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孙来斌:从大选看美国政治的问题、形象和走向

时间: 2016-01-26 19:18:52 点击:

核心提示: 特朗普的个人风格将会给美国政治带来一些新的变化,但他将因各种掣肘而不大可能改变美国政治的基本走势,在国内政策上终将回归共和党建制派,在外交政策上终将走向务实道路。...

十一选五zhaiyao: zheijiemeiguozongtongdaxuanweishiyixuanwuguanchameiguozhengzhiyunxingzhuangkuangtigonglenandedechuangkou。telangpudeshengxuankansichurenyiliao,shizeyouqishehuijichu,zheijiuzaiyutajinjinzhuazhulemeiguominzhongduijinqianzhengzhi、dangzhengzhengzhi、dixiaozhengzhidengzhengzhiliubidebumanxinli。zheijiedaxuandianfuleguojigongzhongduimeiguozhengzhidechuantongyinxiang,tunqulemeiguominzhudezhiduguanghuan,ladileqiguojixingxiang。telangpudegerenfenggejianghuijimeiguozhengzhidailaiyixiexindebianhua,dantajiangyingezhongchezhouerbudakenenggaibianmeiguozhengzhidejibenzoushi,zaiguoneizhengceshangzhongjianghuiguigonghedangjianzhipai,zaiwaijiaozhengceshangzhongjiangzouxiangwushidaolu。

十一选五guanjianci: meiguozongtongxuanju;meiguominzhuzhengzhi;dixiaozhengzhi;guojixingxiang;fazhanqushi

十一选五zhongtufenleihao: d5wenxianbiaoshima: awenzhangbianhao: 1672-7320(2017)01-0005-05

meiguozongtongdaxuandedamuzhongyuluoxia,danshijingxuandazhande“xiaoyan”bingweisanjin,gezhonghouxuyingxianghaizaijixu。liru,zaijinqideyouguanpinglunzhong,jiyouyingguoxuezheshaxuewende《xing、huangyanheluxiangdai》zhileidexixue,yeyoueluosixuezhemalina·kutasaiwa《zouchuminzhudemisi》zheiyangdefansi。keyishuo,zheijiemeiguozongtongdaxuanweishiyixuanwuguanchameiguozhengzhizhidujiqiyunxingzhuangkuangtigongleyigenandedejihui。neime,xuanqianhexuanzhongbubeikanhaode“dazui”telangpuzuizhongheyiyingdedaxuan?tadeshengxuanduimeiguozhengzhidexingxiangyiweizheshenme?tashangrenhouduimeiguozhengzhifazhanjianghuichanshengzenyangdeyingxiang?zheixiedoushizhideguanzhuhesikaodewenti。

十一选五yi、congxifangzhuliumeitidecuoekanmeiguozhengzhidewenti

zaibenjiemeiguozongtongxuanjuguochengzhong,xifangzhuliumeitihemeiguojingyingrenshidaduokanhaoxilali。liru,nuobeierjingjixuejiangdezhuyuesefu·shidigelicirenwei,telangpudeshengxuanjihuijiuxiangliufenzhiyideeluosilunpansiwangyouxi,“xilalishimeiguozuijuzigeqiezhunbeizuichongfendezongtonghouxuanrenzhiyi,ertelangpuqueshizuibugougeqiezhunbeizuizaogaoderenzhiyi”(joseph e.stiglitz,2016)。daxuanjieguogongbuyihou,xifangzhuliumeitidagancuoe,shenzhiyoupingjiashuozheishi“benshijiyilaizuibukecedeheitianeshijian”;《niuyueshibao》duanyantelangpushi“xiandailishishangzuimeiyouzhunbeihaojiudangxuanzongtongderen”,bingqie“xianshizijicongqizhishangbushihelingdaoyigeyongyou3.2yirenkoudeduoyuanhuaguojia”;《huashengdunyoubao》zhiyan,wufazhaodaoduitoupiaojieguoleguandeliyou(zhangpenghuideng,2016)。

neime,zaijingxuandazhanzhong,yiyanxingchuge、zuofengdadanerzhuchengdetelangpu,heyinenggoushengchu?nandaozheizhendeshiyigebukeliyudexiaogailvshijianma?yonglishiweiwuzhuyideguandianlaikan,renhelishirenwudechuxian,doujiyouqibiranxing,yeyouqiouranxing。engesicengzaizhiboerjiwusidexinzhongjulishuo: “qiaqiaonapolunzheigekexijiarenzuolebeibenshendezhanzhengnongdejingpilijiedefalanxigongheguosuoxuyaodejunshiducaizhe,zheishigeouranxianxiang。danshi,jiarumeiyounapolunzheigeren,tadejiaosejiuhuiyoulingyigerenlaibanyan”(makesi、engesi,2012: 650)。ruguoyizheiyangdeguandianlaikandaibenjiemeiguodaxuan,telangpudeshengxuankansiouran,shizeyouyidingdebiranxing。telangpudegaomingzhichujiuzaiyutatongguopengjimeiguozhengzhicunzaidewenti,yinghebingzhuazhulemeiguominzhongduizhengzhiliubidebumanxinli。

qiyi,rangrenshengyandejinqianzhengzhi。“jinqianshizhengzhidemuru”;“meiguobiaomiankanqilaishixingduodangzhi,shijishangzhiyouyigedang,neijiushicaizhudang。”zheixieshuofa,shiduimeiguominzhuzhengzhidexinlafengci。shishishang,meiguominzhuzhiduzhisuoyibeijinqianranse,shiyouyuqiyunxingguizeshiran,jiminzhuyaokaoxuanpiao,xuanpiaoxuyaojingxuan,erjingxuanxuyaojinqian。gezhongziliaobiaoming,meiguolijiezongtongxuanjudehuaxiaodoushitianwenshuzi。jumeiguo“zhengzhixiangyingzhongxin”(center for responsivepolitics)fuzerenjieshao,2012nianmeiguozongtongdaxuandezonghuaxiaochaoguo60yimeiyuan。jumeiguojingxuanzhuanjiagusuan,2016nianmeiguodaxuanzonghuaxiaohenkenengchaoguo100yimeiyuan。niuyuezhouxuanminxieli·weijianuoshuo,“wuxianzhidezhengzhixianjinbangjialemeiguozhengke,zheiyeshiweihezhengfumianduiqiangzhifanlan、pinfuchajuxuanshudengwentiquenanyouzuoweideyuanyin。”xuduoxiangtayiyangdemeiguoxuanminduijinqianzhengzhishenetongjue,qipangaibian。zaibenjiedaxuanzhong,telangpugongkaibiaoshizijihenfuyou,jiangzijisuzaochengweiyibushouqianzhukongzhidehouxuanren。zheiwuyiweiqiyingdeleyixiexuanpiao。

十一选五qier,lingrenbumandedixiaozhengzhi。xuanjushibuyiyuliditaohaoxuanmin,bugushijidimantianxunuo,xuanjuhouxunuonanyiduixian,zuizhongyewurenguowen。zheishilijiemeiguozongtongxuanjudechangtai。jinnianlai,yihuizaiyunxingguochengzhongyouyudangzhengerchangchangxianruzhikandangpai、bufenshifeidejingdi,jieguodaozhiyihuilifajubuweijian,chuxianlerangrengoubingde“foujuezhengti”、dixiaozhengzhi。jinjishinianlai,meiguoshehuishitijingjishousuo,xunijingjidaxingqidao,jinrongjiecengdazhuanqiqian,putonggongxinzushijigongzibuzengfanjiang。jinrongweijibaofayihou,yinyibao、jiuye、yanglaojindengwentiyinfadeshehuimaodunriyituchu,shehuizhengzhifenliezhuangkuangyanzhong。xuduorenduixianshizhengzhibuman,qipangaibian。zaibenjiezongtongdaxuanzhong,liangdangdoutichulejijindezhengcezhuzhang,yicilaiyinghexuanminxuyao。yushihu,nanmianjiuchuxianyizhongzhengzhiguaixiang: chengshudepanduan、bupianbuyidezhuzhang,debudaoyingyoukending;guandianjijin、jianzoupianfeng,fanernengxiyinxuanpiao(sunlaibin,2016a)。“telangpuxianxiang”jiushimingzheng。tazaijingxuanzhongkouwuzhelan,shandongjiduanqingxu,danganyufahenbiaotai,zhuazhulexuduozhongxiacengxuanmindexinli,yinciyiluguoguanzhanjiangbingzuizhongyingdedaxuan。

十一选五qisan,hairenhaijideminzhushuchu。lengzhanjieshuyihou,meiguozhengfujiangminzhushuchuyuqiguojiaanquan、guojialiyizhijieguashanglegou,bingjucijiangzhiqianghuaweiyizhongduiwaizhanlve,jiadaleshishilidu。liru,meiguoweizhutuialabofanzhengfuyundongtouruledaliangderenli、wuli,caiqulezhuruzhichifeizhengfuzuzhi、peixunfanduipaigugan、cehuayouguanhuodongdengcuoshi。ruguoduizheixiecuoshidexiaoguobumanyi,meiguozhengfujiuhuizhijiecaiquwuliganshe。zheizhongbuguduixiangguoshijideminzhushuchu,bingweijizheixieguojiadailaiminzhuhexiwang,fanerdailailedongluanhezainan。“shiyixuanwuyiweikazhafeisihou,guojiahuibianchengdibai,meixiangdaochenglesuomali”。zheishijinqiliuchuanzailibiyadeduanzi。erzheizhongminzhushuchu,yebingweijimeiguodailaiyuqidexiaoguo,xiangfanshiqizishenshoudaofeifayimin、baokongxiji、caizhengchizidengwentidetuolei,bingdaozhiminyuan。zhengyinweiruci,telangpuyimeiguojiazhiguanshuchudexiaoguobuhaoweiyouertichude“buganshezhuyi”,zaimeiguoputongminzhongzhongbufazhichizhe。

jianyanzhi,telangpuzaijingxuanhuodongzhongganyuchupeng“zhengzhizhengque”dedixian,shijishangshicongyigezibenjiadeshijiaozhikonglemeiguoshehuidebingzheng。suirantaduibingyindefenxibingbushenke,dantabijingzhuazhulexuduomeiguorenduichuantongzhengzhiyouxidebumanqingxu。tatichude“rangmeiguozaiciweida”dexiangguanzhengcezhuzhang,suiranxiandebukaopuerbudajuyoukecaozuoxing,danbijingyinghelexuduomeiguorenhaipaguoyunshuailuodexinli。jiucierlun,telangpudeshengxuan,shiyouqixiangdangdeshehuijichude。

十一选五er、congguojishehuidefanyingkanmeiguozhengzhidexingxiang

jiumeiguoguoneigongzhongdefanyingeryan,lijiemeiguozongtongjingxuanjieshuhou,douhuichuxianbeixiliangzhongtiandejingxiang。meiguoshehuisiliedejingxiang,zaizheijiemeiguozongtongjingxuanjieshuhoubiaoxiandeyouweituchu,zhengsuowei“yigezongtong、lianggemeiguo”。daxuanjieshuhou,meiguoguoneizhuliumeitifabiaolezhuru“xuanjujiuxiangyigezaogaodewanxiao”、xiangshijiezhanshile“minzhudefanmiandianxing”zhileidepinglun,ermeiguoguoneidekangyizhezezaigedijuxingyouxingshiweihuodong,haozhaogongzhongdizhitelangpu。jiyumeiguosuochudezhongyaoguojidiwei,guojishehuipubianduizheijiemeiguozongtongdaxuanjiyulegaoduguanzhu。zongheguojishehuidefanyinglaikan,benjiezongtongdaxuanyousunyumeiguozhengzhideguojixingxiang。

十一选五qiyi,daxuantunqulemeiguominzhuzhengzhidezhiduguanghuan。20shijiyilai,youyuziyuanbingfu、lishijingyu、zhengzhizhidudengduofangmianyinsudezonghezuoyong,jiazhishenjuguojijingjifengongtixidedingduanbingcongzhongshouyi,meiguodezongheguolizhangqilingxianyushijiegeguo。zheizhongwuzhicengmiandeyoushidiwei,zishenglemeiguorendeyouyuegan(sunlaibin,2016b)。zhangjiuyilai,xuduomeiguorendaizheqiangliedezhiduyouyuegan,jiangqizongtongxuanjudangzuominzhudedianfanxiangshijiezhanshi、tuixiao。danshi,zheijiemeiguozongtongxuanjudazhanguochengzhong,“luyinmen”“bishuimen”“youjianmen”dengchouwendiechu,telangpuhexilalihuheimoshibuduanshengji。zaixuduoguojirenshikanlai,minzhudemeidezaimeiguoxianyuweiji。zaifaguoliuxuedebulongdiqingnianaierweisi·banianjiyeshiwangdibiaoshi: “meiguocengshiruhejuxingxuanjudeyangban……shiyixuanwuzhengzaishiquduizheigeyangbandexinxin。”xibanya《guojiabao》jinqikanwenzhichu: “meigesinianjuxingyicidaxuanjiuxiangmeigesinianweimeiguopaiyizhangxguangpian……dangmeiguozaicikanxiangjingzhongdeziji,jingranmeiyoufaxianbandianzhideziliandedifang。”

qier,daxuanjieguoxiangzhengmeiguobazhudiweidexueruo。erzhanjieshuyihou,meiguochengweiquanqiubazhu,zaijingji、zhengzhi、junshi、kejidengfangmianxiongjushijielingxiandiwei。jinxienianlai,meiguodebazhudiweizaiyidingchengdushoudaoyizhongguoweidaibiaodexinxingjingjitidechongji。zuoweiyigebiaozhixingshijian,telangpudeshengxuanbeiyixierenrenweishimeiguobazhudiweizouxiangshuailuodexiangzheng。yingguo《jinrongshibao》shouxiwaijiaoshiwupinglunyuanjidien·lahemanshuo,“jiumuqianeryan,meiguonaizhishijiemianlinyigelingrenjusangdejiandanzhenxiang。cengjingyoulinken、luosifuhekennididengjurendanrenguodemeiguozongtong,rujinbeiyimingqianbodeshangfanzhanju。telangpuchengnuo‘rangmeiguozaiciweida’,dantazheiyangderenjingrandangxuanzongtong,qishishiguojiatuifeiheshuailuodezaogaojixiang。”dangran,guoyukuadameiguobazhudiweideshuailuo,youqishizheijiezongtongdaxuanduicideyingxiang,kenengbutaiheshi。dangqianmeiguoyongyouqiangdadejingji、zhengzhi、junshi、kejidengfangmiandeshili,zheizaigezhongguojishujubijiaozhongdounengdedaofanying。jinjiuqikejishilieryan,juzhongguokexueyuanwenxianqingbaozhongxinyutangsenlutougongtongfabude《2015yanjiuqianyan》baogaobiaoming,zaishijie100gerediankexueyanjiuqianyanhe49gexinxingyanjiuqianyanlingyuzhong,meiguozai143geqianyanlingyuyouhexinlunwenruxuan,qiezai108geqianyandehexinlunwenshudouweiliediyi。zheizhongqiangdadeshili,bukenengyinweitelangpudedangxuanertuzaogaibian。

十一选五qisan,“weixian”renwushangtaiweixiequanqiuzhixu。zaidaxuanguochengzhong,telangpuyinzaineizhengwaijiaozhengceshanglvchukuangyanerbeishiwei“weixian”renwu。2016nian3yue,yingguojingjixuerenzhiku(eiu)zaiqixintuichude《quanqiufengxianpinggu》baogaozhongjiang“telangpudangxuanmeiguozongtong”lieruquanqiushidaweiji,renwei“telangpudangxuanmeiguozongtong”defengxianzhishuyou12fen,yu“yisilanguo”duiquanqiudeweixietongji。yixierenpingjiashuo,telangpujiuxiangyigerenxingdehaizi,yanxingjuyoubuquedingxing、bukeyucexing。liru,tashengchengzaimeiguohemoxigebianjiejianzaoyiduqiang,zhunbeisihuiziyoumaoyixieding,jiangposhimengyouweizishenanquanhuagengduodeqian,jiangduizhongguozhengshouchengfaxingguanshuidengdeng。zheibiaoming,meiguodeneizhengwaijiaozhengceyucelvezhengzaifashengzhongdabianhua,telangpufengxingweixiandemincuiminzuzhuyi,duiquanqiuzhixufachuyanzhongtiaozhan。

zaishiyixuanwukanlai,zheijiemeiguozongtongdaxuanbiaoming,meiguozhengzhideguojixingxiangfashengleyixiebianhua,danmeiguozhengzhidejibenmianshangweifashenggenbenbianhua。duici,meiguozhumingzhanlvezhuanjiayuesefu·nairenwei,“shiyixuanwubingmeiyoujinruyigehoumeiguoshijie,meiguorengranshiquanqiuliliangjunhengtixideyunzuohexin,bingxiangquanqiutigonggonggongchanpin。danshi,meiguozaijunshi、jingjiheruanshilidengfangmiandejueduiyoushijiangbuzaixiangyiqianneiyangmingxian。”(joseph s.nye,2016)piequzheifanyanlunzhongdemeiguozhiduyouyuegan,keyishuo,yuesefu·naidepanduanshiyouhelixingde。

san、congtelangpudegerenfenggekanmeiguozhengzhidezouxiang

jinqi,telangpuzhengmangyuzuge。zheigebeirenweishi“zuibugougeqiecanxuanzuicangcuderen”,yizhaoyishixianshichutasihuzhengzaijinruzongtongzhuangtai。conglijiemeiguozongtongdehuanjielaikan,jingxuanrenzongshizhidianjiangshan、chouchumanzhi,panzhezaoridangxuanhoudaxianshenshou;yidanshengxuanshangrenhou,jiuhuishoudaogezhongchezhou,shenganrenzaijianghu、shenbuyouji;zaixierenzhiqian,zedafadangzongtongburongyidegantan,tuixiejingxuanchengnuochengkongdezeren。zheizhongjingxiang,wangwangshidemeiguogongzhongzai“xiwangyushiwang”zhongbuduanlunhui。congzheizhongyiyishangshuo,telangpuhuoxuyoukenengtaotuolunhuidesuming,yinweiyoutaiduorenduitashengxuanbenlaijiugandaoshiwang。neime,tashifouhuiduixianzijidejingxuanchengnuo,zhishaorangzhichitadeneixierengandaoxiwangni?haowuyiwen,telangputeliduxingdexingshifengge、huayufangshi,huijimeiguozhengzhidailaiyixiexindebianhua。jiucierlun,wulunrenmenxihuanyufou、yuanyiyufou,meiguojijiangjinrutelangpushidai。danshi,congzhangshiduandelishifazhanlaikan,telangpuduimeiguozhengzhihemeiguolishisuonengfahuidezuoyongjiangbiaoxianwei,kenenghuigaibianjutidexijie,erbukenengjuedinglishifazhandedafangxiang,gengbukenengsuixinsuoyudishuxielishi。gezhongdaoli,zhengruengesisuoyan,renmenzijichuangzaozijidelishi,dan“shizaishifenquedingdeqiantihetiaojianxiachuangzaode。qizhongjingjideqiantihetiaojianguigendaodishijuedingxingde。danshizhengzhidengdengdeqiantihetiaojian,shenzhineixieyinghuiyurenmentounaozhongdechuantong,yeqizheyidingdezuoyong,suiranbushijuedingxingdezuoyong”(makesi、engesi,2012: 604)。jiucierlun,meiguoshehuidejingjiyuzhengzhi、wenhuayuchuantong、guojidiweiyuguoneisuqiu,duitelangpudezhizhengzhilujiangfahuizhongyaoyingxiang。

qiyi,congmeiguoguoneizhengzhidezouxianglaikan,telangpuzhongjianghuiguijianzhipai。telangpuzaijingxuanzhongbufahaoyanzhuangyu,youshishenzhiyenengzhixiangwentideyaohai。liru,tashuo,“shiyixuanwuyou19wanyimeiyuandezhaiwu,jiuxiangzuozaiyigedaqipaoshang。qipaoyidanpolie,jieguojiuhuifeichangzaogao。”zheizaiyidingchengdushangqueshizhixianglemeiguoshitijingjixiahua、xunijingjipaomopengzhangdeshishi。danshi,zhichuwentiyujiejuewentibijingbushiyihuishi。meiguojiazhouzhoulidaxueluoshanjifenxiaojiaoshouhuangdongshengshuo,zai2008niandedaxuanzhong,“aobamakangzhe‘gaibian’dedaqi,gaohan‘shide,shiyixuanwuneng’dekouhao,jiaojiandixiangxuanminzhanxiantazaiyigai、kongqiang、yueshuhuaerjietequandengfangmiandeboboxiongxin。8nianguoqule,aobamamantouhuabai、yilianjuanrong,danshi,meiguojingjiyiranpiruan,yibaozhengcebuweimeiguorenjieshou,zaigegejiaoluoxiangqideqiangshengyiranciqibifu……aobamagantan: ‘qianrenzongtongzuobudao,shiyixuanwuyezuobudao’”(huangdongsheng,2016)。haowuyiwen,congtelangpudexingshifenggelaikan,tabingbuquefaganzuogandangdezuofeng。danshi,zhengshishangrenzongtongdetelangpu,yuzuoweizongtongjingxuanrendetelangpu,bijinghuiyousuobianhua。meiguozhiduzhongdegezhongchezhouyinsu,yebidingyaoqiutayousuogaibian。tadezhinangtuanxiangbiyehuiduiqitichuyanxingjinliangfuhezongtongshenfendejianyi。keyiyujian,telangpuzaijingxuanguochengzhongyilaifanjianzhi“caogen”,danzaizhizhengguochengzhongtataobutuozibendeluoji,libukaizhuliushehuidezhichi,zuizhonghuidaoxianghehuiguidangneijianzhipai。

十一选五qier,congmeiguowaijiaozhengcedezouxianglaikan,telangpuzhongjiangzouxiangwushidaolu。zaijingxuanguochengzhong,telangpuzaichanshiqiwaijiaozhengcezhuzhangshibufa“xinqi”deyanlun。liru,tapaochumeiguode“mengyoudachelun”,yaoqiumengyoujimeiguoyigengduodehuibao;tabiansunmusilin,zhuzhangquanmianjinzhimusilinjinrumeiguo;tayangyanyaoshoushizhongguo,shengchengyaoduizhongguozhengshouchengfaxingguanshui;tatichubuganshezhuyi,zhuzhangmeiguobuzaijinxingyishixingtaishiyixuanwu,dengdeng。zheixieyanlun,fanyingletelangpuduiweihumeiguoliyidekaolv。zhibuguo“budangjiabuzhichaimigui”,tadezheixiekaolvnanmianxiandefenqingyouyuerkexingxingbuzu。zaitelangpushangrenhou,meiguodewaijiaocelvekenengyinqi“burangbierenmotou”zhanlveerjuyouyidingdeyinbixing、mohuxing、duobianxing,danjibenzhengcezouxiangjiangshiwushixingdiweihumeiguoliyi。zhengrumeiguozishenwaijiaojiajixingezhichu,“suoyoudeguojiabixuzailijiezijiguojialiyidejichushangtaolunwaijiaozhengce,bixuzhidaozuochudejueduanzaihezhongfanweineishianquanhewentuode。suoyi,meiguomeiyou‘xingulizhuyi’dexuanxiang。neizhishizaibudongwaijiaozhengcederenmenzhongjianliuxingdelangmanhuanxiangeryi。”dazhilaikan,qiyi,meiguobuhuiruohuazijiyumengyoudeguanxi。telangpuzeguai“mengyoudabianche”,jishitadeyizhongjianghuafangshi,yefanyinglemeiguoxiwangmengguochengdangengdazerendeyaoqiu。danwulunruhe,meiguocongweihuzishenliyidequanqiuzhanlvechufa,juebuhuixishengzijiyumengyoudeguanxi。qier,meiguobuhuifangqiezhizhongguodezhanlve。zongxiangzaiwaibuzhaodaoyigejiaxiangdi,zheishidianxingde“meiguosiwei”。“ezhizhifu”kainanzailengzhanchuqijiutanchenglezheiyidian——“shishikekedouxiangzaishiyixuanwudeguojingyiwaizhaodaoyigezuiezhongxin,congerbashiyixuanwudemafandousuanzaitadezhangshang。”(qiaozhi·kainan,1989: 130)daiyounonghoumincuiminzuzhuyisecaidetelangpu,mianduizhongguodejueqi,ziranbuhuifangqijizhongguozhizaomafandejihui,dangranyebuhuigongkaiyuzhongguoquanmiannaofan。keyishuo,xindeezhijianghuishiqijibenzhanlvexuanze。qisan,meiguobuhuizhongjieyishixingtaishuchu。telangpuzaijingxuanguochengzhongshengchengmeiguo“buyingzaijinxingsuoweideyishixingtaishiyixuanwu,shishizhengmingxiaoguobuda”,dantatongshiyoushuo: “shiyixuanwumeiguoyouzijibixuyaotuiguangdejiazhiguan,danshixianzaimeiguochuzaiyizhongfeichangzaogaodezhuangkuang。kankanshiyixuanwuyixieneiluchengshi,qingkuangshikepadezaogao。”zheishuoming,telangpubuhuitingzhijiazhiguanshuchu,zhibuguoyouzhe“rangwaibixianannei”depansuan。zhiyuzheizhongpansuannengfoubianchengxianshi,neiyeyoubudetayigerenzuozhule。

sunlaibin(2017).congdaxuankanmeiguozhengzhidewenti、xingxianghezouxiang.wuhandaxuexuebao(zhexueshehuikexueban),1: 5-9.




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