十一选五

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谢地坤: 尊重生命 卫生济世

时间: 2016-04-01 22:39:14 点击:

核心提示: 如何理解生命、认识生命,进而尊重生命,爱护生命,提高生命质量,实现人生价值,始终是人类的一个永恒话题。...

十一选五    ruhelijieshengming、renshishengming,jinerzunzhongshengming,aihushengming,tigaoshengmingzhiliang,shixianrenshengjiazhi,shizhongshirenleideyigeyonghenghuati。

zaizheili,shiyixuanwuxiangqizairichangshenghuozhongtingdaoliangzhongjieranbutongdeduidaishenghuo、duidaishengmingdetaidu。yishizaiyunnandelijiang,duoshaonianqian,dangshiyixuanwuzheixiewaidiyoukezailijiangcongcongmangmangyoulanshi,jiuhuikanjianbushaobanzuobantangzaidongriyangguanglidedangdiminzhong,tamenhaoxiangshenmeyebuzuo,yiwentamen,tamenjiuhuishuo,ganmaneimezhejiya,bulunshenmeren,rendezuizhongdoushisi。shiyixuanwutingdaociyu,douhuiyutamenjiaotanyifan,faxiandangdirenbutaijijiaomingli,yongyuanshibujibuhuang、tuotuolalademanjiezou,sihuyaoyongtamendehuanmanshenghuotaiduquzhuaizhushiguangdefeishi。ershishiyixuanwuzairibentingdaodeshiyuciwanquanxiangfandetaidu,zairibenrendeyanzhong,shengmingdejiazhibuzaiyuzhangyuduan,erzaiyuyoushengzhirishifouhuizhanfangchushengmingzhihua,zheijiuxiangribenrenxihuandeyinghua,suiranhuaqizhiyouyizhou,danzaizheizhouliyinghuazhanfangdewucaibinfen,yaorenyanmu,zheihuoxujiuanshileribenrenderenshengguan。duiyuzheiliangzhongrenshengguan,shiyixuanwubuhaozuobaobianxingdepingjia,meiyigeminzuderenshengguan、shijieguandouyoutamenlaiyixingchenghefazhandelishiyuanyin。shangmianshuodezhishibijiaodianxingdelizheng,zaiquanshijiegegedifang、gegeminzuhaiyougezhonggeyangderenshengguan,shiyixuanwubukenengzaiciyiyilieju。shiyixuanwuzuoweizhexue、shehuixue、wenhuaxuezhexuyaotantaodeshirenleizaiqixingchenghefazhanguochengzhongxingchengdeguanyurendeshengmingdezuipubiandesixiangheguannian,shiyixuanwuhuoxumingzhiwei“shengmingzhexue”huo“shengmingwenhua”。guanyushengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhua,xiamianyixieneirongshishiyixuanwuyingdangzhuyiyanjiude。

十一选五yi、xuanhujishiyujishijiumin

十一选五suiranduishenmeshizhexue、shenmeshiwenhua,xuezhemenyougezhonggeyangdebiaoshu,youguandingyibuxiajiqiantiao,dandangdaixuezhejihudouchengren,zhexuedesuoyoumingtizuizhongdouzhixiangle“renshimude”zheigezonggang。erwenhuazeyurenleijiqianniandewenmingshimibukefen,suowei“wenyihuaren”,jiangdejiushiwenmingrenyuyemanrenzhijiandequbie。zhishijindaiyilai,bujindiqujiandezhanzhenglianmianbuduan,weixiedaoxiangdangyibufenrenqundeshengcun,gengkepadeshi,renleidewuxiankuozhangjishiyixuanwulaiyishengcundediqiudailailehuimiexingdezaihai,ziyuankujie,huanjingwuran,shenzhishiyixuanwuxuyubunenglikaidekongqiheshuidouzaodaowuran,zaizheishihoujiubujinjinshishiyixuanwurenleinanyishengcun,ershisuoyoushenghuozaidiqiushangdedongzhiwudouyudaoqiansuoweiyoudeshengcunweiji。suoyi,zaidangxiashiyixuanwuzhexuejiajiubujinyaoshuo“renshimude”,erqiegengyingdangshuo“shengmingshimude”,yinweiqitadongzhiwudeshengcunshijishangdouyushiyixuanwurenleideshengcunshimiqiexiangliande。duici,shengwuxuejiamenhehuanbaozhuyizhemenzaojiuyishidao,ershiyixuanwuxiangdangyibufenrenwenxuezheduiciguanzhubugou。

十一选五zunzhongshengming,bushiyijukonghua,jiyaoyoulilunzhidao,yeyaoyoushijianxingdong。zaijinxiandaizhexueshishang,shengmingzhexueyecengfengxingyishi,bingqieduihoulaidexianxiangxuehejieshixuedouyoujudayingxiang。zhemingdeshengmingzhexuejiadiertairenwei,zhexueyanjiudeduixiangbuyingshidanchundewuzhi,yebuyingshidanchundejingshen,eryinggaishibazheiliangzhejinmilianxiqilaidedongxi———shengming。tarenwei,shengmingbenshenjiushishiyixuanwudesixianghepingjiadeyuanquan,zhiyoushengmingcaishizhexueyanjiudeduixiang,suoyi,tazhuzhang“congshengmingbenshenqurenshishenghuo”[1]。tahairenwei,yiqieshehuishenghuoxianxiangdoushi“shengming”dekeguanhua,renleishehuizhengshikaozheshengmingzhiliucailianchengweiyigeyoujidezhengti。zhengshizaizheili,diertaiqiangdiaolishixingshishengmingzhexuedeyidatezheng,yinweishengmingbuzhishizirandechanwu,erqierenzuoweiyizhongzhiqingyidejieheti,juyouhenqiangdeshehuixing,renhuozaishehuizhong,shoudaoshehuidexianzhi;renshenghuozailishizhong,dedaolishidejiaohua。lishijiaohuirenruhezaixianzaishengcun,lishiyeyingxiangdaorenleideweilai。deguolingyiweishengmingzhexuejiaqimeier(georg simmel)zetuchu“shengmingbishengminggengduo”he“shengmingchaoyueshengming”zheiliangtiaoyuanze。duitaeryan,suowei“shengmingbishengminggengduo”,shizhishengmingshiyigeshengshengbuxidechuangzaoguocheng,shiyizhongchixubuduandeyundong。suowei“shengmingchaoyueshengming”,shizhishengmingyouchaoyueshengmingzishendenengli,buduanchuangzaochutawu。tongshi,qimeieryerenwei,shijianshishengmingdegenbentezheng,zhiyoushengmingzhiwucaijubeishijianshangdeyanzhanxing,tabutingdihuodongzhe、yundongzhe,bujubeiyoukongjianxing。yuzhixiangduide,zeshijiangsidewuzhiwusuoweiguoqu、xianzaihejianglai,tamenyikongjianweitezheng。qimeierdezheizhongrenweidibashengmingyuwuzhideduili,jinerbashijianyukongjianduiliqilaidexiangfa,zaishengmingzhexuezhongdaiyouyidingdepubianxing,danqueyurenmendechangshixiangbeili。duici,lukaqicengjingfengcishuo,“shengmingzaizheiliyijingbianchengyigechuncuishenmidegainian,tayijingyukexuedeshengwuxueduanjuelerenheguanxi。”[2]

daolefaguozhexuejiabogesenneili,tasihuzoudegengyuan。bogesenzaiyidingchengdushangjicheng、fazhanlediertaideshengmingzhexue,dantagengqiangdiaozhijueduishengmingrenshidezhongyaoxing。zaitakanlai,shengmingchongdonghuoshengmingzhiliunaishishijiedebenzhi,wanwudegenyuan。dantayoufourenshengmingshiwuzhi,ershiyizhong“mangmude、feilixingde、yongdongbuxieryoubuzhipibeide”shengmingchongdong[3]。zheizhongchongdongzaishijianshangshiyongbujianxiedizifaliuzhuan,suoyi,tayouchengzhiwei“mianyan”huo“shengmingzhiliu”,taxiangyitiaoyongliubuxideyishizhanghe,guyouchengwei“yishiliu”。zheiyang,duibogeseneryan,zaitadeshengminggainianli,wuzhiyujingshen、shijianyukongjian、lixingyuganxing、yiyuduo、neiyuwaidengdengdoushiduilide,ertaderenshilunbunengyingyonglixing,ershizhinengyilaisuoweide“zhijue”。bogesenzheizhongbalixingyuzhijuewanquanduiliqilai,hushilixingdeyiyi,xianranshibukejieshoude。

zhengshiyinweishengmingzhexuedezheizhongjianglishiyuxianshi、shengmingyuwuzhi、kongjianyushijian、lixingyuganxingxianggeliedelundiao,shitamenbunengjixuqianxing,fandaoshibeihoulaidexianxiangxuehecunzaizhuyizhexuesuochaoyue。xianxiangxuehecunzaizhexuechengweiouzhoudalu20shijidezhexuezhuliu,youhenduoyuanyin,danbukefourendeyigezhongyaoyuanyin,qiarusatesuoshuo,cunzaizhuyishuodaodishiyichangrendaozhuyiyundong,suoyi,jishicunzaizhuyiyouxiekongtandesecai,dan“cunzaizhuyirengranshijiejinshizaideweiyidejutidaolu”[4]。yuouzhoudeshengmingzhexuexiangbi,zhongguogurensuoshuode“yidaoxing,zehuoren,rudaoxing,zehuotianxia”zenengjishiyixuanwugengduoyixiexianshiyulilundeqifa。zheilide“yidaoxing,zehuoren”shizhiyishengdejiusifushang、xuanhujishidexianshixingwei,tazunzhonghehehushengmingdeziranbufen。“rudaoxing,zetianxiahuo”biaomingleyirujiaweidaibiaodezhongguochuantongdezhuliuwenhuazunzhongshengming、reaishengmingdeshehuibufenhejingshenbufen,tuchulewangzhe“jishijiumin”、“baoweishengling”dewangdao,barenmenlixiangdezhuiqiudinggeweidadaoliuxing、shengmingdeyishengshengbuxideshehuihelishideshiyu,zheilimianbaohanle“tianxingjian,junziyiziqiangbuxi,dishikun,junziyihoudezaiwu”dezhongguojingshen,xingchenglezhonghuawenmingdejibencengmian。suiranzheilimianhaoxiangqueshaolexingershangdecengmian,danfoxuejiyushiyixuanwudexinxingzhixuezemibulezheifangmiandebuzu。duici,shiyixuanwujiangzhonghuachuantongwenmingyuxifangwenmingjinxingbijiaoheyanjiu,jinerdechushiyixuanwudepanduan。

十一选五er、reaishengmingyuzunzhongrenquan

十一选五dangdaizhexuedeyigedianxingtezheng,jiushipaoqiwuguanxianshidexuansimingxiang,yongyurenshihejiedarenleimianlindepubianxingwenti。jiyuci,shiyixuanwuyingdangkandao,shengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhuadeyanjiuqiejikongfanbixuwushi,yaozaizheiliangzhezhijian,jizaixianshiyulixiangzhijianxunzhaoyigepinghengdian。youci,shiyixuanwujinerkandao,reaishengming、zunzhongrendejibenquanlishishiyixuanwuyanjiudechufadian,yeshishiyixuanwuyanjiudejibenneirong。tongshi,zuoweiyixianglilunyanjiu,shiyixuanwuyoubukenengjutiyanjiudaoyixiejutidezhuanyeshang,yinweineixiejutidezhuanyeyijingyouzhuruweishengbumen、minzhengbumenzaiguanli,eryixiejutiyanjiuzeyouyixue、shengwuxuezaijinxing,shiyixuanwudeyanjiuyingdangjuyouzhenduixinghezhixiangxing,kaizhankuaxueke、kuawenhuadeyanjiu。zheifangmianzuihaodelizheng,jiushizishangshijihoubanyekaishideshengminglunlixueyanjiu。suoweishengminglunlixue,jiushizaikuaxueke、kuawenhuadeqingjingzhong,jianglunlixuedelilunhefangfayingyongdaoshengmingkexueheyiliaobaojiandexiangguanfangmian,jineryingxiangdaoxiangguandejueding、xingdong、zhengce、faguideng,ershengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhuadeyanjiuzaineihanhewaiyanfangmiandouyingdangbishengminglunlixuegengshenke、gengkuanfan。

zheilishiyixuanwushouxianxiangdaodeshirenquanwenti,yinweiruoshirendejibenquanlidebudaobaozhang,tantaoshengminglunliheshengmingzhexuewentijiushiqulejibentiaojian。shanggeshijizhongqi,《shijierenquanxuanyan》mingquetichu,“duirenleijiatingsuoyouchengyuandeguyouzunyanjiqipingdengdehebuyidequanlidechengren,naishishijieziyou、zhengyiyuhepingdejichu”。zaizheigeqiantitiaojianquedingxia,zailaitaolunreaishengming、zunzhongshengmingjiyucixiangguandekexueyanjiu、zhengcefaguideng,caishikexingde。youcishiyixuanwujinerxiangdaoshangshijimotongguode《quanqiulunli———shijiezongjiaoyihuixuanyan》,zheigexuanyansuiranshicongzongjiaochufade,dantashejideyoushiquanqiupubianlunli,tichulequanqiulunlishizhibutongdezongjiaoheshijieguanjifeixinjiaozhenenggoudachengyizhide、duiyurenleigongtongshenghuobibukeshaodezuidixiandudedaodejiazhi、lixiangyumubiao,tatixianchuzunzhongshengming、zunzhongrenquandelianggejibenyuanze,ji: yishimeigerendouyingdedaorendaodeduidai;ershijisuobuyu,wushiyuren。youzheilianggeyuanzezaichanshengchusizhongxingweizhunze: feibaoliyuzunzhongshengming、tuanjiedewenhuahegongzhengdejingjizhixu、kuanrongdewenhuahechengxindeshenghuo、pingdengdequanlihenannvzhijianhuobanguanxidewenhua。zheigexuanyandezuozhezhiyikonghansizhiyanshuo,zheigexuanyanbushi“faming”,ershiyizhong“faxian”[5]。

yingdangshuo,wulunshi《shijierenquanxuanyan》,haishi《quanqiulunli———shijiezongjiaoyihuixuanyan》,doushishiyixuanwucongshishengmingzhexueyanjiubixurenzhensikaoheduidaide。jiarushuozunzhongrenquanshiqiantitiaojian,neime,quanqiulunlizeshishiyixuanwusikaodejibenneirong。

danshiyouyigewentishishoudangqichongde,neijiushishifouhuicunzaizheyigefangzhisihaierjiezhundelunlixingdeyuanze,erqiezheigeyuanzeyinggaishizaililunshangheshijianshangbeishijiegediquheguojisuogongtongrenkede。duiyuzheigewentidehuidashouxianyaoqueliyigelilunqianti,neijiushibaokuoshengmingzhexuezaineidezhexueshiyizhonglilundexingtai,zheizhonglilunxingtaishiduiyurenmenzishendecunzai、cunzaifangshiyijishengcundehuanjingdeyizhonglilunzijue,zheizhongzijuejinerhuishangshengdaolilunbawodecengmian。yinci,zhexuedezheigebenzhitezhengyejiujuedingletabunenggouxianzhizaiduiyutedingdeminzuyijiguojiadedutexingheshidaixingbawozhizhong,yebunenggoujuyouzaiduiyugengububiandepubianyonghengxingderenshi,eryinggaishiteshuxingtongpubianxingdetongyi,yijishidaixingtongyonghengxingdetongyi。

yizheigeqiantiweichufadianjiukeyidechu: bunenggouyongjueduiduilideguandianlaikanquanqiulunliyuanze,eryinggaichiyizhongbianzhengdehelishixingdelichang,zheiyejiushishuoshiyixuanwupingcinenggouhehulixingdilunduan,zaidaodelunlidefanchouzhizhongjicunzaizheteshuxingyijishidaixingdedongxi,yecunzaizhepubianyonghengxingdedongxi。qianzhezhideshibutongminzuyijiguojiazaigezijutidelishishiqizhongdedaodelilunyijijutidelunlixingshijian,tamenzaibutongminzuheguojiazhongyouzhemouxiefangmiandebutong;houzhezhideshigegeminzuyijiguojiazaijingguolezhangshiqishijianzhihousuorenshidaodedaodedixian,zheixiedixianshiweichirenleinenggouzuoweiyigezuleiershengcunxiaqudebixufucongdezerenheyiwu,erfeimougehuomouxietedingminzuheguojiazhizhuanli。jinyibudishuo,quanqiulunlibenzhishangjiushishuyushijianzhifanchoude,genjutadelishixingchengyijixianshidezhuangkuanglaikan,qianzheshihouzhesuoyinenggouxingchengzhijichu,erhouzheyechangchangbeibaohanyuqianzhezhizhong。youcikeyikanchu,《quanqiulunlixuanyan》suoxuanyangheqiangdiaozhi“sibujieling”dequeshiquanshijiesuoyouminzudoubixufuconghezunshoude“jinlv”。shiyixuanwubunenggouxiangxiangchuyigechangtaideshehuiruhehuiyunxuweibeizheigejielingdexingweifasheng,shijieshangdaduoshuquntizenmehuiyuanyishenghuozaiyigeyemanwuxudeshehuizhizhong,zaizheigeshehuizhonglianzuijibendelunlijiazhichidudoubufucunzai!suoyi,yizhaoquanqiulunliyuanzelaiweichijibenshehuizhixu,yiduishengmingjinxingbaohu,zheizairenheshihoudoushifeichangyouyiyide。zheiyejiushiquanqiulunlizhipubianyonghengxing。buguo,shiyixuanwubunenggoufanguolaiyongzheizhongdixianxingdedaodeyaoqiufoudinggegeminzuyijiguojiajutixingdedaodeguifan,yinweidixiandaodeyaoqiujinjinshiduirenleizishencunzaijinxingweixidejibenxuyao,weiyubutongdiquyijichuzaibutongfazhanjieduandeminzu,chuyutamenbutongdelishihexianshizhuangkuang,huifazhanchujuyoubendiquhuominzutedianzhidaodelunliguifan,erzheixiejutixingdeguifanyebuhuitongquanqiulunlixiangdichu。bansuizhekejijinbujijingjiquanqiuhuadebufa,duoyuanduihuayejiuhuiyouzhuyuxiaochubutongguojiayijiminzujianzaidaodelunlilingyuzhineidechayi,suiranzheigeguochengshijianjinshide。

十一选五zheilishiyixuanwuhaiyingdangsikaode,shishengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhuayanjiuyuqitashehuilingyudeguanxiwenti。wuyongzhiyi,zunzhongrenquanyuhehushengmingshiyuzhengzhi、jingji、wenhuadengqitalingyumiqielianxizaiyiqide。shixiangyixia,zaidangjinshijiedexuduodifang,birubalesitan、yilake、xuliya,renmenlianzuijibendeshengcunquanliheanquanbaozhangdoumeiyou,zenmekeyiqushetanshengmingwenhua、lunlidaodedeng。suoyi,shiyixuanwudeyanjiubujinshikuaxueke、kuawenhuade,erqieyuxianshishimibukefende。ciwai,shiyixuanwudeyanjiuzaihendachengdushangyeyuzongjiaoxinyangxiangguan,yinweishengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhuadeyanjiubujinguanzhurendeziranshengming,erqiezaiyidingyiyishanggengjiaguanzhurendeshehuishengminghejingshenshengming,suoyi,jiaoyu、xinnian、zongjiaoxinyang、wenhuayishuduishengmingdeyingxiang,doushizhideshiyixuanwuyanjiude。zheilixuyaotebietichude,shiduibianshijiedelijie。shiyixuanwuyingdangchengren,wenyifuxingyilai,renleiyijingjiechuhuobufenjiechulezongjiaoshenmizhuyideshufu,“daodeyuzongjiaozhijiandelianxiyijingbeigeduan”,“zongjiaozheizhongyazhi、xianzhidequanliyijingchengweichenmobuyu、haowugenjudedongxi,danqueguoduweiquanbushehuishenghuozhongdexianshidejingshenxingshi”[6]。shiyixuanwubunengyinweixianzaishijieshanghaiyouhenduorenxinjiaohuoyou8xieguojiarengranshixing“zhengjiaoheyi”detizhi,kuadazongjiaodezuoyong,shenzhiqufoudingshengminglunlizaijintianyijingchengweikeguanhuadejingshenhewenmingyishizheigepubianshishi。

san、minzudeyukuawenhuadeshengmingzhexueyanjiu

zhengrubizheyikaishisuoshuode,butongminzu、butongwenhuabeijingderenmenduishengmingyoubutong、shenzhiwanquanxiangfandekanfa,yinci,shiyixuanwudeyanjiujiubixujuyoushijiexingdeyanguang,kaizhankuawenhuadeyanjiu,chongfenzunzhong、xishoushijiegegeminzuzaishengmingzhexueheshengmingwenhuafangmiansuoqudedechengguo,yaocong“wenmingdechongtu”zouxiang“wenhuaderentong”。shiyixuanwuzhonghuaminzuduishengmingdezunzhonghehehu,dangranbuzhishishiyixuanwuzaiqianmiansuoshuode“yidaoxing,zehuoren,rudaoxing,zehuotianxia”zheiyangjiandan,rujiade “zhongshu”、“renzheng”,daojiade“tianrenheyi”,mojiade“jianai”,fojiade“bushasheng”dengzhuzhang,wubufanyinglezhonghuaminzuzunzhongshengming、weishengjishidechuantongsixiang,zhideshiyixuanwujintianrenzhenfansihexishou。jintian,dangzhongguojingjizongliangyijingdadaoshijiedierweideshihou,zhongguoyouhuodeyizhongshijieyiyi,bingqieyaoduizheigeshijiedemingyun、youqishiyaoweiweihushijieheping、baohutianxiacangshengdanfuyizhongzeren。zaizheishihou,shiyixuanwudeshengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhuajiuyaoyouhainabaichuan、jianrongtianxiadexionghuaihebaofu。

十一选五tongyang,xifanggeguozaizunzhongshengming、baoweirenquanfangmianyeyuanyuanbuzhishishiyixuanwuzaiqianmiantidaodeneisanweishengmingzhexuejiadesixiang。zheilizhijiandanditaolunhabeimasi2001nianfangwenzhongguoshizai《guanyurenquandekuawenhuadetaolun》zhongtichudeyixieguandian,zaitakanlai,zheiyangdetaolun“shejidaoxuduorendeshengcunhexindeyansushiqing。”[7](p3)habeimasiyuxuduoxifangsixiangjiayiyangqingchudikandao,mouxiexifangzhengzhijiazaiyishixingtaishanglanyongrenquangainian,tamingquetichuyaoyuzheiyangde“xujiarenxingzhaopai”、“yinzangzhedezhishixifangyinxiandequanliyaoqiu”huaqingjiexian[7](p5)。habeimasirenwei,zaixifangzhuiqiupingdengquanlidedouzhengshouxianshizaibeiyapo、beipaichidequntizhongzhankaide,tongguozheiyangdedouzheng,zheixieruoshiqunticaibeichengrenwei“ren”。zhengshizaizheizhonglishitiaojianxia,ouzhouderenquanguanniancaiyingyunersheng。danshi,xifangdechuantong“buyingdangbaguanyushiyixuanwuzijideouzhouzhongxinzhuyidejuxianxingdetaolunyuqitarentongshiyixuanwudebianlunhunweiyitan。”[7](p6)zheishiyifangmian。lingyifangmian,xifangzhiwaidewenmingxianzaiyetongyangmianlinzheouzhoudangnianyitedingdefangshifamingrenquanheminzhuzhidushihouxiangleisidewenti,jibianzailishiyoujiu、wenhuaxiangduifengbidechuantongshehuineibu,yebushibaofachubutongxinyangdechongtu,butongderenqun,youqishizhishifenzizaidangxiawenmingchaoliujidangxia,buduanduizhuliudejiaotiaozhuyi、duduanzhuyidechuantongjinxingfansi,cushiqifashengzhuanxing,ji“bixushiyuanyoudeshijieguandehuozongjiaode‘zhenli’yugongzhongchengrendezhishixiangyizhi,bingqiezaiguangfanshangtandeneibufangzhiqitashijieguandehuozongjiaodezhenlitichudeyaoqiu。”[7](p11)zheiyang,zaishijiefanwei,bulunshiyixuanwuchengrenyufou,shijishangdouzaifashengchuantongwenhuayuxiandaiwenhuadechongtu,weiraorenquanjiqiyuzhixiangguandewenti,yizhishizhenglunbuxiu。

十一选五shiyixuanwuzaihuiguhabeimasishiduonianqiantichudeguanyurenquanwentidekuawenhuataolun,queshigandaobutongwenhuaduishengming、duirenquanyouzhebutongdelijie,qizhongyouxuduoyouyideqifa。biru,shiyixuanwuzhonghuachuantongchangchangqiangdiaodeshijiaguotianxiayouxian,gerenduijiti、duishehuizhuyaoshichengdanyiwu,gerendequanli、shenzhigetideshengmingcongdaodelunlishangbixufucongjitihuoshehuiliyi,zaizheizhongqingkuangxia,suoweizunzhonggetiquanli、zunzhongmeiyigerendeshengcunquan,buguoshiyizhongkongtan。xiangfan,xifangzaiwenyifuxingyihou,tuchuqiangdiaogetidequanli,yourenshenzhizhuzhanggetilingjiayuyiqieshehuihuaguochengzhishang,bingqietianshengjiuxiangyouyidingdequanli,zheizhongguandianzaijintiandexinziyouzhuyilundiaozhongyouyicichaoreqilai。mianduizhezheiliangzhongbutongzhuzhang,shiyixuanwujiyaochengrengetidequanlishiyifalvgongtongtidangzhongzhutijiangongtongchengrendeguifanweijichude,getiquanlijueduibunenglingjiayugongtongtiquanlizhishang;tongshishiyixuanwuyeyaochengren,zaiyijingdedaokendingdeshichangjingjitiaojianxia,ruhezunzhonggetidequanli,qizhongbaokuoshengmingheshentibushoushanghaihesuoyougetipingdengdaiyuquanlideng,shishishiyixuanwudeshehuitizhiyujingjixiandaihuaxiangyizhidejibentiaojian。

ruguoshiyixuanwuzaijinyibusikaodehua,shiyixuanwubunanfaxian,zaiyanjiushengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhuafangmian,jueduibunengbashengmingdangzuoyizhonggulixianxiang,yinweirenleizuoweiyigezulei,bicizhijianshiyouhenduolianxide,dangrenleijinruwenmingshehuiyihou,renjiubuzhishiyigegezirandegeti,ershishuyumouyigeshehuidechengyuan。youcilaikan,haishimakesizhuyijingdianxueshuogengyoulilunyiyiheshijianyiyi,dangtamenshuo“wuzhishenghuodeshengchanfangshizhiyuezhezhenggeshehuishenghuo、zhengzhishenghuohejingshenshenghuodeguocheng”[8],jiuyijingrangshiyixuanwurenshidao,renzuoweishehuichengyuan,qishengmingzhiliangyuqishengcundeshehuihuanjing、zhengzhihuanjinghewenhuahuanjingyoumiqiedelianxi,jiaruzheixiehuanjingbuhao,neirendeshengmingruhededaoyingyoudezunzhonghebaozhangni!makesidezheiyisixiangshiyouqifazhanguochengde,nianqingdemakesizai《1844nianjingjixuezhexueshougao》zhongcengjingtichu,siyoucaichanyuyihualaodongdehuweiyinguoguanxi,gongrenbujinbunengconglaodongzhonghuodeyingyoudebaochou,shenzhihaiyinciyuqizishenxiangfenli,yinci,bixuyangqiyihualaodong,jiefangbeiyapodegongren,“shixianzuoweiwanchengledeziranzhu yi,ji ren daozhuyi。”[9]danmakesihoulaiyishidaorenbunenglikaishehuixianshi,zai《zhengzhijingjixuepipan(1857-1858niancaogao)》zhongqiangdiaorendeyilaiguanxishizuichudeshehuixingtai,rendeshengchannenglizaizheizhongxingtaixiazhinengshizaixiazhaidefanweineifazhanzhe,bingjinerqiangdiaoyiwudeyilaixingweijichuderendedulixingshirenleishehuidierdaxingtai,zhiyouzaizheigejieduanshang,rencainengshixiangerenquanmianfazhandeziyou[10]。

十一选五henxianran,makesizaizheishiyijingbuzaifoudingwuhualaodong,ershirenweiwuhualaodongchuangzaodecaifujiangweinenggoushixiangerenziyouquanmianfazhandegongchanzhuyishehuidiandingwuzhijichu。jizhichengshushiqidemakesi,jizai《zibenlun》zhong,makesizaicifenxilewuhualaodong,bingqiechengrenqilishiyiyi,zheijiushishuo,“makesixiangxinxiandaiwenmingdejinbuxing,xiangxinxiandaiwenmingdejinyibufazhanhuiyueshu、tisheng、gaibianrendeyixieziranbenxingheshishi。”[11]

makesisixiangdezheiyizhuanbianjiqifazhanduishiyixuanwuyanjiushengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhuashiyouzhongyaoqifayiyide。ruguoshiyixuanwuzhishi“jianrenbujianwu”,kanbudaorenshijijuyouziranshuxing,yeyoushehuishuxingdechanwu,neishiyixuanwudeyanjiujiuhuiyouyukongtanerbuheshiyi,shenzhimeiyourenhexianshiyiyi。yinci,shiyixuanwuzaishengmingzhexuehuoshengmingwenhuayanjiuzhong,bujinyaoguanzhushengwuxue、yixuefangmiandewenti,yeyaoguanzhuwenhuade、zongjiaofangmiandewenti,shenzhihaiyaoguanzhujingjide、zhengzhide、shehuicengmiandewenti。duici,shiyixuanwuyaoyouchongfendesixiangzhunbei。

【cankaowenxian】

十一选五[1][de]weilian·diertai.diertaiquanji(di1juan)[m].getinggen,1990: 5.

[2][xiong]lukaqi.lixingdehuimie[m].wangjiuxing,chengzhimin,xiedikun,deng,yi.nanjing: jiangsujiaoyuchubanshe,2005: 286-287.

[3][fa]bogesen.chuangzaojinhualun[m].jiangzhihui,yi.beijing: shangwuyinshuguan,2004.

十一选五[4][fa]rang-baoluosate.bianzhenglixingpipan(di1juan)[m].linjihua,xuhejin,chenweifeng,yi.hefei: anhuiwenyichubanshe,jialima,1985: 30.

[5]konghansi,kusheer,bian.quanqiulunli———shijiezongjiaoyihuixuanyan[m].heguanghu,yi.chengdou: sichuanrenminchubanshe,1997.

[6][de]aduonuot w.daodezhexuedewenti[m].xiedikun,wangtong,yi.beijing: renminchubanshe,2008: 254.

[7][de]youergen·habeimasi.habeimasizaihuajiangyanji[m].beijing: renminchubanshe,2002.

[8]makesiengesixuanji(di2juan)[m].beijing: renminchubanshe,1995: 32.

十一选五[9]makesi.1844nianjingjixuezhexueshougao[m].beijing: renminchubanshe,2000: 81.

十一选五[10]makesiengesixuanji(di46juan)[m].beijing: renminchubanshe,1995: 104.

[11]liusenlin.wuhuatongxiangxuwuma?[j].zhexuedongtai,2014(6): 34.

十一选五(yuanzai《zhangshaligongdaxuexuebao》di30juan)




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