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【欧阳康】大数据与人文社会科学研究的变革与创新

时间: 2016-05-22 22:52:37 点击:

核心提示: 十一选五习近平总书记在谈到如何繁荣发展中国特色哲学社会科学时,要求十一选五善于“运用互联网和大数据技术,加强哲学社会科学图书文献、网络、数据库等基础设施和信息化十一选五”,这为信息化时代的人文社会科学研究的方式变革与理论创新指出了正确的方向。大数据正在成为当前中国社会快速信息化的最重要表征之一。十一选五应当深刻认识大数...

十一选五xijinpingzongshujizaitandaoruhefanrongfazhanzhongguotesezhexueshehuikexueshi,yaoqiushiyixuanwushanyu“yunyonghulianwanghedashujujishu,jiaqiangzhexueshehuikexuetushuwenxian、wangluo、shujukudengjichusheshihexinxihuashiyixuanwu”,zheiweixinxihuashidaiderenwenshehuikexueyanjiudefangshibiangeyulilunchuangxinzhichulezhengquedefangxiang。dashujuzhengzaichengweidangqianzhongguoshehuikuaisuxinxihuadezuizhongyaobiaozhengzhiyi。shiyixuanwuyingdangshenkerenshidashujujiqiduirenwenshehuikexueyanjiusuotigongdejihuiyutiaozhan,zijuecujinrenwenshehuikexueyanjiudebiangeyuchuangxin。

chongfenrenshidashujujiqiduoweiyiyi

十一选五heweidashuju?shiyixuanwuguo《cujindashujufazhanxingdonggangyao》zhichu: “dashujushiyirongliangda、leixingduo、cunqusudukuai、yingyongjiazhigaoweizhuyaotezhengdeshujujihe。”weiketuo·maier—sheenbogehekennisi·keyebianxiede《dashujushidai》zhongtichu“dashuju”de4vtedian: volume(tilianghaoda)、velocity(shengchengkuaisu)、variety(motaifanduo)、value(jiazhijudaermidujiaodi)。

zaishiyixuanwukanlai,dashujudechanshengshirenleitanxunshijiefazhanguilvheguihuazishiyixuanwufazhandaolushangdeyizhongjijichanwu。dashujujiqiyiyisikecongyixiajigecengmianlaijiayijiedu:

zaizhijiedeyiyishang,dashujushixiangduiyu“xiaoshuju”huozhechuantongshujueryande,zhirenleishouciyoukenengcongziran、shehuiherendehuodongzhonghuodeshuliangjuda、leixingduoyang、cunqugaosu、fuyujiazhiyiyideshujubingjiangqijiheqilai,xingchengjudadeshujuku,bashijieheshiwudecunzaifangshizhuanbianweizhouquanxiangjindehailiangshujucunzaifangshi,jiezhuyutamenlaishixianduiwaibushijiehezishiyixuanwujinxinggengweiquanmian、xizhi、shenruhezhunquedibawo。

十一选五zaijiaoguangdeyiyishang,dashujuyiweizheyudashujucaiji、cunzhu、chuli、chuanshuheyingyongxiangguandezhenggexinxijishu、sheshitixiheyunxingfangshideng,goujianqiyigegeshujuhuadeshijie。renmenyoukenengzaibuzhijiejiechuxianshishijiedeqiantixiatongguojiechushujushijieershixianduixianshishijiederenshiyubawo;tongguoganzhiheyunxingshujushijielaizhonggouheyingxiangxianshishijie,xingchengzhenshishijieyuxunishijiedehudong,zhanshichuziran、shehuiherenleideshuzihuajincheng,biaomingxiandaixinxikejihewangluoshijiefazhandaolequanxinjieduanhegenggaoshuiping。

zaigengguangdeyiyishang,dashujuyiweizhegaoduxinxihuashidaiderenmenzijuehuozhebuzijuedicongshizheshujuhuadeshengchan、shenghuo、jiaowang、sikaoyushijian,goujianqiyizhengtaojinmiyituoyuxiandaixinxiwangluoheshujuhuaxitongdeshengchanfangshi、shenghuofangshi、jiaowangfangshi、siweifangshihezhilifangshideng,dashujubujingaibianzherenleideshehuishenghuo,yezaiquanmianyinlingzherenleishengcunfangshidegemingxingbiangeyushidaixingtisheng。

十一选五zaizuiguangdeyiyishang,dashujuyiweizheyizhongyituoyudakeji、daxinxihedashujuergoujiandequanxindezirantujing、shehuitujingherenleitujing,yidashujudefangshilaikandaiziran、shehuiherenleizishen,zhengzaizhuanbianweiyizhongziranguan、shehuiguan、renleiguan、jiazhiguanhefangfalun,biaozhizherenleirenshishijieherenshizishiyixuanwu、gaizaoshijiehegaizaozishiyixuanwujinrudaogengjiaquanmianqingxizhunquedeshuipinghegengjiazijueyouxiaodejieduan。

tansuodashujutigongdeteshujiyuyutiaozhan

十一选五congzongtishangkan,yurenwenshehuixianxiangdeduoyangxinghefuzaxingxiangduiying,renwenshehuikexueyeshiyigepangdadexuekequn,neibucunzaizhejiongranxiangyidexueke,butongdexuekeyudashujudeguanxiheguanlianduyeyouhendabutong。liru,congzongtishangkan,chuantongdeshehuikexuexueke,zhurujingjixue、guanlixue、shehuixue、zhengzhixue、faxue、jiaoyuxuedengxuekeduishujudeyilaixingjiaoqiang,dashujusuozhanshideyiyihuigengchongfen,erwenxue、lishi、yishu、zhexuedenggengjiaguanzhurenmendejingshenshenghuo、jiazhilinian、xinlingshijiedeng,duiwaizaishujudeyilaixingjiaodi,dashujusuozhanshideyiyixiangduijiaoruo,zaidashujushidaisuoshoudaodeyingxiangyexiangduijiaoxiao。jijiudashujubensheneryan,yeyingdangkandao,dashujubingbushiyiqie,bingmeiyougenbenqudaixiaoshujuhechuantongshuju;dashujujishushangzaifazhanzhizhong,bingbunengjiandanqudaichuantongshujujishu;dashujuyanjiuyecunzaihenduowenti,shiyixuanwumeiyoubiyaoyebuyinggaijiandandiyongdashujuyanjiulaizhebichuantongderenwenshehuikexueyanjiu。

danwufahuibideshi,fangxingweiaidedashujuyijingjirenwenshehuikexueyanjiutichulehenduowentihetiaozhan,yetigonglexuduochuangxindejihui。

十一选五shouxian,cong“jiashechufa”haishicong“shujuchufa”kaishishiyixuanwudeyanjiu?“dadanjiashe,xiaoxinqiuzheng”,yizhishishiyixuanwucongshirenwenshehuikexueyanjiudejibenmoshi。dashujushidai,hailiangshujushenzhi“quanshuju”decunzaichengweishiyixuanwuhenduoxuekehelingyuyanjiudeqianti,tamenbiaozhengzhexuduonanyibianxideshishi,yaoqiushiyixuanwuzuochubiyaodejieduheshuoming。

qici,yi“gebieyangben”haishiyi“hailiangshuju”weiduixianglaikaizhanyanjiu?youyucaijishujukunnan,guoqurenwenshehuikexuedehenduoyanjiubudebuyilaiyuchouyangdiaocha,caijidaodeyongyuanshigebieyangbenxinxi,weicierbudebujiadachouyangdebili,danzuidabilideyangbenyebukenengqiongjinduixiang,yincisuoyoudejielundoudaiyoutuilundexingzhi。dashujushidai,renmenyoukenengtongguojiuyidingshiwucaijiquanyangben,tigongquanshuju,weirenwenshehuikexueyanjiutigonggengjiajianshikekaodeduixiangxingjichuheqianti。

十一选五zaici,shi“ganxingjiechu”haishi“xingweitongji”gengweikekao?renwenshehuikexuedehenduoyanjiuyiyanjiuzheyubeiyanjiuzhedezhijiejiechuzuoweizhenshikekaodejichu,liruzhijieduihua、zhimianfangtan、dianhuacaifangdeng,zheiyouqiganxingzhiguanhekekaodeyimian。danrenmendesixiangneizaiyuxinling,chongmanzhelixingyufeilixingdeboyi,juyoudulixing、fensanxing、getixinghebiandongxingtedian,qibiaodawangwangshoudaojiaowangzhezhijiandehudongganjuehechangjingdezhijieyingxiang,youqishishejiyixieminganhuatihuichanshengmouzhongteshuzhebishenzhizhihuiboyi,ganxingjiechubingbuyidingdouzhenshikekao。dashujutongguoxingweitongji,duiyushujuxilidudefenge,quanfangweizhangshijianleijisouji,youqishizaiduirenmenzaidaliangde“shubiaoxuanze”“wangluotoupiao”zhongzhanshichudejiazhiquxiang、meichouhaoe、pingjiabiaozhundeng,zhanshichugetizhenshidexinlingshijie,goulechushehuizongtixinlizhuangtai,miaohuishidaijingshendedatizouxiang,youkenengweirenwenxuekedelixingyanjiutigonggengjiazhenshikekaodeduixianghejichu。

youci,yi“shitiguilv”haishiyi“tongjiguilv”weiyanjiumude?guoqu,renwenshehuikexueyanjiuzhuyaoyituoduishehuixianxiangdejubuguanchaheshitixingtansuo,dashujujiangshehuibianliangbianchengketongji、keduliang、kejisuandeduixiang,tongguozhuizongshehuizhongzuoweizuixiaozuchengdanweide“ren”yijiduiquanjuxingshehuixingtaidebaorongxinggenzongleiji,zaiyigexiangduidiliandeyanjiuchengbenzhongzhanxianshehuiheshehuizuzhidegaojingdushehuishijing,shixianyizhengtihequantishujuweijichudeyanjiu,genghaoditanxishehuifazhandebenzhitezheng、neizaiguilv、yanhuaqushiheweilaizouxiang。liru,guanyuguojiazhilitixixiandaihuadeyanjiu,keyichangshijiezhuyudashujulaijianlipinggutixibingjinxingguojibijiao,congerdechukexuejielun。

renwenshehuikexueyanjiuyingzijuerongrudashujushidai

dashujushidaiyijinglailin。meiguozhengfuyu1993nianqidongxinxigaosugonglushiyixuanwu,2012nian3yueyouxuanbutouru2wanyimeiyuanyongyu“dashujuyanjiuhefazhanjihua”,zheliyubaochizaidashujuzhanlvefangmiandeshijieyouxiandiwei。shiyixuanwuguoguowuyuanzai2015nian8yuefabule《cujindashujufazhanxingdonggangyao》,jiangdashujunaruguojiazhanlve。muqiandewentishi,renwenshehuikexuegongzuozheruhezijuedijinrudashujushidai,tuijinrenwenshehuikexueyanjiudebiangeyuchuangxin。

十一选五yaozijuexuexiheyouxiaoyunyongfuzaxingsiwei。dashujudeshijieshigejiweifuzadeshijie,xuyaofuzaxingdesiweifangshi。jindaijingdiankexueqingxiangyujiandanxing,chanshengchuxianxingyinguodeguanchashijiaohehaiyuanlundeyanjiusilu。ranerzaixianshishijiezhongquecunzaizhexuduoyubuquedingxing、tubianxing、feipinghengxing、feixianxing、mohuxingdengmiqiexiangguandefuzaxianxiang,youcierchanshengchuhaosanjiegoulilundengxiandaifuzaxingkexue。renwenshijieshigegengjiafuzadeqingganshijiehejiazhishijie,cunzaizhejiweifuzaderenjihudongheqingganjiaozhi,chongmanzhebuquedingxingshenzhifengxian,xuyaoxuexijiejianfuzaxingkexuedesiluhefangfa。

十一选五yaozijuexuexiheyunyongdashujujishu。duidashujujishudeyingyongdagaikeyifenweisanzhongcengciheshuiping: nenggoushulianyunyongxiandaixinxijishuheshujuzhuangbeichulirenwenshehuikexuedefuzaxinxi;nenggoukexuehelijieduxiandairenwenshehuikexuexinxisuoyunhandeyiyi;nenggouyunyongdashujujishuyinlingrenwenshehuikexueyanjiuherenwenshehuixianshideliangxingjiankangfazhan,yinlingshehuiwenmingdeshuzihuafazhanfangxiang。tongguodashujujishudeyingyongbarenwenshehuikexueyanjiudexiangduikeguanbufentishengweikeyiyuzirankexuehegongchengjishuxiangpimeide“yingkexue”,zheijiangjidatishengzhongguorenwenshehuikexueduidangdaishijiedejieshiliheyingxiangli。

yaozijuegengxinhefazhanzishiyixuanwu。shiyixuanwuyaoyongyuzhangwojishuyoushanyuchaoyuejishu,jinzuidanuliquxuexizhangwoheyunyongdakexuejishu,zouzaishidaidechaotou,tongshiyouyaofangzhiweijishusuoguoxie,bimianchengweijiandandejishuzhuyizhe,nulibaochirenwenshehuikexuegongzuozhedesixianggaodu、lilunpingehejiazhidingwei,yongyufansihepipan。dashujushidailibukairenhezhuanyequeyebuhuijuniyurenhezhuanye,yaozijuedizhanzaidangdaixuekejishendufenhuayougaoduzonghedebeijingxiakaizhanyanjiu,jilizuzhuanyeyouchaoyuezhuanye。dashujushidaizuidadetedianjiushiren、duixiangshijie、shujushijieyushujujishudeduoweihudong,zheiyexuyaoshiyixuanwuyongyushixianzishiyixuanwuchaoyue。zhiyouzijuedizhishenyuziran—shehui—ren—shujudefuzajuxitongzhong,rencainengzhenzhengchengweishijiedezhuren,chengweidashujudezhuren,chengweirenwenshehuikexueyanjiudezhuren。

                                          (yuanzai《guangmingriba》2016niandi1110qi)




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