi——haidegeerhouqisixiangyanjiu》,shanghai1994nian,qianliangzhang。

[6] cankanxiehenai: 《zhongguohejidujiao——zhongguoheouzhouwenhuazhibijiao》,gengshengyi,shanghai1991nian,di347-348ye。

十一选五[7] cankanyuehannasi?luoman: “haidegeerdecunzaixuechayiyuyuyan”,zailuomanbian: 《ciyu》(lexis)diyijuan,laer1948nian,di49yeyixia。yingyiwenzaikekeermansibianyi: 《lunhaidegeeryuyuyan》,yiwensidun1972nian,di303yeyixia。

十一选五[8] dangran,yuehannasi?luomancengyuhaidegeergongshi,shoudaoguohaidegeersixiangdeyingxiang,yeduihaidegeerdeguandianyoubushaoyinzhenghetaolun,danshiyixuanwusihuhaibunengyincirenweizheiweiyuyanxuejiajiushiyiwei“haidegeerzhuyizhe”。cankanluoman: 《zhexueyuyuyankexue》,bolin1965nian。

[9] milan?kundela: 《beibeipandeyizhu》,mengmeiyi,shanghai1995nian,di101ye。




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